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HL TOPIC 7

FURTHER ANATOMY
Following on from SL Topic 1
Links to TOK:
Classical anatomical studies separate the human body into discrete systems. To what
extent can separating components give us knowledge of the whole?
Links to Topic 12:
Genetics
Race
Suggested hours: 7
Leanne Farmer RCHK 2016

7.1 The Skin System (obj 1)


7.1.1 Annotate a diagram of the generalized structure of the skin

7.1.1
Skin one of largest organs in body in surface and

weight.
Consists of 2 layers: EPIDERMIS AND DERMIS.
Beneath the DERMIS lies HYPODERMIS or
SUBCUTANEOUS FATTY TISSUE.
3 main functions TO PROTECT, REGULATE AND
FEEL SENSATION.

7.1.1 Label the diagram below:


A

7.1.1 Label the diagram below:

Quick Quiz
https://quizlet.com/_2bj58o

7.1.1 Skills and practicals


Skill: Collect dry skin. View under a light microscope.

Application: View structure of cells at the microscopic


level.

Skill: Explore the diagram and locating the structures on


https://human.biodigital.com

7.1.2

Describe the functions of the skin.

Regulation of body temperature


Protection and immunity
Sensation
Excretion
Synthesis of vitamin D

7.1.2 Regulation of body temperature


Skill:
Experimental application- Weigh a plaster/band aid before

exercise and after exercise.


Place on forehead and note the amount of perspiration
with various conditions or length of exercise.
Application:
Looking at function of Skin Excretion/ Perspiration.

External thermometers measuring skin temp and the


change with exercise
Extra reading: http://www.bbc.com/news/health-25758278

7.1.2 Regulation of body temperature

Why is this important to athletes?


Brainstorm ideas:
Eg, Sweat:
Sweat glands eg, Cricketer Alistair Cook shines the cricket ball

because it has been proven he is the least sweaty of the team.


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/cricket/article-1335730/Turning-heat-sweat-England-opener-AlastairCook.html)

Athletes training in hot temperatures


http://www.runnersworld.com/race-training/training-in-the-heat

The amount of sweating Formula 1 drivers do during a race (they

lose 4kg every race)


http://formula1.sporting99.com/trivia/driving-facts.html

7.1.2 Protection and immunity


Skin forms a physical barrier through specialised cells of

immune system within the layers of the skin.


These cells detect bacteria and viruses which there job is to
destroy.
These cells produce proteins called antibodies that attack
the invading cells called antigens
They trap the antigens and destroy.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Ys_V6FcYD5I
Relevance to athletes: Overtraining and effects

on immune system
http://www.nature.com/icb/journal/v78/n5/full/icb200070a.html

7.1.2 Sensation
A sensation or feeling localised on the skin surface.

Touch
Pain
Heat
Cold

These feelings are processed through


nerve endings and receptors in the dermis.

7.1.2 Excretion
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=why+do+we+sweat

Waste removal:
Sweat glands rid the body of waste such as:
Urea
Uric acid
from proteins
Ammonia
Sweat glands also regulate body temperature and cools the body
when overheating.
Sebaceous glands excrete sebum that acts as a water repellent
and a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent.
(If blocked, it can cause acne)

7.1.2 Synthesis of Vitamin D


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZDtffPCeu4

Main source of Vit D is from sunlight.


We need Vit D to aid with the absorption of calcium, iron,

magnesium phosphate and zinc through the liver and


kidney.
The epidermal cells convert the ultraviolet rays into Vit D.
TOK links:
Some controversy
surrounding over-use of
sunblock. It is important
we get at least 30
minutes per day of
sunlight without the use
of sunblock.
http://www.healthy.net/Health/Essay/
Don_t_Overuse_Your_Sunscreen_S
unlight_Prevents_Cancer/638

7.2 Structure and Function of the brain (obj 1)


https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/apr/27/brainatlas-showing-how-words-are-organised-neuroscience

7.2.1 and 7.2.2 skills and practical


Skill: Be able to label a diagram of the brain.
Application: Brain dissection and locating the principal

structures of the brain. (If possible, Pig?)

7.2.1 Label the following:


The brain stem
The diencephalon
The 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum
The cerebellum
https://www.youtube.com/results?

search_query=cerebrum+within+brain
Skill: To build and label the different sections/lobes of the brain.
Application: Understand the principle lobes by using playdough /

Play Doh to build a structure and label with toothpick flags.


Application: Use website to see 3D view of the lobes and cerebrum.
http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/brain

7.2.1 Label the location of the principal structures of


the brain.

7.2.1 The 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum

7.2.2 Principal lobes of the cerebrum.


https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=label+the+brain
(A bit corny but good explanation!)

7.2.2 Label the following:


Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Limbic lobe

Skill: To build and label the different sections/lobes of the


brain.
Application: Extension Task- With toothpick flags
connect a photo to match the function of the brain e.g.
occipital lobe has an attachment picture of a eye.

7.2.2 Label the lobes!


B

7.2.3 Outline blood supply to the brain


(obj 2)

7.2.3 Blood supply to the brain


For the brain to function it requires adequate supply of

oxygen and nutrients.


These are supplied through a network of blood vessels.
Blood is supplied to the brain from 2 sets of vessels

1. Left and Right carotid arteries


2. Left and Right vertebral arteries
The Carotid arteries split in 2. External and Internal.
External supply blood to face and scalp
Internal supply blood to most of cerebrum

7.2.3 Blood supply to the brain


Brachiocephalic trunk
An artery that supplies blood
to the right arm, head and
neck.

7.2.3 Blood supply to the brain


Blood-brain barrier (BBB)
This protects the brain from foreign substances that may

injure the brain.


Maintains a constant environment for the brain.
It is a highly selective barrier that separates the circulating
blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the CNS.

7.2.4 Describe the principal source of energy for


brain cells (obj 2)
Brain obtains energy using glucose and oxygen, which

pass rapidly from the blood to the brain cells.


Aerobic respiration helps to make ATP within the brain.
CHO storage in the brain is limited, so the supply of
glucose must be continuous.
If blood entering brain is low on glucose or oxygen,we can
suffer:
mental confusion, dizziness, convulsions and loss of
consciousness
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bTUGw9EzAX4
(Linked to Topic 3 Energy Systems)

7.2.4 Energy to brain cells

7.2.5 Explain the function of the principal parts of the


brain (obj 3)
Brain stem:

Regulates vital
body functions
such as
cardiac and
respiratory
functions and
acts as a
vehicle for
sensory
information.

7.2.5 Brain Stem


Posterior part of the brain adjoining the spinal cord.
It is the control centre for the regulation of cardiac and

respiratory function, consciousness and sleep cycle.


It is made up of MEDULLA OBLONGATA, PONS AND
MIDBRAIN.
Medulla
Oblongata
regulates
breathing, heart
and blood vessel
function.
It is the centre for
respiration and
circulation.

7.2.5 Brain Stem - Diencephalon


Diencephalon is located at the upper end of the brain

stem.
Made up of 4 components but we will look at only 2:
THALAMUS
Sensations pain, temperature, pressure, cognition.
HYPOTHALAMUS
Control of autonomic nervous system (ANS).
Heart rate, blood pressure, pituitary gland, body

temp,appetite, thirst, fluid and electrolyte balance, circadian


rhythms.

7.2.5 Diencephalon
http://study.com/academy/lesson/diencephalon-definition-location-function.html (if have an account)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jDBRpudd6U

Link to
Topic 8

7.2.5 Cerebrum
The Cerebrum is responsible for high-level brain functions

such as thinking, language, emotion and motivation.


The function has 3 broad processes:
1. Sensory (receiving sensory impulses
2. Association (interpreting and storing input and initiating
a response)
3. Motor (transmitting impulses to effectors)

https://www.youtube.com/results?

search_query=cerebrum

7.2.5 Cerebrum
Within the cerebrum, there are 5 lobes.
Although the lobes do not function independently, each
lobe is associated with:
1. Frontal lobe
2. Parietal lobe
3. Occipital lobe
4. Temporal lobe
5. Limbic lobe

7.2.5 Cerebrum

7.2.5 Cerebrum
and Limbic lobe

Processes emotion, behaviour, motivation, long term


memory.

7.2.5 Cerebellum

7.2.5 Cerebellum
The Cerebellum is responsible for coordinating

movements, regulate balance, posture and helps skilled


motor activities such as catching a ball to dancing.
Walnut shaped
Located at the top part of brain stem
It receives information from sensory systems, the spinal
cord.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkJvl3qhDb4