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3.3.

NUTRITION AND
ENERGY SYSTEMS
IB SEHS

Starter

What distinguishes animal cells


versus plant cells?

Where does respiration occur?

Learning Objectives
Everyone will be able to
1. Identify the different parts of the
mitochondrion.
2. Define and understand respiration
3. Explain the loss and gain of
phosphate in an adenosine molecule

The Animal Cell

Mitochondrion
Ultrastructure
Energy
provision
Only site
where oxygen
is used
Location: All
cells, but red
cells
Ultrastructure
shown right

The Energy currency, ATP


ATP is the energy currency
Adenosine TriPhosphate is a
molecule created from biochemical
energy in organic molecules by
catabolic reactions.

Cell Respiration
Cell respiration is the controlled
release of energy in the form of ATP
from organic compounds in cells

Energy metabolism: ATP


ATP connects anabolic and catabolic
reactions.
Ingested food stored as fats or
glycogen Catabolism ATP
Energy

ATP role in muscle contraction


Actin and myosin use
ATP to drive contraction
Muscle fibers have
sufficient ATP for only 2
seconds of contraction.
The rest comes from
catabolic reactions that
generate ATP
ATP + H2O ADP + P +
Energy Contraction

Anaerobic Energy Systems


Creatine Phosphate System
Creatine Phosphate System
CP is another high energy molecule
BUT cannot be used directly. Its a
check we need to first cash into ATP.
During exercise, after spending our 2
sec worth of ATP, CP helps resynthesizing ATP, giving energy for
up to first 20 sec to muscles

Creatine Phosphate System goes


both ways
The ATP-CP system can go both
ways.
During exercise, first 20 sec, ATP is resynthesized
At rest, ATP can be used to refill our
store of PCr in the muscle
REST <---

--->EXERCISE

Anaerobic Energy Systems


Lactic Acid System
Anaerobic Glycolysis
LOCATION: CYTOPLASM
of all cells
Glucose ATP + pyruvate
Limited supply of oxygen
or mithocondria leads to
Pyruvate Lactate + 2
ATP
Lactic Acid System is quick
and ideal of hard exercise

Anaerobic Energy Systems


Lactic Acid System
Is the Lactic Acid System an ideal
system for an elongated period of
hard exercise?
Interpret and comment on the
following graph

Aerobic Energy Systems


Location:
MITOCHONDRIA
Electron transport
chain in the inner
membrane
Krebs Cycle in the
matrix
-oxydation in the
matrix

Aerobic Energy Systems


Glucose Oxydation
Pyruvate acetil CoA Krebs Cycle in
the matrix
H+ ions released ELECTRON
TRASPORT CHAIN ENERGY AS ATP

Aerobic Energy Systems


Fat Oxydation
Free fatty acids enter the matrix oxydation Acetil CoA Krebs Cycle
H+ Electron transport chain Energy
as ATP
Fat CANNOT
BE USED
ANAEROBICALLY,
unlike glycogen

STARTER
Discuss in pairs what is the
determiant factor for cells to use one
energy system or another. Explain in
detail.

What Energy System is this one?


What is the limitant factor?

THE BIG QUESTION


How does the elenctron tranport
chain help the cell synthesizing ATP?
https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ak17BW
J3bLg

INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY
YOU HAVE RECEIVED A MUSCLE CELL
(LONG WHITE PAPER)
DRAW A DIAGRAM, INCLUDING CELL
MEMBRANE, CYTOSOL AND
MITHOCONDRION WITH DETAIL, IN WHICH
THE THREE METABOLIC PATHS ARE
SHOWN: ANAEROBIC LACTIC ACID,
GLUCOSE AND FATTY ACID OXYDATION.
INCLUDE MAIN REACTIONS ONLY
BE READY TO EXPLAIN YOUR CELL.

Oxygen Deficit and Excess PostExercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)


Start of exercise Oxygen need >
oxygen supply: O DEFICIT ATP,
PCr and anaerobic glycolysis activate
quicker!
2

After exercise Oxygen supply


greater than needed: EPOC or O
DEBT offset consequences of
anaerobic metabolism, repair of
tissue, myoglobin oxydation, etc.

Oxygen Deficit and Excess PostExercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)


Analyze and comment on the
following graph:

Contribution of the Energy Systems


during exercise
High intensity exercise high rate of
ATP needed Fast metabolism PCr
(20 sec) and Lactic Acid System
Longer & Slower exercise Aerobic
metabolism: Glucose and Fat
oxydation (slowest one)
Glucose (anaerobic and aerobic)
metabolism is key across all
intensities of exercise.

Contribution of the Energy Systems


during exercise

Different types of exercise and


energy systems contribution