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SEHS Topic 3.

2Carbohydrate
and Fat Metabolism

Outline metabolism, anabolism, aerobic


catabolism and anaerobic catabolism
Metabolism all of the biochemical
reactcions that occur within an organism,
including anabolic and catabolic
reactions
Anabolism Energy requiring reactions
reactions whereby small molecules are
built up into larger ones
Catabolism Chemical reactions that
break down complex organic compounds
into simpler ones, with the net release of
energy

Aerobic vs. anaerobic


catabolism
Aerobic the breakdown of glucose
in the presence of oxygen.
Anaerobic the breakdown of
glucose WITHOUT oxygen being
present in the reaction pathway

State what glycogen is and its major


storage sites
Glycogen is a carbohydrate.
Specifically it is a polysaccharide
It is a polymer of the monomer glucose
Translation: it is a large molecule made up of
many smaller, identical molecules

Contd
Main storage sites in the body:

State the major sites of triglyceride


storage in the body.

Explain the role of insulin in the formation of


glycogen and the accumulation of body fat

Insulin is a hormone released from the


pancreas.
It tells the cells to do the following:
Absorb glucose, fatty acids and amino
acids from the bloodstream and into cells
Stop breaking downglycogen into
glucose;fats into fatty acids and glycerol;
andproteins into amino acids
(i.e. it stops most catabolic reactions)

Contd
Insulin also starts buildingglycogen from
glucose;fats (triglycerides) from glycerol
and fatty acids; andproteins from amino
acids (stimulates anabolic reactions)
The activity of lipoprotein lipases
depends upon the levels of insulin in the
body. If insulin is high, then the lipases
are highly active; if insulin is low, the
lipases are inactive.
.

Contd
The fatty acids are then absorbed
from the blood into fat cells, muscle
cells and liver cells.
In these cells, under stimulation by
insulin, fatty acids are made into fat
molecules and stored as fat droplets

Not meant to be a ppt slide, but


contains interesting info. Read it!
It is also possible for fat cells to take up glucose and
amino acids, which have been absorbed into the
bloodstream after a meal, and convert those into fat
molecules. The conversion of carbohydrates or protein
into fat is 10 times less efficient than simply storing fat
in a fat cell, but the body can do it. If you have 100
extra calories in fat (about 11 grams) floating in your
bloodstream, fat cells can store it using only 2.5
calories of energy. On the other hand, if you have 100
extra calories in glucose (about 25 grams) floating in
your bloodstream, it takes 23 calories of energy to
convert the glucose into fat and then store it. Given a
choice, a fat cell will grab the fat and store it rather
than the carbohydrates because fat is so much easier
to store.

Outline glycogenolysis (i.e. how glygogen


is converted into free glucose molecules)
In glycogenolysis, glycogen stored in the
liver and muscles, is converted first to
glucose-1-phosphate and then into
glucose-6-phosphate. Two hormones
which control glycogenolysis are a
peptide, glucagon from the pancreas and
epinephrine from the adrenal glands.

Contd
Glucagon is released from the pancreas
in response to low blood glucose.
epinephrine is released in response to a
threat or stress.
Both hormones act upon enzymes to
stimulate glycogen phosphorylase to
begin glycogenolysis and inhibit glycogen
synthetase (to stop glycogenesis).

Contd
Glycogen is a highly branched polymeric
structure containing glucose as the basic
monomer.
First individual glucose molecules are
hydrolyzed from the chain, followed by
the addition of a phosphate group at C-1.
In the next step the phosphate is moved
to the C-6 position to give glucose 6phosphate, a cross road compound.

Contd
Glucose-6-phosphate is the first step
of the glycolysis pathway if glycogen
is the carbohydrate source and
further energy is needed.
If energy is not immediately needed,
the glucose-6-phosphate is converted
to glucose for distribution in the
blood to various cells such as brain
cells.

Outline lipolysis
When glycogen stores are not available in the
cells, fat (triacylglycerol) is cleaved to provide 3
fatty acid chains and 1 glycerol molecule in a
process known as lipolysis.
Lipolysis creates acetyl CoA molecules which
can then enter the Krebs Cycle.

Outline the effects of glucagon and adrenaline


during fasting and exercise

During fasting:
Levels of glucagon and adrenaline
(epinephrine) both increase
Glugacon causes release of glucose from
glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal
muscle
(NOTE: skeletal muscle stores are only
useful to the muscles they are stored in.
Once suppllies are depleted in your
biceps, reserves from the triceps can not
be funneled to other muscles)

Contd
Additionally, both of these hormones
are lipolysis inducers mobilizing fat
stores from the bodys adipose
tissues for breakdown into useful
energy

Explain the role of insulin and muscle


contraction on glucose uptake during exercise

What is the consequence of exercise on


your bodys skeletal muscle?
Increased O2 demands
Increased energy demands (ATP)
How is it rectified?
Increased insulin release causes what
response by the muscle cells?

Contd
Increased muscle contraction leads
to increased muscular perfusion
perfusion is the process of delivering
blood to a capillary bed in the
biological tissue.
More blood delivered to a capillary
bed during exercise = more content
of that blood (glucose, O2etc)
delivered to the cells that need it
most

Explain the role of insulin and muscle contraction


on glucose uptake during exercise