my

incredible
body
Click which of the five body
systems you want to navigate

Respiratory
System

Alice is breathing heavy.
There is an exchanging of
oxygen and carbon dioxide
that
her body.
Let’shappens
find out inside
how the
respiratory system works to
turn oxygen into fuel for the
body to survive.

BREATH
ALICE,
BREATH!

Respiratory
System
1.

nose

2.
pharynx
3.
epiglotti
5. vocal
s cords
6.
trachea
7. bronchial
tree
8.
lungs
9. alveoli

4.
larynx

Respiratory
System

The Nose
Before air enters the
body, the nose filters
it to remove dirt and
warms it up so that
it’s at an appropriate
temperature.
Your sense of smell
is also in the nose.

ai
r
ai
r

Respiratory System The Pharynx foo d The throat (pharynx) is a air muscular tube that carries the air down into the windpipe and also carries food to the gullet. .

It keeps food out of the lungs and voice box.Respiratory System The Epiglottis Click the epiglottis to see how it works. foo d The epiglottis is a a ir leaf-shaped piece of cartilage (gristle) that covers the top of the voice box (larynx) during swallowing. .

Respiratory System How epiglottis works? return .

. This is known as the Adam’s apple and is more prominent in men than women. It has a backbone of cartilage (gristle) that you can feel at the front of your throat.Respiratory System Larynx (voice box) The voice box sits on the top of the windpipe.

cough or hum. They are folds of membrane lining that vibrate when the air flows through them to the lungs. sing. . Click the vocal cords and see how it works.Respiratory System Vocal Cords The vocal cords are at the centre of the voice box and make the sounds when you talk.

. It has ribs of cartilage to keep it open.Respiratory System The Trachea (windpipe) The trachea or windpipe takes air from the vocal cords to the lungs.

The airways are called a bronchial tree because they look like the roots of a large tree.Respiratory System The Bronchial Tree The bronchi or airways take the air to the bottom of the lungs. .

Respiratory System How does vocal cords work? return .

Respiratory System Lungs In the lungs. They look bit like bunches of grapes hanging off a stem. click the magnifying glass to see how oxygen gets into the blood . thousands of tiny air sacs called alveoli extend from the end of the smallest airways (bronchioles).

allowing oxygen from the inhaled air to pass through where it’s picked up by return passing red blood .Respiratory System How Oxygen Gets Into Your Blood Stream Oxygen enters your bloodstream through a process called “respiration”. The walls of the alveoli (air sacs) re thin.

Respiratory System Gas exchange in the lungs .

Respiratory System How to take care your lungs? .

of me. It’s fun! It’s fun! Find out more by Find out more by taking some X-rays taking some X-rays of me. see how they move.SKELETON X-RAYS ARE GREAT! X-RAYS ARE GREAT! You can see your You can see your bones inside you even bones inside you even see how they move. TAKE MORE XRAYS! .

The arm and legs make up the legs make up the appendicular skeleton. joined together by hinged or ball-and-socket joints. heart and lungs. Bones give the body shape. han brain. strength and body shape. The arm and fibrous joints. joined together by hinged AREA BY CLICKING THEM. appendicularappendicular skeleton. The centre of the rigidity. heart and lungs. The centre of the skeleton is the axial spin skeleton is the axial skeleton which protects e skeleton which protects delicate organs such as delicate organs such as brain. strength and rigidity. which let us walk and pick skeleton which let us walk and pick (DARK up things. in IN the OUTBones BONES EACH BONES) appendicular skeleton are FIND OUT BONES IN EACH appendicular skeleton are AREA BY CLICKING THEM. Bones in axial skeleton are d Bones in axial skeleton are held together tightly by held together tightly by fibrous joints. Bones in the upFIND things.SKELETON skull neck ribcag e pelvi s leg Axial skeleton ( LIGHT BONES) shoulder @ arm Bones show up in X-rays Bones show up in X-rays because they are full of because they are full of hard minerals such as hard minerals such as calcium. . Bones give the calcium.

frontal. occipital bones. This is brain. The facial bones The facial bones such as such as zygomatic. maxilla and nasal bones and nasal bones . parietal. parietal. maxilla zygomatic.SKELETON SKULL SKULL Skull is mostly Skull is mostly thick bone that thick bone that protects your protects your brain. This is called the called the cranium. which contains the contains the frontal. which cranium. temporal and temporal and sphenoid and sphenoid and occipital bones.

of the neck .SKELETON NECK NECK The neck is The neck is actually the top actually the top seven of the seven of the bones of the bones of the spine. The bottom spine. which pivot so which pivot so that we can turn that we can turn . The bottom of the skull fits of the skull fits tightly onto the tightly onto the atlas and axis atlas and axis bones at the top bones at the top of the neck .

We have to expand.SKELETON RIBS RIBS The ribs and The ribs and thoracic spine make thoracic spine make up the thorax or up the thorax or thoracic cage thoracic cage (ribcage). We have 12 pairs of ribs. which each extend . a cage of bones that protect bones that protect the lungs and heart. the lungs and heart. The ribcage also The ribcage also helps us to breathe helps us to breathe by forcing the lungs by forcing the lungs to expand. 12 pairs of ribs. a cage of (ribcage).

SKELETON PELVIS PELVIS The pelvis is a bowl-like The pelvis is a bowl-like set of three bones (the set of three bones (the ischium. The pelvis also makes a deep socket makes a deep socket (acetabulum) for the (acetabulum) for the head of the femur (thigh head of the femur (thigh bone) in hip joint. and ischium. The pelvis also organs. ileum. The pelvis in females is pelvis in females is wider than in males so . ileum. The bone) in hip joint. and pubis) undrneath the pubis) undrneath the spine that provide a spine that provide a floor for your internal floor for your internal organs.

the femur (thigh bone). knee and ankle joints) work ankle joints) work together to allow us to together to allow us to walk. run. . knee and leg ( the hip.SKELETON LEGS LEGS We have 30 bones in We have 30 bones in our legs. The leg is a our feet. run. The leg is a highly specialized highly specialized piece of machinery. piece of machinery. The three joints in the The three joints in the leg ( the hip. the femur (thigh body. jump and even jive. to tiny bones in our feet. jump and walk. from the largest bone in our largest bone in our body. from the our legs. to tiny bones in bone).

most delicate tasks. and glide over each and glide over each other to give wrist other to give wrist movement. two rows of four bones. The joint at the base of the thumb the base of the thumb is a special saddle joint is a special saddle joint that allows very wide that allows very wide .SKELETON HANDS HANDS Wrist and hand have 27 Wrist and hand have 27 tiny bones work tiny bones work together to enable the together to enable the hand to carry out the hand to carry out the most delicate tasks. The joint at movement. The carpal bones of The carpal bones of wrist are arranged in wrist are arranged in two rows of four bones.

A ball – and – socket joint like the socket joint like the shoulder contains shoulder contains lubricant and allows lubricant and allows freedom of movement in freedom of movement in many directions around a many directions around a central point. which make a scapula.SKELETON SHOULDER SHOULDER The shoulder includes the The shoulder includes the clavicle (collarbone) and clavicle (collarbone) and scapula. which make a frame around the ball – frame around the ball – and – socket joint of the and – socket joint of the top of humerus (arm top of humerus (arm bone). A ball – and – bone). .

The rest of the body. area (thoracic spine).SKELETON SPINE SPINE The spine or vertebral The spine or vertebral column is made of 26 column is made of 26 separate bones separate bones (vertebrae) that keep (vertebrae) that keep us upright and protect us upright and protect the delicate spinal cord the delicate spinal cord that carries nerves that carries nerves from the brain to the from the brain to the rest of the body. then the lower spine then the lower spine (lumbar and sacral (lumbar and sacral . (cervical spine). followed by the chest followed by the chest area (thoracic spine). The upper part is the neck upper part is the neck (cervical spine).

SKELETON BONEMARROW MARROW BONE Bones are mostly made of Bones are mostly made of calcium crystals set in a calcium crystals set in a dense fibrous matrix made dense fibrous matrix made of the fibrous protein of the fibrous protein collagen. nourish the bone. Together the collagen. . Together the calcium and the matrix calcium and the matrix make the outside areas of make the outside areas of the bones very strong. the bones very strong. The inside of long bones The inside of long bones (such as arm and leg (such as arm and leg bones) is filled with soft bones) is filled with soft spongy bone marrow and spongy bone marrow and the blood vessels that the blood vessels that nourish the bone.

SKELETON The The Skeleton Skeleton Dance Dance .

SKELETON X –– RAYS RAYS OF OF X SOME PARTS PARTS SOME OF OUR OUR BODY BODY OF .

SKELETON SHOULDER SHOULDER KNEE KNEE FOOT FOOT .

SKELETON NECK NECK HAND HAND SKULL SKULL .

SKELETON .

follow the food energy. or digestive system. follow the food on down into the on down into the digestive system. If you want to find out If you want to find out how the body digests how the body digests food and turns it to food and turns it to energy. or guts. as we call it in guts.Digestive System Faye is pretty hungry so Faye is pretty hungry so she’s eating her pizza. she’s eating her pizza. as we call it in plain English! plain English! EAT IT FAYE! EAT IT FAYE! .

6. MOUTH MOUTH 2. 5. SMALL INTESTINE INTESTINE 5. LARGE 7. 6. LARGE INTESTINE INTESTINE 8. SMALL 4. it’s functions. 3. 1. GALLBLADDER GALLBLADDER . 2. STOMACH STOMACH 4. LIVER LIVER 7. ANUS 10. GULLET GULLET 3. ANUS 1. 8. 9.Digestive System Click on each Click on each parts and see parts and see it’s functions. APPENDIX APPENDIX 9. RECTUM RECTUM 10.

Saliva produced by the Saliva produced by the salivary glands helps salivary glands helps moisten the food to moisten the food to help break down If you don’t chew help down If(digest) youbreak don’t chew the food. big pieces (digest) properly. so it can be swallowed. pieces get stuck in your gullet get stuck in your gullet or in your lung airways or in your lung airways and you choke. properly.Digestive System TheMouth Mouth The The teeth mash up The teeth mash up Faye’s pizza into a Faye’s pizza into a mush of small pieces mush of small pieces so it can be swallowed. and you choke. .the bigfood.

is a esophagus. using waves of muscle waves of muscle contractions to contractions to push the food push the food down. . or esophagus. is a pipe 25 cm (10 pipe 25 cm (10 inches) long that inches) long that passes food from passes food from the mouth to the the mouth to the stomach.Digestive System TheGullet Gullet The The gullet. using stomach. or The gullet.

Digestive System The Stomach The Stomach The stomach is The stomach is an acid bath an acid bath that breaks that breaks down (digests) down (digests) food into tiny food into tiny particles. The strong particles. . The strong muscles of the muscles of the stomach help out stomach help out by churning and by churning and grinding up the grinding up the food.

intestine. are thesugars. proteins. duodenum. jejunum. and .Digestive System Small Intestine Small Intestine Faye’s pizza is Faye’s pizza is pushed out of pushed out of the stomach the stomach into the small into the small intestine. proteins. and duodenum. and sugars. small intestine are the – fats. where where chemicals chemicals called enzymes called enzymes break the pizza break the pizza down into the down into the three types of three types The parts ofof the food molecules The parts of the food molecules small intestine – fats.

Digestive System The Gallbladder & The Gallbladder & Pancreas Pancreas The gallbladder The gallbladder and pancreas and pancreas inject the inject the enzymes into enzymes into the small the small intestine. The pancreas makes pancreas makes enzymes that enzymes that digest proteins. injects bile that injects bile that into molecules. The liver. The intestine. . comes from the comes from the liver. The enzymes are enzymes are used to break used to break The gallbladder down the food The gallbladder down the food into molecules.

Digestive System The Liver The Liver The liver is the The liver is the body’s central body’s central processing system. processing system. proteins sugars. but sends itself. but sends sugars. carbohydrates) carbohydrates) itself. It processes and It processes and packages the packages the molecules of food molecules of food so that it can be so that it can be It stores some food used as some fuel by the It stores food used as fuel by the (mainly rest of the body. (mainly rest of the body. proteins and fats out into .

All the useable bits of the the useable bits of the pizza have been pizza have been absorbed.Digestive System The Large The Large Intestine Intestine The large intestine takes The large intestine takes the food from the small the food from the small intestine to the anus. the contents are very fluid. and only bits absorbed. the contents are caecum). All ntestine to the anus. and the job of the rest of the large the rest of the large intestine (ascending. . ntestine. and only bits the body cannot use as the body cannot use as fuel stay in the large fuel stay in the large intestine. and the job of very fluid. At the beginning of the At the beginning of the large intestine (the arge intestine (the caecum).

You don’t miss it if You don’t miss it if it is removed it is removed through an through an operation called an . about 2 cm long. because all it really seems all it really seems to do is get to do is get infected and cause infected and cause an illness called an illness called The appendix is appendicitis. is about 2 cm long. The appendix appendicitis. because appendix.Digestive System The Appendix The Appendix No one knows why No one knows why we have an we have an appendix.

When this When this happens. the happens. brown feces. The rectum stores The rectum stores it until you have a it until you have a bowel motion. bowel motion. they have been they have been turned into solid turned into solid brown feces. the muscle in the wall muscle in the wall .Digestive System TheRectum Rectum The By the time bits of By the time bits of pizza are here. pizza are here.

Digestive System The Anus The Anus Faye’s anus is Faye’s anus is where the pizza where the pizza finally finished its finally finished its journey through journey through her body. her body. been taken out. It no longer looks It no longer looks like a pizza and like a pizza and all of the all of the goodness has goodness has been taken out. .

Digestive System How How Digestion Digestion works? works? .

against invaders like germs. comrade. You’ve got to be careful You’ve got to be careful of those germs.The body has an amazing The body has an amazing defense system to protect defense system to protect against invaders like germs. They’ll take over and They’ll take over and make you sick if you are make you sick if you are not well defended! not well Take defended! a tour of our Take a tour of our defenses – find defenses – find out about the out about the immune system. immune system. of those germs. LET’S GO! . comrade.

syste syste inside. ive However. millions m of tiny defender m lympha lympha weapons tic tic constantly system patrol your system respirat respirat ory ory system system splee splee nn Immu Immu ne ne syste syste m m . The skin and ski ski the linings of your insides are nn the big guns of digest the outer digest ive defense.Your body has inner and outer rings of defense.

It is tough. but at all times. your skin is your your skin is your best defense best defense against invaders. against invaders. Believe it or not. Our skin is penetration. waterproof waterproof flexible and flexible and resistant to resistant to Our skin is penetration. but they only get they only get through when through when there is a cut or there is a cut or break in your skin. . It is tough.Skin -the outermost defense- Believe it or not. covered with covered with millions of germs millions of germs at all times.

inside your gut.Body -inner Linings defense- The lining of your The lining of your insides (throat. stomach. they keep out the millions keep out the millions of bacteria that live of bacteria that live inside your gut. These linings re also These linings re also covered with tiny covered with tiny antibodies that help antibodies that help kill germs. and lungs. stomach. they tough than skin. and intestines) is like intestines) is like skin on the inside. Although linings are Although linings are much softer and less much softer and less tough than skin. lungs. kill germs. insides (throat. . skin on the inside.

Splee n The spleen is an The spleen is an important part of the important part of the lymphoid system lymphoid system that acts as a home that acts as a home to many of the to many of the body’s immune body’s immune defenders. It is particularly defenders. It is particularly important in cleaning important in cleaning the blood by the blood by filtration and filtration and removing dead and removing dead and worn-out red and worn-out red and white blood cells. white blood cells. .

Our defender body. Our defender headquarters and headquarters and communication channels communication channels are called the lymphatic are called the lymphatic system. they must be killed inside the must be killed inside the body. they outer defenses.Lymphatic System -defender headquarters- If bugs get through the If bugs get through the outer defenses. under cervical nodes). in your arms (auxiliary). The lymph nodes in your system. The lymph nodes in your neck (tonsils and neck (tonsils and cervical nodes). under your arms (auxiliary). in your groin (inguinal) your groin (inguinal) and in your guts and in your guts (mesenteric) are the (mesenteric) are the .

Some people are born Some people are born with a poor immune with a poor immune system .Immune Immune Deficienc Deficienc y y Immunodeficiency is Immunodeficiency is where your body doesn’t where your body doesn’t work well at defending work well at defending itself so you catch lots of itself so you catch lots of infections. Luckily. The HIV virus is (AIDS). but you can also get immunodefiency from get immunodefiency from catching the HIV virus catching the HIV virus The HIV virus is (AIDS). it is infections. but you can also system . dangerous because it dangerous because it directly attacks your directly attacks your immune system by immune system by taking over the . it is very uncommon. Luckily. very uncommon.

When one of has met before. when you catch a However. When one of these enters the body. However. your body is not . weapons to kill that germ. This process is called This process is called immunity. the is called the antigen.Immunity Immunity The body can only make The body can only make immune weapons against immune weapons against bacteria and viruses that it bacteria and viruses that it has met before. The part of the germ that is recognized by germ that is recognized by the is called the antigen. The body is now immune to that bug because immune to that bug because it has lots of patrolling it has lots of patrolling weapons to kill that germ. The part of the antibodies. The body is now immunity. it is immediately recognized and immediately recognized and killed by patrolling killed by patrolling antibodies. your body is not new germ. when you catch a new germ. it is these enters the body.

The micro-weapons are germ two each. an incredibly defense. types (1) antibodies two types (1) antibodies which are tiny warheads which are tiny warheads made by B lymphocyte made by B lymphocyte cells (2) special killer cells (2) special killer cells called T cells called T lymphocytes. The killer T cells (known as cell-mediated (known as cell-mediated immunity) can kill the immunity) can kill the germs directly. The antibodies (also known as known as immunoglobulin) swarm immunoglobulin) swarm all over the germ and all over the germ and lock on to its surface to lock on to its surface to kill it. an incredibly powerful system that powerful system that makes thousands of makes thousands of special micro weapons to special micro weapons to kill one different type of kill one different typeare of The micro-weapons germ each. If immune germs directly. The antibodies (also lymphocytes.Immun Immun e e System System The immune system is The immune system is the body’s specific the body’s specific defense. The killer T cells kill it. If immune system does not work .

How How immune immune system system works? works? .

LET’S LET’S GO! GO! . Findout outmore more Find aboutyour yourheart heart about andhow howitit and circulatesblood blood circulates around your body. faster.Theheart heartisis The beatingfaster fasterand and beating faster. around your body.

hear hear t t pulmona pulmona ry ry circulatio circulatio n n arterie arterie s veins s veins capillaries Your heart is an Your heart is an amazing muscle amazing muscle that pumps that pumps blood around blood around your body 70 your body 70 times a minute times a minute for your whole for your whole life. It never life. heart and heart and circulation to circulation to find out more. parts of the start again. . around the body. and veins bring and veins bring the blood back the blood back Click on the to the heart Click the toto toparts theon heart of the start again. It never gets a rest! gets a rest! Arteries take Arteries take oxygen and fuel oxygen and fuel around the body.

left ventricle. heart muscle contracts. . Heart valves in the chambers Heart valves in the chambers make sure the blood goes the make sure the blood goes the right way at the right time. then into the arteries when the then into the arteries when the heart muscle contracts. The heart “beats” each time The heart “beats” each time the heart muscle contracts. These chambers are the left atrium. right atrium. the heart muscle contracts. which is chambers fill with blood. left ventricle. and right ventricle. The chambers fill with blood.Heart Heart The heart is a muscle with spaces The heart is a muscle with spaces inside called the chambers of the inside called the chambers of the heart. which is squeezed into the next chamber. making the “lub-dub” sound making the “lub-dub” sound you can hear with a you can hear with a stethoscope. right way at the right time. These chambers are the heart. The atrium. squeezed into the next chamber. and right ventricle. right left atrium.

Doctorslisten listento toyour your Doctors heartbeatusing usingaa heartbeat stethoscope– –aatube tube stethoscope thattransmits transmitssoft soft that sounds to the ear. You sounds to the ear. You canhear hearwhat whatDoc Docisis can hearingthrough throughhis his hearing stethoscope. . stethoscope.

Healthy Heart Healthy Heart Heart disease is the Heart disease is the biggest killer there is! biggest killer there is! Heart disease includes Heart disease includes conditions like heart conditions like heart attacks. . About half of all men eventually die from men eventually die from heart disease and about heart disease and about third of women. very preventable. heart disease is very preventable. important. angina and heart failure. third of women. angina and heart attacks. Keeping your heart Keeping your heart healthy is incredibly healthy is incredibly important. Luckily. heart disease is Luckily. About half of all failure.

Bright red blood Bright red blood full of oxygen then full of oxygen then returns to the left returns to the left side of the heart to side of the heart to be sent out around be sent out around the body in the the body in the arteries. to pick up oxygen.Pulmonary Pulmonary Circulation Circulation The right side of The right side of the heart sends the heart sends blood to the lungs blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. This is called This is called pulmonary pulmonary . arteries.

. The walls of the The walls of the capillaries are so capillaries are so thin that oxygen thin that oxygen molecules can slip molecules can slip through to provide through to provide oxygen to the oxygen to the tissues oxygen to tissues oxygen to the tissues around the tissues around the capillary. tissues. the capillary.Capillaries Capillaries The capillaries are The capillaries are the tiny blood the tiny blood vessels that deliver vessels that deliver the oxygen to the the oxygen to the tissues.

The blood in the The blood in the veins is dark red veins is dark red because of low because of low oxygen levels.Veins Veins Veins collect blood Veins collect blood from the from the capillaries and capillaries and take it back to the take it back to the heart and lungs to heart and lungs to the heart and the heart and lungs to get more lungs to get more oxygen. oxygen levels. Blood in the veins Blood in the veins is only at low is only at low . oxygen.

Arteries Arteries Arteries deliver blood Arteries deliver blood full of oxygen from the full of oxygen from the heart to the rest of the heart to the rest of the body. When high pressure. The ful of oxygen. and is bright red. When you cut an artery. The force of the heartbeat force of the heartbeat means that blood in means that blood in the arteries is under the arteries is under high pressure. Blood in the arteries is Blood in the arteries is bright red because it is bright red because it is ful of oxygen. body. . the you cut an artery. the blood spurts out fast blood spurts out fast and is bright red.

Respiratory System Let’s have an exercise! .

Let’s do it! . When we breathe in.The respiratory system is pretty amazing place. our body takes in oxygen and mixes it with our blood to help keep us alive! Respiratory System Try to answer the following exercises.

It has ribs of cartilage to keep it open.1. trachea bronchioles larynx .

2. bronchial tree alveoli nose . The airways are called ________because they look like the roots of a large tree.

It keeps food out of the lungs and voice box.3. anus vocal cords epiglottis .

pancreas larynx rectum .4. This part sits on the top of the windpipe.

5. What part of the respiratory system that carries the air down into the windpipe and also carries food to the gullet? pharynx nose stomach .

How many correct answers did you get? GREAT JOB KID! .

SKELETON ‘ dem bones’ TRY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS GIVEN ON THE NEXT PAGE. LET’S PLAY! .

seven of the bones of the spine.The _________ is actually the top The _________ is actually the top seven of the bones of the spine. neck skull cranium .

The _________ is actually the top The _________ is actually the top seven of the bones of the spine. seven of the bones of the spine. neck skull cranium .

The _________ is actually the top The _________ is actually the top seven of the bones of the spine. seven of the bones of the spine. neck skull cranium .

Digestive System .

Bring it on! Bring it on! .

I’m ready! superior vena cava right atrium aorta left atrium coronary arteries right ventricle left ventricle . game.In this picture is all In this picture is all the information you the information you need. Study it well before Study it well before you go on to the you go on to the game. need.

7. 2. 5. 4. superior vena cava right atrium aorta left atrium coronary arteries right ventricle left ventricle 1. 6. When finished. check your answers by pressing the button check it. . 3.Choose which of the labels corresponds to their places on this diagram of heart.

ANSWERS superior vena cava GOT THE CORRECT ANSWERS? GREAT JOB! right atrium aorta left atrium coronary arteries right ventricle left ventricle .

IMMUNESYSTEM
SYSTEMQUIZ
QUIZ
IMMUNE
Try answering some
multiple choices
questions!
Goodluck!
luck!
Good

1. Which is NOT part of the
immune system?

skin
skeleton
spleen

2. What part of immune
system best defend you
from invaders?

antibodies
skin
spleen

3. What does your spleen
do?

it houses many of
your body’s defenders
it removes worn-out red
and white blood cells

all of the above

4. The defender headquarters of the body is called? lymphatic system circulatory system digestive system .

5. Immunodeficiency is when your immune system is… vaccinates your body find against invaders doesn’t work properly .