PRESENT SATELLITE RADIO

NAVIGATION SYSTEMS,
THEIR PERFORMANCE
AND
USER RECEIVER CONCEPTS
František Vejražka,
Pavel Kovář, Libor Seidl,
Petr Kačmařík, Josef Špaček,
Pavel Puričer
Department of Radio Engineering
Czech Technical University in Prague
Czech Republic

Abstract
This contribution gives an overview of present and future
navigation systems and their augmentations such as GPS,
GLONASS, GALILEO, WAAS, EGNOS, MSAT, QZSS,
BEIDOU, GAGAN. Performance of the systems depends
on their technical parameters. We will try to evaluate these
and to present our opinion on their advantages for different
applications and in various situations (reception of weak
signals suffering from great attenuation under vegetation
canopy, in urban canyons, influence of reflections and
multipath).
The last part of the contribution deals with an application of
software radio technology for user receiver design and
results obtained from experiments with different algorithms
of processing the satellite navigation systems signals.

Terminology
Satellite (Radio) Navigation Systems
~
Radio Determination Satellite Systems
~
Systems for radio position determination
using satellites

NAVSTAR • TIMATION •..Satellite Navigation Systems Historical Satellite Navigation Systems (not realized) •GPS 601 . • GEOSTAR • REXSTAR ..

NAVSTAR realized but cancelled .Transit • Tsikad GPS .Satellite Navigation Systems Past Satellite Navigation Systems • NNSS .

operational from 2008 .NAVSTAR in the air. not fully operational.Satellite Navigation Systems full operational GLONASS GALILEO GPS . lack of reliable satellites projected. in development.

Satellite Navigation Systems Global systems: Augmentation systems: GPS-NAVSTAR GLONASS GALILEO WAAS NDGPS EGNOS → GALILEO MSAS GAGAN QZSS Local systems: BEIDOU … .

Principles of Satellite Navigation Systems • Doppler systems • Ranging systems .

Principles of Satellite Navigation Systems – Doppler satellite T Systems t t satellite f0 -fp mixer oscillator ti 1  Δti 1 ( f ti  Δti r2 r1 orbit r3 time marks receiver Ni  t1 fv fp 3 2 0  f p )dt stop start ti+1+ti+1 ti+ti counter f0 Ni fv Δti  ri / c t4 r4 user fp t1+t1 t2+t2 t3+t3 Ni = ΔFΔT+(f0/c){√[(xi+1-x)2+(yi+1-y)2+(zi+1-z)2 ] – √[(xi-x)2+(yi-y)2+(zi-z)2]} i = 1. 2. 3 t4+t4 .

3 tuser (xi . 4 . z4) (x.0) )2 i = 1. y4. 2.y)2 + (zi . z3) y i = di /c d4 = c4 2 (xi .z)2 =signal (c  ) i received by user 0 2 mi i = 1. y1. z) x 0 0 z (x2.y)2 + (zi . y. y3. z1) d1 = c1 signal transmitted by satellite d2 = c2 d3 = c3 (x4. 3.x) + (yi . z2) (x3.x)2 + (yi . 2.z)2 = (c (mi . y2.Principles of Satellite Navigation Systems – Ranging Systems (x1.

 +1 C(t) range code inside receiver t m -1 +1 received C(t+) code t -1 R() - 0   .

GPS DELAY DISCRIMINATOR C(t) C*(t) R() correlator C(t+) R*() C() generátor 0 m delay clock delay control C*(t) unwanted satellite range code C*(t)  C(t)  .

uE() -/2 /2   .GPS EARLY-LATE DISCRIMINATOR correlator uL() C(t .R + /2) uE() correlator clock uE() uL() -/2 /2 u() = uL() ./2) C(t .m) + u ()  C() generator R m = R +  filter C(t .R .

Receiver Principle C(t)D(t)cos(2ft) 1 2 [C(t)D(t)(1+cos(4ft))]  ()2 C2(t) = 1 D2(t) = 1 phase lock 1 2 C(t)D(t) 1 2 C2(t)D(t) = D(t) cos(2ft) delay discriminator m pseudorange C(t) .

Systems Parameters (Properties) We will deal with systems: • GPS – NAVSTAR • GLONASS • GALILEO .

GPS .NAVSTAR .

02 .GPS Constellation F E D C B A D2 E1 C2 B3 B2 D1 m F3 A2 F2 A1 C3 E2 C4 E3 C1 Me an E4 B4 A4 an o F1 D3 B1 160° aly F4 A3 Plane 40° Equator 0° 320° 280° 240° 200° D4 120° 80° 17° 137° 257° 77° 197° 317° satellite operational spare Right ascension of ascending node Inclination 55° Semimajor axis 26561.6 km) Excentricity nominally e = 0.75 km (altitude above Earth 20183. generally e < 0.

D(t)sin(2πf1t) Code multiplex .6 MHz ±12 MHz P(Y) P(Y) ARNS/RNSS RNSS 1215 1260 1559 1610 MHz .D(t)sin(2πf1t) s(t)=APP(t).42 MHz ±12 MHz C/A L2 1227.each satellite has own range codes CC/A(t) and P(t) Signal in frequency domain: L1 1575.D(t)cos(2πf1t)+APP(t).GPS Present Signal Structure (1/3) Signal in time domain: L1: L2: s(t)=ACCC/A(t).

GPS Parameters Signal Structure (2/3) Navigation Message (Data) Content: • transmitting satellite Kepler parameters • almanac – Kepler parameters of others satellites • satellite „health“ • corrections of – satellite clock frequency – troposphere refraction •… Organisation of Data Frame: navigation message = 25 pages ~ 12.5 mins frame = 1500 bits ~ 30 s ~ 5 subframes 2 1 25 pages 3 4 5 subframe=10 words ~ 6 s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 word = 30 bits ~ 0.6 s bit ~ 20 ms .

. 0 0 1 ... rm parity (control) bits S T  HB T syndrom if S  0 message without errors S  0 error in received message 0 0 ........ ak . h2 k . ... . h1k .. r1 . ak information bits r1 ........ 0 a1 .. hmk 1 0 .... rm   h11  h H   21  .. hm 2 ...  1 ..... 0 0 0  ....GPS Parameters Signal Structure (3/3) Navigation Message FEC Hamming Coding received data B   a1 ...   hm1 h12 h22 ...

GPS Services • SPS – Standard Positioning Service only C/A code accessible • PPS – Precision Positioning Service for authorized users P(Y) code accessible .

GLONASS .

GLONASS Constellation • 24 satellites (8 satellites in each of 3 planes) • e ~ 0 (circular orbit) • inclination 64. • orbit period 11h 15m • angular spacing between orbits 120° .8° • altitude 19 100 km.

GLONASS Signal Structure • Frequencies: – L1: fj = 1602 + 9j/16 – L2: fi = 1246 + 7i/16 [MHz] • Modulation: – Navigation message – Pseudorandom ranging code • Sequence of maximum length • Period 1 msec • Bit rate 511 kb/s – 100 Hz auxiliary meander sequence – Manchester code .

GLONASS Signal Structure • Data – – – – Hamming code (84.5 min 85 bits No 0 111110…110 Data Parity 1.8) 50 b/s in strings 15 strings ~frame 5 frames ~navigation message ~2.7 sec Time mark 0.3 sec 2 sec .

7
8

2002
2003

13 12
11

2004

8

2001

2000

1999

12 12 12

1998

16

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

14

1991

12

1990

10

1989

9

1988

1987

GLONASS
Constellation history
26
22
16
10

GALILEO

GALILEO
Constellation
3 GEO satellites:
• Inmarsat III
 AOR-E 15.5°W
 F5
25.0°E
• ESA Artemis 21.5°E
30 MEO satellites:
• 9 satellites in each of 3 planes (Walker constellation 27/3/1)
• 3 spare satellites (1 in each plane)
• e = 0 (circular orbits)
• inclination 56°
• altitude 23 616 km
• orbit period 14h 21.6m ~ 1+2/3 rev. a day ~ ground track
repeats every 3 days

. NAV SIS ICC LOCAL COMPONENTS IMS Network TTC u pl i n k ICC M link n up issio Local Infrastruct. . .GALILEO Architecture GALILEO CORE SYSTEM REGIONAL COMPONENTS IMS Network MEO CONSTELLATION regional uplink IULS plin k NAV SIS NAV SIS Communication link . upl S-b a nd nd u NAV SIS a C-b GSS Network ink . Local Infrastruct. Communication link INTEGRITY DETERMINATION IMS & DISSEMINATION NAVIGATION CONTROL & CONSTELLATION MANAGEMENT GCC L-band NAV UHF SAR External Complementary Systems COSPAS-SARSAT GROUND SEGMENT USER SEGMENT . . ….

dedicated signal. navigation. under governmental control • SAR – Search and Rescue coordinated with COSPAS – SARSAT . customs.. positioning. garanteed services • SoL – Safety of Life integrity message • PRS – Public Regulated Service police. . timing services • CS – Commercial Service added value to OS.GALILEO Services • OS – Open Service free of charge..

00 1559.00 1563.00 1591.10 E6 1215.00 1164.00 E5 ARNS 1559 MHz 5250 MHz RNSS 1559 MHz 5030 MHz ≈≈ f [MHz] .00 1260.GALILEO Signals and Spectra 1214 MHz RNSS 1300 MHz 1151 MHz ≈ ARNS – Aeronautical Radio Navigation Service RNSS – Radion Navigation Satellite Service 1587.00 ARNS 960 MHz L6 E2 L1 E1 1544.00 SAR downlink 1300.

106 TC code – PRN TC BOC modulation BOC(m.n) s(t) = carrier x subcarier x (ranging)code subcarrier – TS 1 m 1.023.10 6 TS 1 n 1.n) .023.GALILEO Signals and Spectra – BOC(m.

023 MHz .023 MHz n = 1 – range code chip frequency is 1.1) BPSK(1) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 10 m = 1 – subcarrier frequency is 1.GALILEO BOC Spectrum 0 -5 BOC(1.

GALILEO BOC Correlation Function 1 0.5 BOC(1.1) 0 -0.5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 x 10 -6 m = 1 – subcarrier frequency is 1.023 MHz .023 MHz n = 1 – range code chip frequency is 1.

5 -1 -0.5 -2 -1.8 -0.5 0.6 0.5 0 0.4 -0.5 2 2.2 0 0 -0.4 0.4 -0.6 -0.8 0.5 0 0.5 -6 -0.4 0.5 0 0.5 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 x 10 spectrum BOC(5.5 0 0.5 1 1.1) BOC(5.5 x 10 7 -40 -2.5 1 1.8 -1.5 2 -6 2.8 0.6 0.1) correlation function 1 1 1 0.5 -1 -0.2 -0.2 0 -0.5 x 10 7 .5 1 1.5 -2 -1.5 x 10 0 -35 -1 x 10 -6 -40 -2.6 -1 -1.5 0 0 -5 -5 -5 -10 -10 -10 -15 -15 -15 -20 -20 -20 -25 -25 -25 -30 -30 -30 -35 -35 -40 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 10 6 -0.2) -0.2 0.5 -1 -0.5 1 1.GALILEO BOC modulation BOC(1.

2.0 Q SoL uses the same signals as OS with integrity message 56 IN Q UA DR cos ATU RE () IN PHASE sin() I E2 L1 E1 1587.00 code encryption 1563.345 2.2.00 modulation 1559.1) none 250 some (CS) OS/SoL/ CS BOC(1.023 1.5) yes 100 yes OS/SoL/ CS BOC(1.00 service .74 2 98 1. Services and Spectra data rate [symbol/s] data encryption PRS BOC(15.420 589 .1) 1.00 1591.023 1575.1) none no data („pilot“) - modulation subcarrier frequency MHz code rate Mchips/s BOC(15.GALILEO Signals.5) 15.5575 BOC(1.

00 I service Differerent signals are broadcast • on I and Q channels E5 • in upper (E5b) and lower (E5a) part of the band E5a and E5b may be used as a single ultra wide channel .10) none no data („pilot“) - OS/SoL/CS AltBOC(15.795 code encryption 1176.10) none 250 some (CS) OS/SoL/CS AltBOC(15. Services and Spectra IN QU AD R cos ATU RE () IN PHASE sin() Q OS/SoL AltBOC(15.450 modulation 1164.140 data rate [symbol/s] 1191.10) none no data („pilot“) - E5a E5b 1215.00 data encryption 1207.GALILEO Signals.10) none 50 none OS/SoL AltBOC(15.

Services and Spectra IN Q UA DR cos ATU RE () IN PHASE sin() PRS BOC(10.GALILEO Spectrum.5) TDMA government 100 yes CS PSK(5) commercial 1000 yes CS PSK(5) commercial no data („pilot“) 1300.00 data encryption 1288.00 I service E6 .520 modulation 1260.750 code encryption 1268.980 data rate [symbol/s] 1278.

00 1260.980 1587.7 ≈ 1278.795 1176.00 1591.10 1300.750 1164.420 SAR downlink 1288.00 E6 158 9.00 E5b 1268.00 1559.450 I E5a 1.140 1191.00 1544.520 1207. Services and Spectra L6 E2 L1 E1 ≈≈ .00 1563.00 1215.IN Q Q 42 1575.0 98 IN PHASE sin() E5 15 6 UA DR cos ATU RE () GALILEO Signal.

v=8 dual frequency h=15.9% No Value added service Yes Yes .9% 99.5 v=12 1 local augmented signals 4-6 dual frequency 99.GALILEO Service Parameters Open Service (OS) Coverage Accuracy h-horizontal v-vertical [m] Availability Integrity global h=4. v=35 single frequency Commercial Service (CS) global local <1 three frequency access <10 cm local augmented signals Public Regulated Service (PRS) Safety of Life Service (SoL) global local global h=6.9% 99 – 99.9% 99.

BEIDOU .

thus making vertical positioning impossible and limiting the number of users.“ • 3 geostationary satellites • circular orbits .BEIDOU „China‘s „Beidou“ navigation system is a regional positioning system mainly covering the country and its neighbouring areas.

BEIDOU Constellation (Beidou 1B orbit) .

Augmentations .

Augmentation Differential GPS (DGPS) known coordinates receiver reference station transmiter reference station corrections user receiver .

Augmentation Differential GPS (DGPS) known coordinates receiver reference station transmitter reference station corrections user receiver .

Augmentations • Many systems – NDGPS – maritime systems • Systems with satellite channel for corrections transmission – WADGPS – SBAS (ICAO) – Satellite Based Augmentation Systems • • • • WAAS MSAS EGNOS → future part of GALILEO … .

Augmentations SBAS .Constellation EGNOS GAGAN MSAS MTSAT WAAS INMARSAT ARTEMIS INMARSAT GPS .

Augmentations SBAS .signals Similar to SATNAV systems signals .

Augmentation QZSS .

Constellation (1) Inclined orbital plane at approximately 45 deg from GSO  Ground track draws a figure “8” centered on the equator 45 deg (2) 3 satellites on the 3 orbit planes operate so that the right ascension of the nodes are each 120 degrees apart  Every 8 hours each of the 3 satellites passes over the same point on the figure “8” ground track Equator 120 deg Top view Side view .Augmentation QZSS .

準天頂衛星の仰角(東京) 準天頂衛星の仰角(東京) 90 90 80 80 Minimum elevation angle for QZSS (approx. 48 deg 50 50 40 40 30 30 SAT1 SAT1 SAT2 SAT2 SAT3 SAT3 GEO110 GEO110 GEO130 GEO130 GEO150 GEO150 20 20 10 10 0 0 0 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 (Hr) Time Time (Hr) 16 16 20 20 Elevation angle at Tokyo (24hour) 24 24 The urban canyon picture (Shinjuku area) Planed for 2010 .Augmentation QZSS Satellite visibility ensured with high elevation angle of more than 70 degrees. 70 deg) 70 70 Elevation Angle (deg) Elevation Angle (deg) 60 60 Elevation angle for GSO sat (E130deg) Approx.

MODERNISATION GPS .

6 MHz ±12 MHz C/A M L5 1176.45 MHz ±12 MHz L1 1575.Spectrum of Future GPS Present state Second civil signal L2 Third civil signal L5 and new military signal L1 a L2 L2 1227.42 MHz ±12 MHz C/A M P(Y) ARNS 960 P(Y) RNSS 1215 ARNS/RNSS 1260 1559 1610 MHz .

18 satellites 12 IIR+ 6 IIF IIF 02 1-6 6 sats 15 y.9 y. 8 satellites 97 IIR 12 satellites 9-20 12 satsc 7. 6 satellites 18 satellites IIF 04 IIF 7-30 24 sats 15 y.42 MHz L2 = 1227. 4 d. 6 satellites 24 satellites 06 Precision 95% L1 = 1575.4 y. IIR 05 89 1-8 8 sats 7.9 y.45 MHz 100 m 10 m 5m 0. IIA 97 1-28 28 sats 7.GPS Frequency and codes L1 L2 L5 C/A P(Y) M C/A P(Y) M F1 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 F2 24 satellites II. 6 MHz L5 = 1176.5 m .

Comparison of Systems .

Comparison of Systems What is an advantage of modernized or new systems ??? • Systems use two or three frequencies → suppression of ionosphere refraction • New modulation methods have – very sharp correlation function → better precision – broad spectrum → thermal noise resistance .

Comparison of Systems • New modulation methods have – very sharp correlation function → better precision – broad spectrum → thermal noise resistance – higher code rate → easier multipath mitigation .

Comparison of Systems Multipath Mitigation BPSK(5) BPSK(10) BOC(10.10) .5) BOC(15.

Comparison of Systems • New modulation methods have – very sharp correlation function → better precision – broad spectrum → thermal noise resistance – higher code rate → easier multipath mitigation • Constellations ensure better satellite visibility → lower PDOP → better precision. … . integrity.

L5 GLONASS GALILEO Augmentations • EGNOS • WAAS • Flexible design and development of powerful algorithms of signal processing • Easy implementation of them • Rapid and simple prototyping and testing  Software Defined Radio  . L2.RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE Requirements • Processing of all known and planned SATNAV signals: – – – – GPS L1.

RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE Requirements Software Defined Radio  What processor to use ??? • DSP • FPGA .

RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE DSP Concept Loops in algorithms – lower computational power .

RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE FPGA Concept No loops in algorithms parallel processing → higher computational power .

RESULTS at CZECH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Experimental receiver .

Experimental Receiver CTU (first version) GNSS antenna Radio Frequency Unit DSP Unit LNA DSP Xilinx Channel 1 Synthesizer A/D FPGA Virtex II Channel 2 LNA • Two-channel RF unit • DSP unit – Virtex II FPGA PCI card • PC Workstation – Windows 2000 PCI Bridge High Power Computer .

High Frequency Part of the Receiver .

Receiver Programming in Simulink .

Processor Programming in EDK .

.

urban environment. as well as FPGA technology • This technology make possible design of receivers for hard receptions conditions (leaves canopy. etc.) .Conclusions • Software Radio is prospective technology for multi-systems GNSS receivers.

Pavel Kovář & František Vejražka & Libor Seidl Czech Technical University Prague.Thank you for your attention. the Czech Republic .