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Chapter 11: Applications and

Processing of Metal Alloys


ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
How are metal alloys classified and what are their
common applications?
What are some of the common fabrication techniques
for metals?
What heat treatment procedures are used to improve the
mechanical properties of both ferrous and nonferrous alloys?

Chapter 11 - 1

Classification of Metal Alloys


Metal Alloys

Ferrous
Steels
Steels
<1.4wt%C
<1.4
wt% C

Nonferrous
Cast Irons
Cast
Irons
3-4.5 wt%C
3-4.5
wt% C

microstructure: ferrite,
graphite/cementite

T(C)
1600

1400
1200

austenite

+L

4.30

600
400

0
(Fe)

L+Fe3C

1148C

1000

800
ferrite

Adapted from Fig.


11.1, Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

727C

Eutectoid:

0.76

Eutectic:

+Fe3C

Fe3C
cementite

+Fe3C
3

Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 9.24 adapted from
Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed.,
Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief),
ASM International, Materials Park, OH,
1990.)

Co , wt% C

6.7

Chapter 11 - 2

Steels
High Alloy

Low Alloy
low carbon Med carbon
<0.25 wt% C 0.25-0.6 wt% C

high carbon
0.6-1.4 wt% C

heat
plain
treatable
Cr,V
Cr, Ni
Additions none
none
none
Ni, Mo
Mo
Example 1010 4310
1040
4340 1095
Hardenability 0
+
+
++
++
TS
0
+
++
+
EL
+
+
0
Name

plain

Uses

auto
struc.
sheet

HSLA

bridges
towers
press.
vessels

plain

crank
shafts
bolts
hammers
blades

pistons
gears
wear
applic.

wear
applic.

tool
Cr, V,
Mo, W
4190
+++
++
-drills
saws
dies

increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility

Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

stainless
Cr, Ni, Mo
304, 409
varies
varies
++
high T
applic.
turbines
furnaces
Very corros.
resistant
Chapter 11 - 3

Refinement of Steel from Ore


Coke
Iron Ore

gas
refractory
vessel
layers of coke
and iron ore
air
slag
Molten iron

Limestone
BLAST FURNACE
heat generation
C+O2 CO2
reduction of iron ore to metal
CO2 + C 2CO
3CO + Fe2O3 2Fe+3CO2
purification
CaCO3 CaO+CO2
CaO + SiO2 + Al2O3 slag

Chapter 11 - 4

Ferrous Alloys
Iron-based alloys
Steels
Cast Irons
Nomenclature for steels (AISI/SAE)
10xx Plain Carbon Steels
11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability)
15xx Mn (1.00 - 1.65%)
40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%)
43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.40 - 0.90%), Mo (0.20 - 0.30%)
44xx Mo (0.5%)
where xx is wt% C x 100
example: 1060 steel plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C
Stainless Steel >11% Cr
Chapter 11 - 5

Cast Irons
Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C
more commonly 3 - 4.5 wt% C
Low melting relatively easy to cast
Generally brittle
Cementite decomposes to ferrite + graphite
Fe3C 3 Fe () + C (graphite)
generally a slow process
Chapter 11 - 6

Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram


T(C)
1600

Graphite formation
promoted by

1400

Si > 1 wt%

1200

slow cooling

Austenite

Liquid +
Graphite

+L
1153C
4.2 wt% C

1000

+ Graphite
800

740C
0.65

600
Adapted from Fig. 11.2,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
[Fig. 11.2 adapted from
Binary Alloy Phase
Diagrams, 2nd ed.,
Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.in-Chief), ASM International,
Materials Park, OH, 1990.]

400
(Fe)

+ Graphite
0

90

C, wt% C

Chapter 11 - 7

100

Types of Cast Iron


Adapted from Fig.
11.3(a) & (b),
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

Gray iron
graphite flakes
weak & brittle in tension
stronger in compression
excellent vibrational dampening
wear resistant
Ductile iron
add Mg and/or Ce
graphite as nodules not flakes
matrix often pearlite stronger
but less ductile

Chapter 11 - 8

Types of Cast Iron (cont.)


White iron
< 1 wt% Si
pearlite + cementite
very hard and brittle

Adapted from Fig.


11.3(c) & (d),
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

Malleable iron
heat treat white iron at 800-900C
graphite in rosettes
reasonably strong and ductile

Chapter 11 - 9

Types of Cast Iron (cont.)


Compacted graphite iron
relatively high thermal conductivity
good resistance to thermal shock
lower oxidation at elevated
temperatures
Adapted from Fig. 11.3(e),
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 11 - 10

Chapter 11 - 11

Chapter 11 - 12

Chapter 11 - 13

Production of Cast Irons

Adapted from Fig.11.5,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 11 - 14

Limitations of Ferrous Alloys


1) Relatively high densities
2) Relatively low electrical conductivities
3) Generally poor corrosion resistance

Chapter 11 - 15

Nonferrous Alloys
Cu Alloys

Al Alloys

-low : 2.7 g/cm3


Brass: Zn is subst. impurity
(costume jewelry, coins,
-Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn additions
corrosion resistant)
-solid sol. or precip.
Bronze : Sn, Al, Si, Ni are
strengthened (struct.
subst. impurities
aircraft parts
(bushings, landing
& packaging)
gear)
Mg Alloys
NonFerrous
Cu-Be:
-very low : 1.7g/cm3
Alloys
precip. hardened
-ignites easily
for strength
-aircraft, missiles

Ti Alloys

Refractory metals
-relatively low : 4.5 g/cm3
-high melting Ts
vs 7.9 for steel
Noble metals -Nb, Mo, W, Ta
-reactive at high Ts -Ag, Au, Pt
-oxid./corr. resistant
-space applic.
Based on discussion and data provided in Section 11.3, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Chapter 11 - 16

Metal Fabrication
How do we fabricate metals?
Blacksmith - hammer (forged)
Cast molten metal into mold

Forming Operations
Rough stock formed to final shape

Hot working

vs.

Deformation temperature
high enough for
recrystallization
Large deformations

Cold working
Deformation below
recrystallization
temperature
Strain hardening occurs
Small deformations
Chapter 11 - 17

Metal Fabrication Methods (i)


FORMING

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS

Forging (Hammering; Stamping) Rolling (Hot or Cold Rolling)


(wrenches, crankshafts)
force

(I-beams, rails, sheet & plate)


roll

die
A o blank

A d often at

elev. T

Drawing

force

Ao
die

Ad

roll

Extrusion

(rods, wire, tubing)


die

Ao

(rods, tubing)
Ao
tensile
force

die must be well lubricated & clean

Ad

force

container

ram

billet

Adapted from
Fig. 11.8,
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

die holder
extrusion

Ad

die
ductile metals, e.g. Cu,
Al (hot)
Chapter 11 - 18
container

Metal Fabrication Methods (ii)


FORMING

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS

Casting- mold is filled with molten metal


metal melted in furnace, perhaps alloying
elements added, then cast in a mold
common and inexpensive
gives good production of shapes
weaker products, internal defects
good option for brittle materials

Chapter 11 - 19

Metal Fabrication Methods (iii)


FORMING

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS

Sand Casting
(large parts, e.g.,
auto engine blocks)
Sand

Sand

molten metal

What material will withstand T >1600C


and is inexpensive and easy to mold?
Answer: sand!!!
To create mold, pack sand around form
(pattern) of desired shape

Chapter 11 - 20

Metal Fabrication Methods (iv)


FORMING

CASTING

MISCELLANEOUS

Investment Casting
(low volume, complex shapes
e.g., jewelry, turbine blades)
Stage I Mold formed by pouring
plaster of paris around wax pattern.

wax

Plaster allowed to harden.


Stage II Wax is melted and then
poured from moldhollow mold
cavity remains.

II

Stage III Molten metal is poured


into mold and allowed to solidify.

III
Chapter 11 - 21

Metal Fabrication Methods (v)


FORMING

CASTING

Die Casting
-- high volume
-- for alloys having low melting
temperatures

MISCELLANEOUS
Continuous Casting
-- simple shapes
(e.g., rectangular slabs,
cylinders)
molten
solidified

Chapter 11 - 22

Chapter 11 - 23

Chapter 11 - 24

Metal Fabrication Methods (vi)


FORMING

CASTING

Powder Metallurgy
(metals w/low ductilities)
pressure

MISCELLANEOUS

Welding
(when fabrication of one large
part is impractical)
filler metal (melted)
base metal (melted)
fused base metal

heat

area
contact
densify

unaffected
piece 1

heat-affected zone
unaffected
Adapted from Fig.
piece 2
11.9, Callister &

Heat-affected zone:
point contact
at low T

densification
by diffusion at
higher T

(region in which the


microstructure has been
changed).

Rethwisch 8e.
(Fig. 11.9 from Iron
Castings
Handbook, C.F.
Walton and T.J.
Opar (Ed.), 1981.)

Chapter 11 - 25

Thermal Processing of Metals


Annealing: Heat to Tanneal, then cool slowly.
Stress Relief: Reduce

Spheroidize (steels):

stresses resulting from:


- plastic deformation
- nonuniform cooling
- phase transform.

Make very soft steels for


good machining. Heat just
below Teutectoid & hold for
15-25 h.

Types of
Annealing
Process Anneal:
Negate effects of
cold working by
(recovery/
recrystallization)

Based on discussion in Section 11.7, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Full Anneal (steels):


Make soft steels for
good forming. Heat
to get , then furnace-cool
to obtain coarse pearlite.

Normalize (steels): Deform


steel with large grains. Then heat
treat to allow recrystallization
and formation of smaller grains.
Chapter 11 - 26

Heat Treatment Temperature-Time Paths


a) Full Annealing

b) Quenching
c) Tempering
(Tempered
Martensite)

A
0%

50

10
0%

Fig. 10.25,
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

b)

a)
c)
Chapter 11 - 27

Hardenability -- Steels
Hardenability measure of the ability to form martensite
Jominy end quench test used to measure hardenability.
specimen
(heated to
phase field)
24C water

flat ground
Rockwell C
hardness tests

Adapted from Fig. 11.11,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
(Fig. 11.11 adapted from
A.G. Guy, Essentials of
Materials Science,
McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York,
1978.)

Hardness, HRC

Plot hardness versus distance from the quenched end.

Adapted from Fig. 11.12,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Distance from quenched end


Chapter 11 - 28

Reason Why Hardness Changes with


Distance
Hardness, HRC

The cooling rate decreases with distance from quenched end.


60
40
20

distance from quenched end (in)

T(C)
600

0%
100%

Adapted from Fig. 11.13, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.13 adapted from H.
Boyer (Ed.) Atlas of Isothermal
Transformation and Cooling
Transformation Diagrams, American
Society for Metals, 1977, p. 376.)

400
200

M(start)
A M

0.1

10

te a
rli Pe
lite ea +
a r P i te
Pe ine ens
F
t
a r i te
M en s
t
ar
M

0 M(finish)

100

1000

te
rl i

Time (s)

Chapter 11 - 29

Hardenability vs Alloy Composition


100

10

60

Hardness, HRC

Hardenability curves for


five alloys each with,
C = 0.4 wt% C

100

50

8640

20

40

(4140, 4340, 5140, 8640)


-- contain Ni, Cr, Mo
(0.2 to 2 wt%)
-- these elements shift
the "nose" to longer times
(from A to B)
-- martensite is easier
to form

4140
10

"Alloy Steels"

80 %M

4340

40

Adapted from Fig. 11.14, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.14 adapted from
figure furnished courtesy Republic Steel
Corporation.)

2 Cooling rate (C/s)

5140

0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from quenched end (mm)

800

T(C)

600

TE
A

400
200
0 -1
10
10

B
M(start)
M(90%)
103 105 Time (s)
Chapter 11 - 30

Influences of Quenching Medium &


Specimen Geometry
Effect of quenching medium:
Medium
air
oil
water

Severity of Quench
low
moderate
high

Hardness
low
moderate
high

Effect of specimen geometry:


When surface area-to-volume ratio increases:
-- cooling rate throughout interior increases
-- hardness throughout interior increases
Position
center
surface

Cooling rate
low
high

Hardness
low
high

Chapter 11 - 31

Precipitation Hardening
Particles impede dislocation motion.
700
Ex: Al-Cu system
T(C)
Procedure:
600
+L
-- Pt A: solution heat treat
(get solid solution)
-- Pt B: quench to room temp.
(retain solid solution)
-- Pt C: reheat to nucleate
small particles within
phase.

500
400

Other alloys that precipitation


harden: Temp.
Cu-Be
Cu-Sn
Mg-Al

Adapted from Fig.


11.22, Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

Pt A (soln heat treat)

+L

300
0 B 10

(Al)

CuAl2

20

30

40

50

wt% Cu

composition range
available for precipitation hardening

Adapted from Fig. 11.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


(Fig. 11.24 adapted from J.L. Murray, International
Metals Review 30, p.5, 1985.)

Pt C (precipitate

Pt B

Time
Chapter 11 - 32

Influence of Precipitation Heat


Treatment on TS, %EL

2014 Al Alloy:

300
200
100

204C

149C

1min
1h 1day 1mo 1yr
precipitation heat treat time

%EL (2 in sample)

400

Minima on %EL curves.

fe
pre wer
ov cip lar
era ita ge
ge tes
d

ma
pre ny s
cip ma
ita ll
ag tes
ed

no
so n-eq
lid uil
so .
lut
ion

tensile strength (MPa)

Maxima on TS curves.
Increasing T accelerates
process.

30
20
10
0

204C

149C

1min
1h 1day 1mo 1yr
precipitation heat treat time

Adapted from Fig. 11.27, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 11.27 adapted from Metals Handbook:
Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker (Managing
Ed.), American Society for Metals, 1979. p. 41.)

Chapter 11 - 33

Summary
Ferrous alloys: steels and cast irons
Non-ferrous alloys:
-- Cu, Al, Ti, and Mg alloys; refractory alloys; and noble metals.
Metal fabrication techniques:
-- forming, casting, miscellaneous.
Hardenability of metals
-- measure of ability of a steel to be heat treated.
-- increases with alloy content.
Precipitation hardening
--hardening, strengthening due to formation of
precipitate particles.
--Al, Mg alloys precipitation hardenable.

Chapter 11 - 34

ANNOUNCEMENTS
Reading:
Core Problems:
Self-help Problems:

Chapter 11 - 35