Module 2: Configuring

Basic TCP/IPv4 Settings

Module 3: Configuring Basic TCP/IPv4 Settings
• Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
• Overview of TCP/IP Addressing
• Name Resolution
• Dynamic IP Addressing
• TCP/IPv4 Tools

Lesson 1: Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
• TCP/IP Architecture
• How the TCP/IP Model Relates to the OSI Model
• Transport Layer Protocols
• Common Application Layer Protocols
• What Is an RFC?

TCP/IP Architecture

TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Application

HTTP

FTP

Transport

SMTP

TCP

DNS

POP3

SNMP

UDP

IGMP

Internet

Network
Interface

ARP

IPv4

Ethernet

IPv6

ICMP

Token
Ring

Frame
Relay

ATM

How the TCP/IP Model Relates to the OSI Model OSI TCP/IP TCP/IP Protocol Suite SNMP POP3 DNS SMTP Application FTP Presentation HTTP Application Session Transport Transport Network Internet Data-Link Physical Network Interface TCP ARP ARP IGMP IGMP IPv4 Ethernet ICMP ICMP UDP IPv6 Token Frame Ring Relay ATM .

Transport Layer Protocols TCP: • Connection oriented • Reliable UDP: • Connectionless • Unreliable .

Common Application Layer Protocols Some common application layer protocols are: • HTTP/HTTPS • RPC over HTTP • FTP • RDP • SMB • SMTP • POP3 .

What Is an RFC? A Request for Comments (RFC) is description of network functionality Status levels: Maturity levels: •Required •Proposed standard •Recommended •Draft standard •Elective •Internet standard •Limited use •Not recommended .

Lesson 2: Overview of TCP/IP Addressing • The Components of an IP Address • What Is a Subnet Mask? • What Is a Default Gateway? • What Is DNS? • Demonstration: Configuring a Static IP Address .

What Is a Subnet Mask? IP address Subnet mask Network ID 192 168 44 32 w x y z 255 255 255 0 w x y z 192 168 44 0 w x y z .

What Is a Default Gateway? The default gateway: • Is used to route packets to other networks • Is used when the internal routing table on the host has no information about the destination subnet Use DHCP to automatically deliver the IP address for the default gateway to the client .

What Is DNS? DNS is used to: • Resolve host names to IP addresses • Locate domain controllers and global catalog servers • Used to resolve IP addresses to host names • Used to locate mail servers during e-mail delivery .

Demonstration: Configuring a Static IP Address In this demonstration. you will see how to configure a static IPv4 address .

Lesson 3: Name Resolution • Types of Names that Computers Use • What Are DNS Zones and Records? • How Internet DNS Names are Resolved • Host Name Resolution Process • Demonstration: Configuring Host Name Resolution • What Is WINS? • NetBIOS Name Resolution Process .

Types of Names That Computers Use Name Description Up to 255 characters in length Can contain alphabetic and numeric characters. and hyphens Host names Part of FQDN Represent a single computer or group of computers 15 characters used for the name 16th character identifies service NetBIOS names Flat namespace . periods.

What Are DNS Zones and Records? A DNS zone is a specific portion of DNS namespace that can contain DNS records Records in forward lookup zones include: •A • SRV • MX • CNAME Records in reverse lookup zones include: • PTR .

com DNS Server .46.microsoft.How Internet DNS Names are Resolved Microsoft.230.com? Root DNS Server Local DNS Server 207.219 Workstation .com DNS Server What is the IP address of www.

Host Name Resolution Process 1 Local Host Name 7 Lmhosts File DNS Resolver 2 Cache 6 3 Broadcast DNS Server 5 4 NetBIOS Name Cache WINS Server .

you will see how to configure host name resolution .Demonstration: Configuring Host Name Resolution In this demonstration.

What Is WINS? NetBIOS Name Registration Query ? OK Payroll WINS Server 1 Queries a WINS server 2 Determines whether name is in use 3 If not in use. then registers the NetBIOS name and associated IP address .

NetBIOS Name Resolution Process 7 DNS Server NetBIOS 1 Name Cache DNS Resolver DNS Resolver 6 Cache Local Host 5 Name 2 WINS Server 3 Broadcast 4 Lmhosts File .

Lesson 4: Dynamic IP Addressing • What Is DHCP? • DHCP Address Renewal • DHCP Configuration Options • What Is Alternate Configuration? • What s Automatic Private IP Addressing? • Demonstration: Configuring Dynamic IP Addressing .

What Is DHCP? Non-DHCP Client DHCP Client IP Address1 IP Address2 IP Address1 IP Address2 IP Address3 . . . IP AddressN DHCP Client DHCP Server DHCP Database .

DHCP Address Renewal 1 DHCP Server DHCPREQUEST (Unicast) Lease-Holding DHCP Server Non-DHCP Server 1 2 DHCP Client 2 3 DHCPREQUEST (Broadcast) 3 DHCPACK DHCP Servers .

DHCP Configuration Options DHCP configuration options include: • Creating scopes • Start and end IP addresses • Subnet mask • Lease duration • Router • DNS server • Exclusions • Reservations .

What Is Alternate Configuration? DHCP client without an IP address attempts to locate DHCP Server Server found? Yes DHCP server assigns address to client No No APIPA configured and enabled? UserYes configured alternate configuration specified? No Yes APIPA address is assigned User-configured IP address is assigned User-configured IP address is not assigned .

0.What Is Automatic Private IP Addressing? Automatic private IP addressing (APIPA): • Is used if a DHCP server cannot be contacted • Assigns IP addresses on the 169.254.0/16 network • Cannot be used with: • Active Directory • Internet connectivity • Multiple subnets • DNS or WINS servers .

What Is IPConfig? IPConfig is used to display IP configuration information and control the DNS resolver cache Option /all Description Displays all IP address configuration information /release Releases a dynamic IPv4 address lease /renew Renews a dynamic IPv4 address lease /flushdns Purges the DNS resolver cache /registerdns Refreshes DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names /displaydns Displays the contents of the DNS resolver cache .

What Is NETStat? NETStat is used to display protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections Option Description -a Displays all connections and listening ports -b Displays the executable involved in creating each connection and listening port -e Displays Ethernet statistics -r Displays the routing table -s Displays per protocol statistics .

What Is NBTStat? NBTStat is used to display NetBIOS information on the local computer Option Description -a View NetBIOS information for a specific NetBIOS name -c View the local cache of machine names and their IP addresses -n View local NetBIOS names -R Purges and reloads the remote cache name table -s Lists sessions table by using IPv4 addresses .

What Is Netsh? Netsh is a command-line utility that is used to configure and monitor network settings You can configure and monitor: •Windows Firewall •IP settings •Interface settings •IPSec .

What Are the IPv4 Address Classes? Class A Large Network Network ID 0 w Class B Medium Network x y Network ID z Host ID 10 w Class C Small Network Host ID x y Network ID z Host ID 110 w x y z .

What Is ARP? The ARP protocol: •Resolves IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses •Provides MAC addresses for IP frames •Dynamically stores MAC addresses in the ARP cache The ARP tool: •Displays the ARP cache •Removes entries from the ARP cache •Adds static entries to the ARP cache .

55.IPv4 Communication Within a Single Network 1 Determine local or remote network 2 Resolve destination IP to MAC address 3 Address packet 4 Deliver packet to destination IP: 192.99 MAC: 2C:33:85:C2:AA:32 Computer B .168.55.23 MAC: 00:43:D2:ED:1A:98 Computer A IP: 192.168.

55.168.1 MAC: 6B:11:43:75:CB:11 IP: 192.168.168.37.168.37.99 MAC: 2C:33:85:C2:AA:32 IP: 192.IPv4 Communication Between Networks 1 Determine local or remote network 2 Resolve default gateway IP to MAC address 3 Address and deliver packet to default gateway 4 Resolve destination IP to MAC address 5 Address and deliver packet to destination IP: 192.23 MAC: 00:43:D2:ED:1A:98 IP: 192.1 MAC: 6B:11:43:75:CB:12 Computer A Computer B .55.

107.107.12.0 131.107.12.12.107.3.What Is a Subnet? 131.31 Router .107.107.0 Main Network 131.7 Subnet 2 131.107.3.12 Router Subnet 1 131.10.0 131.10.27 131.

032 1.064 8.256 4.016 254 254 Host ID .512 16.128 508 2.How Bits Are Used in a Subnet Mask Class B Address with Subnet Number of Subnets Network ID 32 2 8 254 128 64 16 4 0 Subnet ID 10 Number of Hosts 65.534 32.

the destination is local IP Address Subnet Mask 10011111 11100000 00000111 10000001 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 Result 10011111 11100000 00000000 00000000 .How the Computer Determines Whether an IP Address Is Local or Remote Local and destination hosts’ IP addresses are each ANDed with their subnet masks 1 AND 1 = 1 Other combinations = 0 If ANDed results of source and destination hosts match.

Determining the Number of Subnet Bits You should: • Choose the number of subnet bits based on the number of subnets required • Use 2n to determine the number of subnets available from n bits For five locations. three subnet bits are required • 5 locations = 5 subnets required • 22 = 4 subnets (not enough) • 23 = 8 subnets .

Determining the Number of Host Bits You should: • Choose the number of host bits based on the number of hosts required on each subnet • Use 2n-2 to determine the number of hosts available on each subnet available from n bits For subnets 100 hosts. seven host bits are required • 26-2 = 62 hosts (not enough) • 27-2 = 126 hosts .

0 • 172.0 • 172.16.0 • 172.0 .0 • The lowest value bit in the subnet mask is the network ID increment The network IDs increment by 32 • 172.16.111000000.64.16.128.0 • 172.96.0.32.16.0 will be subnetted using three bits • The subnet mask is 255.160.16.255.0 • 172.16.0 • 172.224.16.192.16.0 • 172.0.16.Calculating Network Addresses To determine the Network IDs: • 172.