You are on page 1of 10

3.2.

METABOLISM OF
MACRONUTRIENTS
IB SEHS

Starter

Where do we get our energy from?

How do we save energy?

Learning Objectives
Everyone will be able to
1. Distinguish between
metabolism, anabolism and
catabolism.
2. State what glycogen is and its
major sites of storage

Energy metabolism
Metabolism are all the biochemical reactions in
living organisms required for the maintenance
of life. There are two different phases:
1. Anabolism: Construction. Conversion of
smaller molecules into larger ones. Requires
Energy. Ex: glucose into glycogen.
2. Catabolism: Destruction. Larger
molecules are converted into smaller ones.
Release of Energy.
Ex: Triglycerids convert to glycerol and fatty
acids.

Glycogen
Glycogen is the storage form of
glucose.
Main storage location: Stored in the
liver & skeletal muscle
Glycogenesis: Formation of glycogen
out of glucose molecules linked.
Glycolysis: Glycogen is broken into
pyruvate and ATP

Metabolism of Glycogen

Triglyceride storage
Make up 95 % of dietary fat
One molecule = One glycerol
molecule
+ Three fatty acids
Main storage location: Adipose tissue
& skeletal muscle
- oxydation: Release of energy from
breaking down fatty acids to acetyl
CoA

Hormonal regulation of energy


metabolism
Hormones involved: Insulin,
glucagon, cortisol and growth
hormones.
Insulin role: After a meal, glucose in
blood rises, pancreas secretes
insuline from its -cells, which
increases the transport of glucose
into cells (muscle and liver) which
promotes glycogenesis.

Hormonal regulation of energy


metabolism
Glucagon role: During fasting or
exercise, glucose in blood decreases,
glucagon secreted by -cells from
pancreas, promoting glycogenolysis
and lipolysis for energy supply.
Adrenaline: Also increases with low
glucose levels and also promotes
glycogenolysis and lipolysis

Muscle glucose uptake during


exercise
Muscle contraction during exercise
stimulates translocation of glucose
transporters from inner cell into cell
membrane, increasing the uptake of
glucose from blood.
Insuline also stimulates glucose
uptake from blood BUT DURING
PHASES OF NO EXERCISE