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2.1.

4 Describe the coding


system
a. Sign and magnitude
b. 1s Complement and 2s Complement
c. Binary Coded Decimal (BCD system)
d. ASCII and EBCDIC

Describe the coding system


Sign and Magnitude
Positive sign, ( 0 )
or
Negative sign ( 1 )

Magnitude =
Size
Or value

Describe the coding system


Sign and Magnitude
Example 1 : Represent -9 in sign
and magnitude.
-9
sign
magnitude
1
1001
11001
-9 in sign &magnitude value is 11001

Describe the coding system


Sign and Magnitude
Example 2 : Represent 25 in sign
and magnitude.
+25
sign
magnitude
0
11001
011001
25 in sign & magnitude value is 011001

Ones Complements and


Twos Complements

Ones Complements

Ones complements is used in binary number.


The ones complement of a binary number is
obtained by changing each 0 to 1 and 1 to a 0.
Only change negative number
In other words, change each bit in the number to
its complement.

Exp:

10011001 original binary number

01100110 complement each bit to


form 1s complement
Thus, we say that the 1s complement of
10011001 is 01100110.

Exp:

Convert -2710 to 1s complement


a) -2710 = 001002

Convert -4510 to 1s complement


-------------

Twos Complement

The 2s complement of a binary number is formed by


taking the 1s complement of the number and
adding 1 to the least-significant-bit (LSB)
position.
Exp:
101101 binary equivalent of 45
010010 complement each bit to form 1s complement
+
1 add 1
010011 2s complement of original binary
number
Twos complement = Ones Complement + 1

Exercise
1.

Convert the number below to


1s complement 2s complement

-101110012

------------------- ------------------0100 0110


0100 0111

-5768

01000 0001

-124516
-4510

01000 0010

Addition in 1s complement

Exp 1 : 810 + (-310)


+

1000
1100
10100
1
0101

8 change to binary number


-3 change to 1s complement
add carry to LSB

Exercise 2 : 510 + (-210)


----------------

Addition in 2s complement

Exp 1: 810 + (-310)


1100
+
1
1101
+ 1000
10101

-3 change to 1s complement
-3 change to 2s complement
8 change to binary number
This carry is disregarded, the result is 0101 (sum=5)

Exp 2: -810 + 310


+
+

0111

-8 change to 1s complement

1
1000
0011
1011

-8 change to 2s complement
3 change to binary number
negative sign bit

Subtraction in 1s
complement

Only binary number which have ve sign need to


change to 1s complement. If the number is decimal
number, change the number to binary number.

The ve number that already change to 1s


complement, means that the number already
change to +ve. So that, the subtraction process
have change to addition process.

Overflow bit in addition process need to carry to LSB


and add with the number.

Exp 1: 2510 1310

Step 1 : Convert 2510 and -1310 to binary number.


2510 = 110012

1310 = 11012

Step 2 : Change 1310 = 1101 to 1s complement


1310 = 11012 change to 1s complement = 10010

+
+

11001
10010
101011
1
01100

25 change to binary number


-13 change to 1s complement
add 1
total=12

Subtraction in 2s
complement
Change the number are given to binary
number.

For each ve binary number, we must change


to 1s complement (change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0).

Then, add the number with 1.

Exp 1: 2510 1310


Step 1 : Convert 2510 and -1310 to binary number.
2510 = 110012

1310 = 11012

Step 2 : Change -1310 to 2s complement


-1310 = 011012 change to 1s complement = 10010
10010 change to 2s complement = 10011
11001
+ 10011
101100

25 change to binary
-13 change to 2s complement
total=12
Carry disregard

Exercise
i.

Solve this arithmetic with 2s complement.


428 158

ii.

101110 - 56910

Signed Number

Addition of Signed Number

Addition number same sign


Exp:
+4 + (+8) = +12
+4
00000100
+8
00001000
+12 00001100

Addition number different sign

Exp 1:
(-4) + (+8) = +4
-4
11111100
+ (+8)
00001000
+4
1 00000100

00000100
11111011

+4
1s complements

+
1
11111100

2s complements

This carry is disregarded

Exp 1:
(-12) + (+5) = -7
-12
11110100
+ +5
00000101
-7
11111001

Negatif sign bit

00001100
11110011

+12
1s complements

+
1
11110100

2s complements

Subtraction of Signed Number


Positive Number (-) Negative Number

Exp:
+10 (-5) = +10 + (+5)
= + 15
+10
+ 5
+15

00001010
00000101
00001111

Negative Number (-) Positive Number

Exp:
-10 (+5) = - 15
- 10
- (+5
-15

11110110
11110110
00000101 +11111011
111110001

00001010
11110101
complements
+
1
11110110
complements

00000101
11110010
complements
+
1
11111011
complements
This carry is disregarded

+10
1s
2s
+5
1s
2s

Negative Number (-) Negative Number

Exp:
-10 (-5)

-10
- (- 5)
- 5

= -10 + (5)
=-5

11110110
00000101
11111011

00001010
11110101
complements
+
1
11110110
complements

+10
1s
2s

BCD Code

BCD Binary Coded Decimal

Its contain BCD 8421, 2421, 3321, 5421, 5311,


4221 and etc.

The common used is BCD 8421 and BCD 2421.

4 bit BCD Code

Desimal

5421

5311

4221

3321

2421

8421

7421

0000

0000

0000

0000

0000

0000

0000

0001

0001

0001

0001

0001

0001

0001

0010

0011

0010

0010

0010

0010

0010

0011

0100

0011

0011

0011

0011

0011

0100

0101

1000

0101

0100

0100

0100

1000

1000

0111

1010

1011

0101

0101

1001

1001

1100

1100

1100

0110

0110

1010

1011

1101

1101

1101

0111

1000

1011

1100

1110

1110

1110

1000

1001

1100

1101

1111

1111

1111

1001

1010

Binary-Coded-Decimal Code

If each digit of a decimal number is represented by


its binary equivalent, the result is a code called
binary-coded-decimal.

Decimal digit can be as large as 9, four bits are


required to code each digit (the binary code for 9 is
1001)

Exp: 87410
8

(decimal)

1000

0111

0100

(BCD)

BCD 8421 Code to Binary


Number

Exp:
Convert 1001 0110BCD 8421 to binary number.

Step 1: Change BCD 8421 code to decimal


number.
1001
0110

9
6
Step 2 : Change decimal number to binary
number.
1001 0110BCD 8421 = 11000002

Binary Number to BCD


8421 Code
Exp:
Convert 10010102 to BCD 8421

code.
Step 1: Change binary number to decimal
number.

10010102 = 7410
Step 2: Change decimal number to BCD
8421 code.

10010102 = 01110111BCD 8421

ASCII Code

The most widely used alphanumeric code is the


American Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII).

The ASCII code is a seven-bit code and so it has 27


= 128 possible code groups.

ASCII code

MSB
LSB

Binary

000

001

010

011

100

101

110

111

Binary

Hex

0000

Nul

Del

sp

0001

Soh

Dc1

0010

Stx

Dc2

0011

Etx

Dc3

0100

Eot

Dc4

0101

End

Nak

0110

Ack

Syn

&

0111

Bel

Etb

1000

Bs

Can

1001

HT

Em

1010

LF

Sub

1011

VT

Esc

1100

FF

FS

<

1101

CR

GS

1110

SO

RS

>

1111

SI

US

Exp:
An operator is typing in a BASIC program
at the keyboard of a certain
microcomputer. The computer converts
each keystroke into its ASCII code and
stores the code as a byte in memory.
Determine the binary strings that will be
entered into memory when operator types
in the following BASIC statement:

GOTO 25

Solution:
Locate each character (including the
space) and record ASCII code.

G
O
T
O
(space)
2
5

01000111
01001111
01010100
01001111
00100000
00110010
00110101

*0wasaddedtotheleftmostbitofeachASCIIcodebecausethe
Codesmustbestoredasbytes(eightbits).

Exercise :
1.The following message encode in ASCII
code. What the meaning of this code ?
a) 54 4F 4C 4F 45 47
b) 48 45 4C 4C 4F
c) 41 50 41 4B 48 41 42 41 52

EBCDIC

Stand for Extended Binary Coded Decimal


Interchange Code.
was first used on the IBM 360 computer,
which was presented to the market in 1964.
Used with large computer such as
mainframe.