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BONDING AND EARTHING

Object of Earthing
The object of an earthing system is to provide as nearly as
possible a surface under and around a station which shall be at
a uniform potential and as nearly zero or absolute earth
potential as possible. The purpose is to ensure that generally
all parts of the equipment, other than live parts are at earth
potential and that attending personnel are at earth potential at
all times. Also by providing such an earth surface of uniform
potential under and surrounding the station, there can exist no
difference of potential in a short distance big enough to shock
or injure an attendant when short circuits or other abnormal
occurrences take place. The primary requirements of a good
earthing system are:

Earth Resistance
At each power supply installation, an earthing system as specified in this
code shall be provided.

The combined resistance of the earthing system shall be not more


than the following values:SN. Name of
combined earth

Station

The

Limit

of

Resistance in Ohms.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Traction substation
Switching Station
Booster transformer station
Auxiliary transformer station

0.5
2.0
10.0
10.0

BONDING IN TRD
BOND: An electrical connection between
rail to rail or
traction masts or structures or supports
to rails.
Types of bonds:
1. Longitudinal Bond (Rail Bond )
2. Transverse Bond (Cross Bond)
3. Structure Bond
4. Signal bond
5. Impedence bond

LONGITUDINAL BOND
Rail / continuity bond

RAIL BOND
An electrical connection
across a rail joint
between consecutive
lengths of rails. It is also
called a rail bond.

TRANSVERSE BOND
(CROSS BOND)
A bond between two
rails of a track or two
rails of adjacent racks.
it is also called a cross
bond.

STRUCTURE BOND
A bond connecting for
non current carrying
metallic parts of a
traction mast or
structure or support to
the traction rail.

ETI/OHE/P/7000

Bond connection

Dia of hole should not be more than 17.5


mm

Bond connection

SYSTEM
OF
BONDING

BONDING IN SINGLE RAIL


TRACK CIRCUITED SECTION

BONDING IN DOUBLE RAIL


TRACK CIRCUTED SECTION

500m
EARTH WIRE

OHE STRUCTURES

+ve
Rail
+ve
Rail

500m
CUT IN INSULATOR

500m

BONDING ADJACENT TO TSS


TRACTION SUB STATION
FROM BURIED RAIL (MS
FLAT 75 X 8 MM)
1000m

300 m
700 m
500 m

1000 m

BONDING OF TRACTION
RAIL IN LOCO SHED
OHE STRUCTURES

50m
100m
LOCO INSPECTION PIT

TRACTION RAIL

BONDING OF RAILS IN TUNNEL


TUNNEL

Earth Wire

500 m

OHE Structure

50 m

500 m

Earth Wire

OHE Structure

50 m

BONDING OF EXPOSED METALLIC


PARTS IN A TUNNEL
TUNNEL

Earth Wire

500 m

OHE Structure

50 m

500 m

Earth Wire

OHE Structure

50 m

BONDING AT A LEVEL CROSSING


DANGER
L.C. HEIGHT GAUGE
25KV

METALLIC FENCING

L.C. GATE BARRIER

METALLIC FENCING

JUMPER

5m

TRACTION RAILS

OHE CONDUCTOR

BONDING OF GIRDER BRIDGE

Girder Bridge
OHE Structure
OHE Conductor

100m

100m

Earth
Pit

Girder Bridge

Earth
Pit

BONDING OF OVERLINE STRUCTURE

Girder Bridge
OHE Structure
OHE Conductor

100m

100m

Earth
Pit

Girder Bridge

Earth
Pit

BONDING OF EXPOSED METALLIC PARTS


EARTH PIT

EARTH PIT
350m

350m

400m

400m

METALLIC FENCING

STATION BUILDING SHED

OHE STRUCTURES

METALLIC FENCING

20m

OHE STRUCTURES

TRACTION RAIL

NEAREST OHE CONDUCTOR

EARTHING HEEL ISOLATOR

EARTH HEEL

BONDING OF EARTHING HEEL OF ISOLATOR SWITCH

EARTH PIT

TRACTION RAIL

Bond defects
&
failure

1)Improper size o
hole and/or loo
connection

2)Improper Bond
shape causing
contact area

Earthing

OBJECTS OF EARTHING
It stabilizes circuit potentials with respect to ground
and limit the overall potential rise
It protects men and materials from injury or damage
due to over voltage.
It provides low impedance path to fault current to
ensure prompt and consistent operation of
protective devices during ground faults.
It keeps the maximum voltage gradient along the
surface inside and around the substation within safe
limits during earth faults.

Electrical Shock
Electric shock occurs when the body
becomes part of an electrical circuit.
Shocks can happen in three
ways.
A person may come in contact with both
conductors in a circuit.
A person may provide a path between
an ungrounded conductor and the
ground.
A person may provide a path between
the ground and a conducting material

The grounding system is an essential


element for the electrical system
security and it is required to:
Allow for protective devices activation
when
there is an insulation fault.
Equalize the potential of conductive parts
that
can be accessed simultaneously, with
the
potential in the surrounding soil in order
to
prevent people from being exposed to
hazardous voltages.

Step Potential
During a ground fault, current flows
through the grounding system to a
ground rod or some type of system
ground (steel structure, guy wire) seeking
a return to its source. This current flow
could possibly exist in, or along the
surface of the ground for quite some
distance around the point where the
earth becomes energized. The current will
follow, as nearly as possible, the
conductors supplying the fault current.
Step potential is caused by the flow of
fault current through the earth. The

The current flow creates a voltage


drop as it flows through the earth's
surface and a person standing with
their feet apart bridges a portion of
this drop thus creating a parallel path
for current flow as seen in the these
two illustrations in Figure 3.

Touch
Potential
Touch potential is a
problem similar to
step
potential.
It
involves
a
fault
current flow in the
earth establishing a
potential
difference
between the earth
contact point and
some
nearby
conductive structure

Protection for step and touch potential is


the use of switch operating platforms and
ground grids. The worker must remain
upon a local conductive mat as the
highest voltage gradient has been moved
to the mat's edges. Sub stations on Site
have a ground grid located under the
rocks, but if an individual is located
outside this area and while standing on
the earth, touches a ground or a
grounded object, a
difference in potential may exist during a
ground fault.

EARTHING
Earth means a connection to the
general mass of earth by means of an
earth electrode.
Earthed means connected to an earth
electrode
Max earth resistance of electrode
----- 10-Ohm.

EARTHING
Earth wire -- means a conductor run on
traction masts or structures or
supports and bonded to their metallic
parts/supports and connected to earth.
Earth electrode -- means a metal plate
or pipe or any other conductor
electrically connected to the general
mass of the earth.

EARTH ELECTRODE
ARRANGEMENT

Earth mess

Earthing resistance measurement

Earthing resistance measurement

MAKING RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS


OF ISOLATED EARTHING SYSTEMS
1. Connect up the equipment as shown
in figure 5. Use test leads with a cross
sectional area of at least 2.5mm.
2. Locate the current probe C at 50m
away from the earthing system under
test.
Ideally try and place the current probe
at right angles to the footpath to avoid
any buried earthing conductors,
metallic water pipes, metal fences,
etc. Where access is restricted, C
may be placed at 20m.

3. Ensure all electrodes are in an


approximate straight line and
buried to a depth of 300mm to
500mm. It is very important that the
current probe is driven deep enough
into the soil to ensure a low
resistance connection to ground.
4. Take resistance readings with the
potential probe P at 50%, 60% and
70% of the
distance to current probe C (ie. at
25 m, 30 m and 35 m for C at 50

There should be no more than 10%


difference between the three (3)
readings. If there is, then reposition
the current electrode C at 100 m as
the resistance area of the earthing
system must be quite large and is
interfering with the measurement
(Refer to following section). Repeat
the resistance measurements with
the potential probe P at 50%, 60%
and 70% of the distance to C.