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Movement Analysis

Neuromuscular Function:
I. The Motor Unit:

II. The Structure of Muscle Tissue:

III. The Role of Neurotransmitters in stimulating

skeletal muscle contraction:
A. Acetylcholine (Ach):
increases the postsynaptic membranes
permeability to
sodium and
potassium ions
spreading the impulse
over the entire muscle

B. Cholinesterase: enzyme that breaks down Ach

repolarizing the muscle fiber to await another
nerve impulse.

IV. Skeletal Muscle Contraction:

A. The sliding filament theory:

Steps of a muscle
*Ca++ are released by
the sarcoplasmic
*Ca++ binds to troponin
preventing the
blocking action of

Sliding filament cont.

*myosin heads can now
attach to active sites
on the actin filament.
*myosin heads pulls on
the actin filament,
decreasing the width
of the sarcomere.
*myosin head releases
the actin when a new
ATP is formed.

V. Types of Muscle Fibers:

A. Slow Twitch: (type 1)
*smaller in diameter
*reddish color
*use aerobic resp. for
ATP supply
*contain more
*fire slowly, but take
long to fatigue.

B. Fast Twitch: used for short explosive

movements, stop and go sports.
Type IIA:
*large diameter
*white in color
*less mitochondria
*uses both anaerobic
and aerobic energy

Type IIB:
*same physical
characteristics as
Type IIA, but strictly
uses the glycolytic
anaerobic system.

Joint and Movement Type

A. Types of Joint
1. Abduction:
movement away
from the bodys
2. Adduction:
movement towards
the bodys center.

3. Circumduction: making circular movements.

4. Dorsiflexion:
movement of the
ankle elevating the
sole. (digging in the
5. Plantar flexion:
extending the ankle
and elevating the
heel. (standing on

6. Elevation: occurs when a structure moves in a

superior (towards head) manner. Ex. Closing your
mouth/elevating the shoulders.

7. Depression:
movement is inferior
(towards feet). Ex.
opening your
mouth/lowering the

8. Extension: movement that increases the angle

between articulating elements opening the joint.
9. Flexion: decreases
the angle between
articulating elements
and closes the joint.

10. Pronation: rotating the palm down.

11. Supination: rotating
the palm up.
12. Rotation: turning the
body around a
longitudinal axis.

13. Inversion: when the ankle rolls outward.

14. Eversion: ankle
roles inward.

B. Types of Muscle Contraction:

1. Isotonic: describes
concentric and
eccentric muscle
a. Concentric: muscle
is shortened during
b. Eccentric: muscle is
contracting while

2. Isometric: muscle generates force without

changing length. Ex. Hand grip and plank position.

3. Isokinetic: the speed

of movement is fixed
and the resistance
varies with the force
*requires special

C. Reciprocal Inhibition: describes muscles on one

side of a joint relaxing while the other side is
contracting. (antagonistic pairs)
1. Agonist: muscle that
causes the
2. Antagonist: muscle
that works opposite
the agonist to return
the joint to its initial

D. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: (DOMS)

The pain and stiffness
felt in muscles several
hours to days after
unaccustomed or
strenuous exercise.
*brought on by eccentric
contractions of the
muscle causing
pressure at the nerve

Biomechanics: the science concerned with the

internal and external forces acting on the human
body and the effects they produce on the body.
a. Force: a pushing or
pulling action that
causes a change of
state (rest/motion)
of a body.
*proportional to mass x
*measured in Newtons

b. Speed: describes the rate at which a body

moves from one location to another.
*speed is described in
terms of magnitude
(amount) which
makes it a scalar

c. Distance vs. Displacement

1. Distance: the length
of a path a body
2. Displacement: the
length of a straight
line joining the start
and finish points.

d. Velocity: the rate at which a body moves from

one location to another with both magnitude and
direction making it a vector quantity.

e. Acceleration: is defined as the rate at which

velocity changes over time and the ability to
change ones speed from either a static position or
a moving state.
* Final velocity initial

f. Momentum: is a vector describing a quantity of

motion and is the product of mass and velocity.
*an athlete can increase
their momentum by
either increasing their
mass or velocity.

g. Impulse: the effect of force over time.

Calculated as the product of force and time.

h. Center of mass: the point at which the body is

balanced in all directions.
*a change in body
position can change
the position of the
center of mass within
or outside the body.

The Fosbury Flop!

*notice how the center
of gravity is located
outside the jumpers

Examples of the center of gravity outside the


Levers: rigid structures hinged at one point

(fulcrum) to which forces are applied to two other
points (effort and load)
1. First Class Lever:
The fulcrum lies
between the effort
and load.
Ex. Triceps extension
and picking the chin
up from the chest.

2. Second Class Lever: the fulcrum lies at one end

with the effort at the other and the load in the
middle. Ex. Standing heel raise

3. Third Class Levers: the effort lies between the

load and the fulcrum. Ex. Biceps curl swinging a

Types of Levers

Newtons Laws of Motion in Sport

1. First Law: a body in
motion/rest will
remain in motion/rest
in a straight line
unless acted upon by
another force. Also
known as inertia.

2. Second Law: the rate of change of momentum

of a body is proportional to the force causing it and
the change takes place in the direction in which
the force acts. (F= M A)

3. Third Law: For every action there is an equal

and opposite reaction. (every force involves the
interaction of two objects)

a. Conservation of Momentum: momentum is

neither gained or lost within a closed system. Total
momentum before a collision equals the total
momentum after.

b. Angular Momentum: a measurement of an

objects tendency to continue to spin. It is the
product of angular velocity and moment of inertia.
1. Moment of inertia: the
distance from the
rotational axis.
2. Angular velocity: the
number of revolutions
per minute.

Projectile Motion
1. Projectile: an object
that has been
dropped, thrown
vertically upwards or
thrown at an angle
following a parabolic
path and is subject to
the forces of gravity.

Factors Affecting Projectile Motion

a. Release Velocity:
greater release
velocity produces
greater distance.

b. Angle of Release: optimum angle of release,

between 350 and 450, produce greater distances.

c. Height of Release: the greater the height of

release the greater the distance.

The Bernoulli Principle:

States that as the
velocity of a fluid
increases, the
pressure exerted by
that fluid decreases.

Why do golf balls have dimples?