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THE BUTTRESSED CORE

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

Guided by
Nusra S
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
YCET

Presented by
Anju Prakash

CONTENTS
Introducion
Buttressed core system
Evolution of buttressed core system
Burj Khalifa
Las vegas tower
Future of buttressed core system
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Fazlur Khans tubular concept-core plus outrigger system


provided for increase in height.

Height of tallest building exceeded 22% in 32 years from


that of WTC and Taipei 101

Massive jump in height possible of buttressed core structural


system

Design employs conventional materials and construction


techniques
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BUTTRESSED CORE
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
The 3 wings allow for greater height by buttressing one
another by a central core-buttressed system-stable
Buttressed core is a six sided central piece-hexagonal
hub
Limits loss of space for structural elements
Hub surrounded by 3 wings
Central core provides torsional resistance and wings
shear resistance & increased moment of inertia
Hub encloses the elevators

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

(Source: digitaltrends.com)
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Contd..
As building rises, each wing sets back in clockwise
pattern
Tapering minimises wind effects and organisation of
wind vortices
Give and take between core and wing makes system
more stable

CONSTRUCTION OF CORE
Actually made of not pure cement or concrete
Fly ash-key component-cost effective, energy saving,
conservation of resources
Tri-axial design-3 tiers are staggered throughout
construction of each floor as the building rises
3-tier design allows the wind to not hit one side directly
or head on thus diverting the wind

HEXAGONAL HUB
Most crucial aspect
Six sided centre piece
Acts as an axle that encloses the elevators
Acts like a tube surrounding the building and makes
torsionally stiff
As buildings get taller they become susceptible to
twisting-core system solves this problem
Thickened hammer head walls located at the end of the
corridors prevent the building from twisting about its
vertical axis because of moments of inertia

WING

(Source:du-2013-grp067-01.blogspot.c
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EVOLUTION OF BUTTRESSED
CORE SYSTEM
Completed in 2004, Tower Palace III in Seoul, South
Korea, promoted a new standard in high-rise residential
development.
Its tripartite arrangement provides 120 between wings
-maximum views and privacy
Originally designed at more than 90 stories, its height
supported by a Y-shaped floor plan

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TOWER PALACE

(Source: emporis.com)
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FLOOR PLAN

(Source:archello.com)
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Contd..

At 2 mechanical floors , perimeter columns resist lateral


loads by virtual outriggers
Throughout its design process, building exhibited good
structural behaviour and performed well in the wind
tunnel
However, because of zoning issues, towers tallest
wing was cut from 93 to 73 stories
When SOM undertook the project,faced with the
challenge of controlling the dynamic response of the
tower and managing its wind engineering aspects
,formulated certain goals
Use gravity loads to resist lateral loads
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Contd...
Despite the Tower Palace IIIs solid structural
behaviour, SOM encountered issues with the buildings
torsional resistance
As building grows in height,it twist along vertical axis
Baker found a solution to problem

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BURJ KHALIFA

(Source:www.burjkhalifa.ae)
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Contd..
Bakers goal was to design a building that reached
heights and resist forces of nature in a simple way
Throughout design process, SOM made critical
changes to Tower Palace leading to evolution of Burj
Khalifas buttressed core
Its central core houses all vertical transportation
systems
Each of the wings is on a 9m module

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Contd...
According to parametric studies made in 2003,central
core have enough strength and stiffness
Primary walls lined corridors in each wing
Engineers tuned building as a musical instrument to
avoid aerodynamic harmonics
Managing gravity-a key component
By confusing the wind, design disorganised vortex
shedding

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DISORGANISED VORTEX
SHEDDING

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Gravity load resistant system is utilised which resist


wind loads
After each round of wind tunnel test,the building was
reshaped to reduce wind effects
Virtual outrigger replaced by direct outrigger
On the top there is a 230m tall spire and complete
structure founded on a 3700 mm thick reinforced
concrete pile raft foundation

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HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


Fly ash

12%

Silica fume

9%

w/c

0.30

Slump flow

550 mm

BS 30 min absorption

0.8%

DIN water penetration

1.5 mm

Coulomb value

250

28 day breaks

100MPa Cube

E Modulus

48 GPa

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ACTUAL PICTURE OF THE


FOUNDATION

(Source:www.slideshare.net)
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LAS VEGAS TOWER

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Contd..
Next step in evolution of buttressed core
It has a shape that changes in elevation
Wind vortices never gets organised
Structural system eliminates the need for outriggers and
perimeter columns

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FUTURE OF BUTTRESSED CORE


SYSTEM

SOM and Baker made history with innovation of


buttressed core system
The Kingdom Tower, to be located in Jeddah, Saudi
Arabia, is expected to be over 1,000 meters tall (172
meters taller than the Burj Khalifa
Wings will not setback as Burj Khalifa, but tapers as
ascend towards sky
Because of unique shape, engineers are working with
wind consultants
Concave sides of tower eliminate wind effects
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KINGDOM TOWER CONSTRUCTION

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CONCLUSION
Ever altered the design of skyscrapers
Environment-friendly and less energy consuming
Incorporates the ideals of structural efficiency,
constructability, and architectural function and makes it
possible to produce buildings of great height.

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REFERENCES

[1] W. F. Baker. (2010). Higher and Higher: The Evolution of the Buttressed Core. Civil Engineering.
(Print Article). pp. 58-65.

[2] World Buildings Directory. Buttressed Core Structural System for Burj Khalifa. (Online Article).
http://www.worldbuildingsdirectory.com/project.cfm?id=26 18

[3] Blum, Andrew. "Engineer Bill Baker Is the King of Superstable 150-Story Structures." Wired Magazine
27 Nov. 2007: n. pag. Web.

[4] Abdelrazaq, Baker, Chung, Pawlikowski, Wang, and Yom. Integration of Design and Construction of
the Tallest Building in Korea, Tower Palace III, Seoul, Korea. 10 Oct. 2004. South Korea, Seoul.

[5] Baker, William, James Pawlikowski, and Bradley Young. "Reaching toward The Heavens."Civil
Engineering Mar. 2010.

[6] Baker, William. "Engineering an Idea: The Realization of the Burj Khalifa." Civil Engineering.

[7] "Burj Khalifa Facts." Skyscrapercenter. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habita, n.d. Web. 07 Mar.
2013.
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