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Chapter 10.

Turbo-pumps
and Their Gas Supplies
Main contents

10.1. Turbo-pumps

10.2. Performance of Complete or Multiple Rocket Propulsion Systems

10.3. Propellant Budget

10.4. Engine Design

10.5. Engine Controls

10.6. Engine System Calibration

10.7. System Integration and Engine Optimization

10.1. Turbo-pumps
2

Turbo-pumps

Fig.10-1. A turbo-pump with a single-stage


liquid oxygen pump impeller, an inducer
impeller, and a single-stage turbine
on the same shaft

What is a turbo-pump? The assembly of a t


urbine with one or more pumps is called a tu
rbo-pump.

Used to raise the pressure of the flowing prope


llant.

Two main subsystems: a hot gas powered turbi


ne and one or two propellant pumps.

Operating at high shaft speed with severe ther


mal gradients and large pressure changes.

Usually located next to a thrust chamber.

Is a potent source of noise and vibration.

10.1. Turbo-pumps
3

Turbo-pumps

Fig. 10-2. Advanced high-speed, two-stage liquid hydrogen fuel turbo-pump

10.1. Turbo-pumps
4

Turbo-pumps

Fig. 10-3. The geared turbo-pump assembly used on the RS-27 engine

10.1. Turbo-pumps
5

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design

Fig. 10-4. Simplified diagrams of different design arrangements


of turbo-pumps. F is fuel pump, O is oxidizer pump, T is turbine,
G is hot gas, and GC is gear case

Approach to Preliminary Design:

The principal criteria (high efficiency, mini


mum mass, high reliability, and low cost) h
ave to be weighted and prioritized for each
vehicle mission.

The initial basic design goals are: propella


nt flow, the pump outlet or discharge press
ure, the desired best engine cycle, the start
delay, and the need for restart or throttling.

Given the propellant properties: density, va


por pressure, viscosity, or boiling point.

10.1. Turbo-pumps
6

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design: Pumps

Classification and Description:

Fig. 10-5. Centrifugal pump

The centrifugal pump is generally considered the mo


st suitable for pumping propellant in large rocket uni
ts.

Single stage pumps (one impeller only) are stress lim


ited in the pressure rise they can impart to the liquid.

Multiple stage pumps are therefore needed for high p


ump head, such as with liquid hydrogen.

There is a free passage of flow through the pump at all ti


mes, and no positive means for shutoff are provided.

The pump characteristics, that is, the pressure rise, fl


ow, and efficiency, are functions of the pump speed,
the impeller, the vane shape, and the casing configur
ation.

A shrouded impeller has a shroud or cover on top of the


vanes. This type usually has higher stresses and lower le
akage around the impeller. In an unshrouded impeller or
turbine the vanes are not covered.

10.1. Turbo-pumps
7

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design: Pumps

10.1. Turbo-pumps
8

Turbo-pumps

10.1. Turbo-pumps
9

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design: Pumps

Fig. 10-6. Water test performance curves of the centrifugal pumps of the German V-2 rocket engine

10.1. Turbo-pumps
10

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design: Pumps

Pump Parameters:

The specific speed:


(10-1)
Where
Qe is the flow quantity or discharge (at maximum efficiency), m3/s;
N is the pump speed, rad/s;
g0 is the gravity acceleration at sea level, g0 = 9.8 m/s2;
He is the pump head (at maximum efficiency), m.
The impeller vane tip speed, m/s:
(10-2)
Where
is constant, = 0.9 1.1;
H is the pump head, m.
The flow quantity, m3/s:
(10-3)
Where
A1, A2 are areas impeller inlet and outlet sections, m2;
v1, v2 are the inlet and outlet velocities, m/s.

10.1. Turbo-pumps
11

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design: Pumps

Pump Parameters:

The mass flow rate, kg/sec


(10-5)
Where
v1, v2 are the inlet and outlet velocities, m/s.

The suction specific speed of pump


(10-6)
Where
(HS)R is the limit value of the head at the pump inlet (us
ually called required suction head)
The net positive suction head (or available suction hea
d above vapor pressure):
(10-7)
Where
are absolute head, the elevation of the propellant level
above the pump inlet, the friction losses in the line betw
een tank and pump, and the vapor pressure of the fluid, r
espectively.

Fig. 10-7. Definition of pump suction head

10.1. Turbo-pumps
12

Approach to Turbo-pump Preliminary Design: Pumps

Induce: One method to provide a lightweight turbopump with minimal tank pressure

Is a special pump impeller usually on the same


shaft and rotating at the same speed as the main im
peller.

Has a low head rise, high specific speed.

Operate under slightly cavitating conditions.

The inducer stage's head rise has to be just large e


nough to suppress cavitation in the main pump im
peller allows a smaller, lighter, higher speed ma
in pump.

The inert mass of the turbo-pump and tank system


can be further reduced by putting the inducer impe
ller into a separate low-power, low speed booster t
urbo-pump, driven by its own separate turbine. Th
is allows the inducer impeller to be operated at an
optimum (lower) shaft speed.

Fig. 10-8. Fuel pump inducer

10.1. Turbo-pumps
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Example 10-1

Example 10-1. Determine the shaft speed and the overall impeller dimensions for a liquid o

xygen pump

Given:
= 500 lb/s pdis = 1000 psia, psuc = 14.7 psia; (ppre)o = 35 psia; Hele = 15 ft.
Neglect the friction in the suction pipe and the suction head changes due to acceleration and propellant consumption.
Solution:
Density of liquid oxygen at boiling point: 71.2 lb/ft 3
Volume flow rate: 500/71.2 = 7.022 ft3/s
Vapor pressure at atmospheric: 1 atm = 14.7psi = 29.8 ft
Suction head: 35*(144/71.2) = 70.8 ft
Available suction head: 70.8 + 14.7 = 85.5 ft
Available suction head above vapor pressure: (Hs)A = 70.8 + 14.7 - 0 - 29.8 = 55.7 ft.
Discharge head: 1000*144/71.2 = 2022 ft
The head delivered by the pump: 2022 - 85.5 = 1937 ft
The required suction head (about of 80% of the available suction head): (Hs)R = 0.80*85.5 = 68.4 ft
Assume a suction specific speed: S = 15000
The shaft speed: eq.(10-6) N = 68.4 0.75*15000/(21.27.0220.5) = 6350 rpm 664.7 rad/s
The specific speed: Ns = 21.2NQ0.5/H0.75 = 21.2*63507.0220.5/19370.75 = 1222

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Example 10-1

14

Example 10-1. Determine the shaft speed and the overall impeller dimensions for a liquid oxygen pum

Solution (continued):
Tip speed : eq. (10-2) u = 1.0*(1*32.2*1937)0.5 = 353 ft/s
Impeller discharge diameter: D2 = 2u/N = 2*353/664.7 = 1.062 ft
Assuming:

Inlet velocity is 15 ft/s,

Shaft diameter is 2.548 in.

The effective impeller inlet cross section: A = Q/v1 = 7.022/15 = 0.468 ft2
Shaft cross section: As = 0.25d2 = 0.035 ft2
The impeller inlet cross section:= 0.468 + 0.035 = 0.503 ft2
The impeller inlet diameter: D1 1.128A0.5 = 0.801 ft

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Turbines

15

Turbines

Providing adequate shaft power for driving the propellant pumps (and s
ometimes also auxiliaries) at the desired speed and torque.

The turbine derives its energy from the expansion of a gaseous working
fluid through fixed nozzles and rotating blades.

The blades are mounted on disks to the shaft.

The gas is expanded to a high, nearly tangential, velocity and through in


clined nozzles and then flows through specially shaped blades, where it
s energy is converted into tangential forces.

The tangential forces causes the turbine wheel to rotate.

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Turbines: Classification and Description

16

Turbines

Axial turbines: The working fluid flows parallel to the shaft.

Radial turbines: The flow of working fluid is radial to the shaft.

a) Axial turbines

b) Radial turbines

Fig. 10-9. Axial turbines and Radial turbines

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Turbines: Classification and Description

17

Two types of axial flow turbines of interest to rocket pum


p drives

Impulse turbine: the enthalpy of the working fluid is c


onverted into kinetic energy within the first set of stati
onary turbine nozzles and not in the rotating blade ele
ments.

Velocity-staged impulse turbine has a stationary set of


blades which changes the flow direction after the gas l
eaves the first set of rotating blades and directs the gas
to enter a second set of rotating blades in which the wo
rking fluid gives up further energy to the turbine wheel
.

Pressure-staged impulse turbine: The expansion of the


gas takes place in all the stationary rows of blades.

Reaction turbine: The expansion of the gas is roughly


evenly split between the rotating and stationary blade e
lements.

Fig. 10-10. Impulse and Reaction turbine

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Turbines: Classification and Description

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Single stage turbine.

Multi stage turbine.

a) Single stage turbine


Fig. 10-11. Single stage and Multi stage turbine

b) Multi stage turbine

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Turbine Performance and Design Considerations

19

The power supplied by the turbine

(J)
(J)

(10.8)
(10.9)

where:
T is the turbine efficiency;
is the mass flow rate;
h is the available enthalpy drop per unit of flow;
cp is the specific heat;
T1 is the nozzle inlet temperature;
k is the ratio of the specific heats of the turbine gases;
p1/p2 the pressure ratio across the turbine.

10.1. Turbo-pumps
Gas Generators and Pre-burners

20

A gas generator is used as the source of hot gas for driving many of the turbines of turbo-pumps in a liquid rocke
t engine.
Gas generators can be classified as monopropellant, bipropellant, or solid propellant.

The basic design parameters for gas generators are similar to those for engine thrust chambers or solid rocket mo
tors.

The combustion temperature is usually kept below 1400 to 1600 K by intentionally regulating or mixing the prop
ellants.

These lower gas temperatures allow uncooled chamber construction and prevent melting or limit the erosion or t
urbine blades.

A gas generator looks like an uncooled rocket thrust chamber except that the nozzle is replaced by a pipe leading
to the turbine nozzles.

Propellants supplied to the liquid propellant gas generators can come from separate pressurized tanks or can be ta
pped off from the engine propellant pumps.

Gas generators have been used for other applications besides supplying power to rocket feed systems. Typical ap
plications are gas generators for driving torpedo turbines and gas generators for actuating airplane catapults.

In a staged combustion cycle all of one propellant and a small portion of the other propellant are burned to create
the turbine drive gases. This combustion device is called a pre-burner and it is usually uncooled. It has a much la
rger flow than the gas generators. Its turbines have a much smaller pressure drop, and higher maximum pressure
of the propellants.

10.2. Performance of propulsion systems


21

Gas Generators and Pre-burners

The overall specific impulse, propellant flow rate and mixture ratio of engine s

ystem:
(10.10)
(10.11)
(10.12)
(10.13)
where:
Is is the specific impulse;
is propellant flow rate;
r is the mixture ratio;
F is the thrust.
The subscripts sys, o, and f stands for the overall engine system, the oxidizer, and the fuel, respe
ctively.

10.2. Performance of propulsion systems


22

Gas Generators and Pre-burners


Table 10.3. Comparison of Rocket Engines Using Liquid Oxygen and Liquid Hydrogen Propellants

10.2. Performance of propulsion systems


23

Example 10-2

Example 10-2. Determine a set of equations that will express:

1.

The overall engine performance.

2.

The overall mixture ratio of the propellant flows from the tanks
Given:
- Burning time t, residual propellant = 1%, overall reserve factor = 6%.
- Ignore stop and start transients, thrust vector control, and evaporation losses.
Solution:
The overall specific impulse:
The engine mixture ratio :
The mass of fuel:
The mass of oxidizer:

10.3. Propellant budget


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Propellant budget

A propellant budget can include these items:

Enough propellant has to be a available for achieving the required vehicle velocity increase of the particul
ar application and the particular flight vehicle or stage.

In a turbo-pump system using a gas generator cycle, there is a slight change in the overall mixture ratio of
propellants flowing from the tanks. Because the separate gas generator produces lower flame temperature
than the thrust chamber and operates at a different mixture ratio.

In a rocket propulsion system with a thrust vector control (TVC) system, the thrust vector will be rotated
by a few degrees. There is a slight decrease in the axial thrust and that reduces the vehicle velocity increm
ent in item 1. The extra propellant (it is about of 0.14% of the total propellant) needed to compensate for
the small velocity reduction can be determined from the mission requirements and TVC duty cycle.

In some engines a small portion of cryogenic propellants is heated, vaporized, and used to pressurize cryo
genic propellant tanks. A heat exchanger is used to heat liquid oxygen from the pump discharge and press
urize the oxygen tank.

Auxiliary rocket engines that provide for trajectory corrections, station keeping, maneuvers, or attitude c
ontrol usually have a series of small restartable thrusters. The propellants for these auxiliary thrusters have
to be included in the propellant budget if they are supplied from the same feed system and tanks as the lar
ger rocket engine. Depending on the mission and the propulsion system concept, this auxiliary propulsion
system can consume a significant portion of the available propellants.

10.3. Propellant budget


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Propellant budget

A propellant budget can include these items:

The residual propellant (typically 0.5 to 2% of the total propellant load) that clings to tank walls or remains trapped in valves, pi
pes, injector passages, or cooling passages is unavailable for producing thrust. It increases the final vehicle mass at thrust termin
ation and reduces the final vehicle velocity slightly.

A loading uncertainty exists (typically 0.25 to 0.75% of the total propellant) due to variations in tank volume or changes in prop
ellant density or liquid level in the tank. It depends, in part, on the accuracy of the method of measuring the propellant mass duri
ng loading.

The off-nominal rocket performance is due to variations in the manufacture of hardware from one engine to another; this causes
slight changes in combustion behavior, mixture ratio, or specific impulse. If there are slight variations in mixture ratio, one of th
e two liquid propellants will be consumed fully and an unusable residue will remain in the other propellant's tank. If a minimum
total impulse requirement has to be met, extra propellant has to be tanked to allow for these mixture ratio variations. This can am
ount up to 2.0% of one of the propellants.

Operational factors can result in additional propellant requirements, such as filling more propellant than needed into a tank or in
correctly, adjusting regulators or control valves. It can also include the effect of changes in flight acceleration from the nominal
value. For an engine that has been carefully calibrated and tested, this factor can be small (usually between 0.11.0%).

The system using cryogenic propellants requires an allowance for evaporation and cooling down. It is the extra mass of propella
nt that is allowed to evaporate or that is fed through the engine to cool it down, before the remaining propellant in the tank beco
mes less than the minimum needed for the flight mission. Its quantity depends on the amount of time between topping off (partia
l refilling) of the tank.

Finally, an overall contingency or ignorance factor is needed to allow for unforeseen propellant needs or inadequate or uncertain
estimates of any of the above items. This can also include allowances for vehicle drag uncertainties, variations in the guidance a
nd control system, wind, or leaks.

10.3. Propellant budget


26

Propellant budget

Table 10.4. Example of a Propellant Budget for a Spacecraft Propulsion System with a Pressurized Mon

opropellant Feed System

10.4. Engine design


27

Engine design

The approach, methods, and resources used for rocket engine preliminary design and final de
sign are usually different for each design organization and for each major type of engine. T
hey also differ by the degree of novelty.

A totally new engine with new major components and some novel design concepts will result in an
optimum engine design for a given application, but it is usually the most expensive and longest dev
elopment approach. One of the major development costs is usually in sufficient testing of compone
nts and several engines, in order to establish credible reliability data with enough confidence to allo
w the initial flights and initial production. But the design and development of a truly novel engine d
oes not happen very often.

New engine using major components or somewhat modified key components from proven existing e
ngines. This is a common approach today. The design of such an engine requires working within th
e capability and limits of existing or slightly modified components. It requires much less testing for
proving reliability.

Uprated or improved version of an existing, proven engine. It is needed when an installed engine fo
r a given mission requires more payload and/or longer burning duration. Uprating often means mor
e propellant, higher propellant flows and higher chamber and feed pressures, and more feed system
power. The engine usually has an increased inert engine mass (because of thicker walls).

10.4. Engine design


Engine design

28

A typical process for designing an engine:

1. Establishing the basic function and requirements of the new engine. The engine requirements are derive
d from the vehicle mission and vehicle requirements, usually determined by the customer and/or the vehic
le designers, often in cooperation with one or more engine designers. The engine requirements can includ
e key parameters such as thrust level, the desired thrust-time variation, restart or pulsing, altitude flight pr
ofile, environmental conditions, engine locations within the vehicle, and limitations or restraints on cost,
engine envelope, test location, or schedule and some other factors.

2. Make some tentative decisions about the engine such as the selection of the propellants, their mixture r
atio, or the cooling approach for the hot components; decisions include the engine cycle, the number of th
rust chambers fed, auxiliary thrusters, the type of ignition system. Initial analyses of the pressure balance
s, power distribution between pumps and turbines, gas generator flow, propellant flows and reserves, the
maximum cooling capacity. Sketches and preliminary estimates of inert mass of key components, such as
tanks, thrust chambers, turbo-pumps, feed and pressurization systems, thrust vector control, or support str
ucture; examine arrangements of components, evaluation of combustion stability, stress analysis of critica
l components, water hammer, engine performance at some off-design conditions, safety features, testing r
equirements, cost, and schedule; selecting the proper engine and the key design features from the critical
participation of appropriate experts from the field of manufacturing, field service, materials, stress analysi
s, or safety.

10.4. Engine design


Engine design

29

A typical process for designing an engine:

3. Test results of subscale or full-scale components, or related/ experimental engines. If


the preliminary design does not meet the engine requirements, then changes the initial e
ngine decisions and reanalyze. This process is iterated until the requirements are met an
d a suitable engine has been found.

4. Optimization studies to select the best engine parameters for meeting the requirement
s. The results of optimization studies indicate the best parameter, which will give a furth
er, usually small, improvement in vehicle performance, propellant fraction, engine volu
me, or cost.

5. Final design: Once the engine proposal has been favorably evaluated by the vehicle d
esigners, and after the customer has provided authorization and funding to proceed, then
the final design can begin.

6. Build the prototype engines and make the grounded test. If proven reliable, one or tw
o sets of engines will be installed in a vehicle and operated during flight. Then the engin
e will then be produced in the required quantity.

10.4. Engine design


30

Engine design
Table 10.5. Data on Three Russian Large LPRE Using a Staged Combustion Cycle

10.4. Engine design


31

Engine design

Table 10.5. Data on Three Russian Large LPRE Using a Staged Combustion Cycle (continued)

10.4. Engine design


32

Engine design
Table 10.5. Data on Three Russian Large LPRE Using a Staged Combustion Cycle (continued)

10.4. Engine design


33

Engine design

Figure 10-12. The RD-180 rocket engine

10.4. Engine design


34

Engine design

Figure 10-13. Simplified flow diagram of the RD-180 high-pressure rocket engine

10.6. Engine system calibration


Engine system calibration

35

Purpose: Every engine has been designed to deliver a specific performance, but a newly manufactured engine

will not usually perform precisely at these nominal parameters. There are several reasons for these deviations.
These are:

Unavoidable dimensional tolerances on the hardware, the flow-pressure profile or the injector impingement.

Changes in propellant composition or storage temperature;

Regulator setting tolerances or changes in flight acceleration.

Need the process of adjusting some of its internal parameters so that it will deliver the intended performance with
in the allowed tolerance bands or engine system calibration.

Method: The adjustments include adding pressure drops with judiciously placed orifices, or changing valve p
ositions or regulator setting.

Hydraulic and pneumatic components can readily be water flow tested on flow benches and corrected for pressur
e drops and density (and sometimes also viscosity).

Components that operate at elevated temperatures have to be hot fired and cryogenic components often have to b
e tested at the cryogenic propellant temperature.

The engine characteristics can be estimated by adding together the corrected values of pressure drops at the desir
ed mass flow.

Furthermore, the ratio of the rated flows .

10.6. Engine system calibration


Engine system calibration

36

For a pressurized feed system, the pressure drop equations for the oxidizer and the fuel (subscripts o an

d f) at nominal flows:
(10.14)

(10.15)
where:
pgas is t he gas pressure in the propellant tank;
pgas is the pressure losses in the gas line;
p, pinj, pj are the pressure drops in the liquid piping (valves), in the injector and in the cooling jacket;
L is the distance of the liquid level above the thrust chamber;
a is the flight acceleration;
is the propellant density;
v is the liquid velocity.

If the required liquid pressures do not equal the gas pressure in the propellant tank at the nominal pr
opellant flow has to insert an additional pressure drop (calibration orifice).

10.6. Engine system calibration


37

Engine system calibration


For precise control of the engine performance parameters:
1.

Uses an automatic system with feedback and a digital computer to control the deviations in real time.

2.

Uses an initial static calibration of the engine system.

The pressure balance is the process of balancing the available pressure supplied to the engine against the pres
sure drops plus the chamber pressure necessary to calibrate the engine.

The regulated pressure is the same for the fuel and oxidizer pressure balance.

The balance of head and flow must be made for both the fuel and oxidizer systems, because the ratio of th
eir flows establishes the actual mixture ratio and the sum of their flows establishes the thrust.

The pressure balance between available and required tank pressure at the desired flow can be achieved by
adding a calibration orifice into one of the lines.

For a pumped feed system of a bipropellant engine, the pump speed is an additional variable. The calibration
procedure is usually more complex, because:

The pump calibration curves can not readily be estimated without good test data;

Cannot easily be approximated by simple analytical relations.

For the calibration of the flow of the propellants to a gas generator or pre-burner, the turbine shaft torque has t
o equal the torque required by the pumps and the energy losses in bearings, seals or windage.

10.6. Engine system calibration


38

Engine system calibration

Figure 10-14. Simplified flow diagram and balance curves for


the fuel/oxidizer of a typical gas-pressurized bipropellant feed
system calibrating by setting the proper regulated pressure.

Figure 10-15. Simplified diagram of the balance


of available and required feed pressures versus
flow for one of the propellants in a rocket engine
with a turbo-pump feed system.

10.6. Engine system calibration


Example 10-3

39

Example 10-3: Determine regulator setting and size and location of calibration orifices.

Given values:

Component data and design requirements:


Fuel: 75% ethyl alcohol,
Oxidizer: liquid oxygen,
Desired mixture ratio 1.30,
Desired thrust 5000 lbf at sea level,
Propellant combustion gas k = 1.22.

Component test data:

Pressure losses in gas systems were found to be negligible.


Fuel valve/line losses: pf = 9.15 psi, = 9.63 lb/s.
Oxidizer valve/line losses: po = 14.2 psi, = 12.8 lb/s.
Fuel cooling jacket loss (pj)f = 52 psi, ()f = 9.61 lb/s.
Oxidizer side injector: (pj)o = 90 psi, ()o = 10.2 lb/s.
Fuel side injector: (pinj)f = 48.3 psi, ()f = 10.2 lb/s.
Average results of thrust chamber tests: F = 5410 lbf; r c = 1.29; Is = 222 s; Pc = 328 psia; A/A* = 4.0.

10.6. Engine system calibration


40

Example 10-3

Example 10-3: Determine regulator setting and size and location of calibration orifices.

Solution:
For k = 1.22, we have:
Pressure ratios: p1/p3 = 328/144 = 22.2 and 300/14.7= 20.4
Thrust coefficient: CF = 1.42 and 1.405
The correction of the specific impulse for chamber pressure: Is = 222*1.405/1.42 = 220 s
The chamber pressure (test condition), eq. (3.20):
p1 = p1(Ft/Ft)(CF/Cf) = 328*(5000/5410)(1.42/1.405) = 306 psi
The desired total propellant flow, eq. (2.5):
= 5000/220 = 22.7 lbf/s
The corrected pressure drops to the desired flow values for various component:
- Fuel injector: (pinj)f = 45.3 psi; Fuel cooling jacket: (pj)f = 64.9 psi; Fuel valve/line: (pval)f = 11.4 psi.
- Oxidizer injector: (pinj)o = 75.0 psi; Oxidizer valve/line: (p val)o = 14.2 psi.
The total pressure drop:
- Fuel system: 45.3 + 64.9 + 11.4 = 121.6 psi,
- Oxidizer system: 75.0 + 14.2 - 89.2 psi

10.6. Engine system calibration


41

Example 10-3

Example 10-3: Determine regulator setting and size and location of calibration orifices.

Solution (continued):
The tank pressures required to obtain the desired flows:
- Fuel system: (p)f = 306 + 121.6 = 427.6 psi,
- Oxidizer system: (p)o = 306 + 89.2 = 395.2 psi
The pressure required for regulator functioning, assumed: (p) regulator = 10 psi
The pressure drop in a calibration orifice:
p = (p)f - (p)o + (p)regulator = 427.6 395.2 + 10 = 42.4 psi
The sharp-edged orifice factor, assumed: Cd = 0.6
The orifice area:
The orifice diameter: Dorifice 1.128A0.5 = 0.738 in

10.6. Engine system calibration


Example 10-3

42

Solution:

Given component data and design requirements for a pressurized liquid propellant rocket system:
Fuel: 75% ethyl alcohol,
Oxidizer: liquid oxygen,
Desired mixture ratio 1.30,
Desired thrust 22241 N at sea level,
Propellant combustion gas k = 1.22.

Component test data:

Pressure losses in gas systems were found to be negligible. Fuel valve and line losses were 63087 Pa at
a flow of 4.368 kg/s of water. Oxidizer valve and line losses were 97906 Pa at a flow of 5.806 kg/s of l
iquid oxygen. Fuel cooling jacket pressure loss was 358527 Pa at a flow of 4.359 kg/s of water. Oxidiz
er side injector pressure drop was 620528 Pa at 4.627 kg/s of oxygen flow under thrust chamber operat
ing conditions. Fuel side injector pressure drop was 333017 Pa at 4.627 kg/s of fuel flow under thrust c
hamber operating conditions. Average results of several sea-level thrust chamber tests were: thrust = 2
4065 N; mixture ratio = 1.29; specific impulse = 222 sec; chamber pressure = 2.261.10 6 Pa; nozzle are
a ratio = 4.0. Determine regulator setting and size and location of calibration orifices.

10.7. System integration and optimization


System integration and optimization

43

Why?

Rocket engines are part of a vehicle and must interact and be integrated with other vehicle subsystems interfa
ces between the engine and the vehicle's structure, electric power system, flight control system, and ground supp
ort system.

The engine works with other subsystems to enhance the vehicle's performance and reliability, reduce the cost.

The engine also imposes limitations on vehicle components by its heat emissions, noise, and vibrations.

To evaluating several alternate tank geometries and locations, different tank pressures, and different structural co
nnections to determine the best arrangement.

To criticize the vehicle components thermal designs by evaluating theirs heat balance during, after, and before th
e rocket engine operation.

Integration: The engine and the vehicle are compatible with each other, interfaces are properly designed, and there is
no interference or unnecessary duplication of functions with other subsystems.

Optimization: to select the best values or to optimize various engine parameters such as chamber pressure (or thrust),
mixture ratio (which affects average propellant density and specific impulse), number of thrust chambers, nozzle area
ratio, or engine volume. By changing one or more of these parameters, it is usually possible to make some improvem
ent to the vehicle performance (0.1 to 5.0%), its reliability, or to reduce costs. The studies are aimed at maximizing o
ne or more vehicle parameter such as range, vehicle velocity increment, payload, circular orbit altitude, propellant ma
ss fraction, or minimizing costs.