Designing, Modelling and Simulation of Multilevel

Power Inverter
PRESENTED BY :

Mr. Punit L. Ratnani
GUIDED BY :

Dr. A. G. Thosar

Second Year M. E. (Electrical Machine & Drives)

Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad
MAHARSHTRA.

1

• Objectives

Organizatio
n

• Background
• Necessity
• Classification
• Multilevel Inverter Structure
• Modelling of Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter
• Modelling of Cascaded Multilevel Inverter
• PWM Control Techniques
• Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter
• Performance Analysis
• Conclusion
• References

Objectives
• To study various multilevel power inverter configurations.
• To study and simulate cascaded type of five level multilevel inverter configuration
in MATLAB/Simulink.
• To study and simulate diode clamped type of five level multilevel inverter
configuration in MATLAB/Simulink.
• Comparison between cascaded and diode clamped multilevel inverter.
• To study different switching techniques, simulate APOD and POD techniques in
MATLAB/Simulink.
• To study generalized functional simulation for five level inverter using switching
function concept.
• To study the effect of change in total harmonic distortion (T.H.D.) of output
voltage with respect to variation in the modulation index (M.I.)
• To demonstrate the switching pulses generation using dSPACE 1104 controller.

Backgroun
d

• Multilevel inverters have been under research and development for more
than three decades and have found successful industrial applications.
• Multilevel inverters have been attracting increasing interest recently the
main reasons are
 Increased power ratings,
 Improved harmonic performance,
 Reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI) emission
• In particular multilevel inverters have abundant demand in applications
such as medium voltage industrial drives, electric vehicles, and grid
connected photovoltaic systems.

Necessity of Multilevel Inverter Technology
• Multilevel inverter includes an array of power semiconductor devices and
capacitors voltage sources, the output of which generates voltages with
stepped waveforms.

• Multilevel inverter is based on the fact that sine wave can be approximated
to a stepped waveform having large number of steps.

• The unique structure of multilevel inverter allows them to reach high
voltages and therefore lower voltage rating device can be used.

 Petrochemical applications. applications). Electric vehicles.Medium and High Power Inverters • There are different power converter topologies and control strategies used in inverter designs.  Energy conversion. and automotive . Transport (train traction.  Manufacturing. Home appliances. mining. • They are potentially useful for a wide range of applications like.      ship propulsion. Photovoltaic. Low power devices.

Summary of Power Inverter .

known as multilevel inverters. with traditional semiconductor technology.Challenging Aspects in Medium and High Power Inverters • The current energy arena is changing. . • The power electronics research community and industry have reacted to this demand in two different ways:  Developing semiconductor technology to reach higher nominal voltages and currents (currently 8 kV and 6 kA) while maintaining traditional converter topologies (mainly two-level voltage and current source inverters)  By developing new converter topologies. The feeling of dependence on fossil fuels and the progressive increase of its cost is leading to the investment of huge amounts in recourses.

Classification of High Power Inverter High Power Converter Direct Conversion (AC/AC) Matrix Converter Indirect Conversion (AC/DC/AC) Cycloconverter Voltage Source High Power 2-level VSI Multilevel Matrix Converter Flying capacitor Stacked Flying capacitor Current Source Multilevel Inverter NPC PWM current source Inverter Cascaded Load Commutated Inverter Hybrid Topologies .

18 MVA (Innovation Series MV-SP) Siemens (SIMVERT-MV) GE-Toshiba (Dura-Bilt5 MV) Toshiba 0.3-8 MVA Alstom GCT IGBT/IGCT IGBT GTO Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter (VSI) Inverter IGBT IGBT 10 .3 MVA ABB (ACS 1000) 5 MVA (ACS 6000) 3 MVA 27 MVA 3 MVA-20 MVA General Electric 0.4 MVA-7.4 MVA-4.6 MVA-0.5 MVA.9 MVA 0.5 MVA 2.3 MVA-22MVA (Tosvert S650 ) Robicon 0.6 MVA 6-26 MVA (TOSVERT-MV) General Electric Innovation MV-GP Type-H) GE-Toshiba Flying Capacitor IGBT 0.6 MVA (Perfect harmony) Toshiba NPC H-Bridge IGBT IGBT 0.2 MVA Alstom (VDM 5000) (VSI) NPC Inverter GCT (NPC VSI) 0.Converter Configuration Two-Level Inverter Solid State Device IGBT Power Range Manufacturer 1.5 MVA.5 MVA.

Three different major multilevel inverter structures :  Cascaded H-bridges inverter with separate dc sources  Diode clamped  Flying capacitors. 11 .Multilevel Inverter Structure (a) (b) (c) A multilevel converter can switch either its input or output nodes (or both) between multiple (more than two) levels of voltage or current.

Diode clamped Multilevel Inverter Power circuit of Diode Clamped Inverter 12 .

Switching Pattern of Diode clamped Multilevel Inverter Switch State Voltage 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Switching pattern of Diode Clamped Inverter 13 .

Three Level Diode clamped Multilevel Inverter 14 Working Scheme of Three Level Diode clamped .

Three Level Diode clamped Multilevel Inverter Advantages: • All of the phases share a common dc bus. which minimizes the capacitance requirements of the converter. Inverter 15 . • Efficiency is high for fundamental frequency switching. • The capacitors can be pre-charged as a group. Working Scheme of Three Disadvantages: Level Diode clamped • Real power flow is difficult for a single inverter because the intermediate dc levels will tend to overcharge or discharge without precise monitoring and control.

Cascaded Multilevel Inverter 16 Power circuit of cascaded multilevel inverter .

sic structure of Five Level Cascaded Multilevel Inverte 17 Power circuit of 5-level cascaded multilevel inverter .

sic structure of Five Level Cascaded Multilevel Inverte 18 Power circuit of 5-level cascaded multilevel inverter .

sic structure of Five Level Cascaded Multilevel Inverte 19 Power circuit of 5-level cascaded multilevel inverter .

Switching Pattern for Five Level Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Sr. no Switches Output Upper bridge Lower bridge 1 S1a and S2b S3a and S4b 2 S1a and S2b S3a and S3b 3 S2a and S2b S4a and S4b 4 S1a and S1b S3a and S3b 5 S1b and S2a S3a and S3b 6 S1b and S2a S3b and S4a voltage 20 .

no Topology 1 Power Semiconductor switches 6 6 2 Clamping diode per phase 2 0 3 DC bus capacitor 2 2 4 Balancing capacitor per phase 0 0 5 Voltage unbalancing Average Very small Clamped Cascaded 21 .Comparison analysis Diode Sr.

 Lesser total harmonic distortion in the spectrum of switching waveform.  Reduced switching loss.Control Techniques for Multilevel Inverter • Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques for two level inverters have been studied extensively during the past decades.  Easy implementation. • Many different PWM methods have been developed to achieve the following aims.  Less memory space and computation time on implementing in digital processors 22 .  Wide linear modulation range.

Control Techniques for Multilevel Inverter Sinusoidal pulse width modulation Modulating signal Carrier signal Pure sinusoidal Phase disposition Third harmonic injection Phase opposition disposition Dead band Alternate POD Hybrid 23 Phase shifted .

for an m-level phase waveform. This technique requires each of the (m – 1) carrier waveforms.Control Techniques for Multilevel Inverter 1. 24 . to be phase displaced from each other by 180 alternately. Alterative Phase Opposition Disposition (APODPWM) •.

there is 180 phase shift between the ones above and below zero respectively 25 . Phase Opposition Dispositions (POD) • The carrier waveforms are all in phase above and below the zero reference value however.Control Techniques for Multilevel Inverter 2.

MATLAB based simulation of Cascaded Five Level Inverter 26 Switching Signal .

27 .

28 Switching pulses of one .

29 Line-to Line Voltages and Line-to-Line currents .

30 Phase-to-Phase Voltages and Phase-to-Phase currents .

ATLAB based simulation of Diode Clamped Five Level Inverter 31 .

32 Switching pulses of one phase .

33 Line-to Line Voltages and Line-to-Line currents .

34 Phase-to-Phase Voltages and Phase-to-Phase currents .

Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter  • Each phase has four switching functions such as • Using switching functions the Can be obtained as 35 .

Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter  Then inverter line-to line voltages can be derived as     36 .

Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter Phase-to-Phase currents generated by switching function 37 .

Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter 38 Logic of Separation of switch and diode currents .

Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter 39  (a) . (b) (c) I_ .

Switching Function analysis of Multilevel Inverter 40   (a) I_ (c) I_ .

47 0 1 2. analysis of Multilevel Inverter Voltage and Current THD for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter for POD 45 40 35.63 38.54 2.T.H.58 0.9 0.49 2.52 2.47 20 15 10 5 2.7 0.6 Voltage THD % Current THD % 41 .D.74 25 21.31 35 30 36.8 0.76 29.

H.52 0.37 20 15 10 5 2.6 25.22 25 27.47 0 1 Voltage THD % Current THD % 42 .85 28.51 2. analysis of Multilevel Inverter Voltage and Current THD for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter for APOD 35 30 25.T.7 0.3 2.5 2.9 0.D.49 2.8 0.3 29.

91 10.58 57.T.7 Current THD % 13.9 0.98 8.D.H. analysis of Multilevel Inverter Voltage and Current THD for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter for APOD 80 75.8 Voltage THD % 0.6 43 .33 0.26 0 1 4.03 70 60 50 67.31 53.57 40 37.66 30 20 10 3.65 0.

2 0 1 9.H.6 Voltage THD % Current THD % 44 . analysis of Multilevel Inverter Voltage and Current THD for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter for APOD 80 70 60 50 53.08 9.9 0.T.6 10.08 62.19 0.D.8 0.7 0.7 67 40 36.99 11.72 30 20 10 3.74 57.

9 Cascaded Diode Clamed 45 .3 0.8 0.22 20 25.85 28.03 70 67.T.7 0.H.D.6 10 0 1 0.3 29.31 60 50 57.66 30 25.87 53. analysis of Multilevel Inverter Comparison of Cascade and Diode clamped inverter for APOD 80 75.58 40 36.37 27.

7 38.43 20 10 0 1 0.D.8 0.76 29.03 70 62.9 Cascaded Diode Clamed 0.6 46 .74 21.H.63 0.T.31 36.62 30 35.08 40 36. analysis of Multilevel Inverter Comparison of Cascade and Diode clamped inverter for POD 80 75.74 60 50 57 53.

• It is a complete real-time control system based on a 603 PowerPC floating-point processor running at 250 MHz. • For advanced I/O purposes. 47 .Implementation in Real-Time by using dSPACE 1104 • The DS1104 is specifically designed for the development of high-speed multivariable digital controllers and real-time simulations in various fields. the board includes a slave-DSP subsystem based on the TMS320F240 DSP microcontroller • Thus. the DS1104 R&D Controller Board is the ideal hardware for the dSPACE Prototype development system for cost-sensitive RCP applications.

Implementation in Real-Time by using dSPACE 1104 48 Switching pulses of one phase on dSPACE 1104 control desk .

Implementation in Real-Time by using dSPACE 1104 Phase-to-Phase Output voltage on dSPACE 1104 control desk 49 .

Implementation in Real-Time by using dSPACE 1104 Line-to-Line Output voltage on dSPACE 1104 control desk 50 .

Implementation in Real-Time by using dSPACE 1104 a) I/O lines on dSPACE 1104 b) dSPACE 1104 Controller 51 .

Implementation in Real-Time by using dSPACE 1104 52 .

53 . • The output voltage and power increase with number of levels. • Comparison analysis between both the technique shows the better performance for the cascaded multilevel inverter for renewable energy systems applications. Adding voltage level involves a main switching device to each phase.• Conclusi on A multilevel structure with more than three levels can significantly reduce the harmonic content. • The switching function modelling is compared with the actual modelling of multilevel inverter and results are validated. • dSPACE 1104 controller used for the real time implementation and the pulses and can be demonstrated on DSO.

S. Modeling and Analysis of Electrical Drives”. devices. Pramod Agrawal “Modeling . J. Rashid. “Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) With Variable Carrier Synchronization for Multilevel Inverter Controllers”. Jain. . vol No. Krishnan.1. Anil Wamanrao. 2012. and H. Bose. H. 228-256 3. March 2012 2. R. circuits.” IEEE Trans. Ind Application Vol. “Power Electronics. and applications”.[4]. P. “Control. S.M. Akagi.K.control. Vol.Sept/oc 1981. 10. “Multilevel Inverters” A survey of topologies . “Modern power electronics and drives”. 2 (5). No.Chaturvedi. 9. S. I Takashashi. Simulation and Analysis of Three level Neutral Point clamped inverter using matlab/Simulink/Power System Blockst” 54 8. On Ind.IEEE Trans. Electronics.Z. August 2002. Dhana Prasad Duggapu* and Swathi Nulakajodu “Comparison between Diode Clamped and H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter (5 to 15 odd levels)” VSRD-IJEECE. Ind Applicant . 32. 5. 7. IA-17. “A Comparative Analysis of Multi Carrier SPWM Control Strategies using Fifteen es Level Cascaded H – bridge Multilevel Inverter” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 41– No. Mohan. and applications “.21. Peng “Multilevel Converters – A new breed of power converters” IEEE Trans. M . Jih-Sheng Lai and Fang Zheng Reng.. 6. Jose Roderiguez. Lai and F. May/June 1996. Aspalli. 4. Vol. Referenc D. “ A new neutral –point clamped PWM inverter. Nabae.PP 518-523. Bimal K.

Issue 6. Sept 2014. “Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor”. Internal Journal of Energy and Environment.Paper Publication • Punit Ratnani. A. “Simulation of Five. G.4059 • Prajakta Shinde. A. Dr. June 2014. Samruddhi Shaha. Dr. Punit Ratnani. ISSN: 0974-2150. 55 . G. G. Thosar.Level Inverter with Sinusoidal PWM Carrier Technique Using MATLAB/Simulink”. Dr. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER). Thosar. Issue 1. ISSN 2249–6645. Impact Factor-1. A. “Mathematical Modelling of an 3 Phase Induction Motor using MATLAB/Simulink”. Volume 6. January 2015 • Punit Ratnani. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research” (IJSER). ISSN 2229-5518. Volume 4. Thosar.

Trainings Attended 1. Attended a National level workshop on “Signal Processing” at Samrat Ashok Technological Institute. 3. Attended a National level workshop series on “Research Perspectives on Solar PV System (Basics. Vidisha 4. 2. Coimbatore. Simulation and Application)” at PSG College of Technology. Attended a short term training program in “Energy Storage” at NIELIT. Attended a National level workshop on “Advances in Power Electronics and Applications” at AISSMS College of Engineering. Design. Aurangabad 56 . Pune.

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