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# Metrology House

Shrops. TF7 4PL.

## Welcome to Brown & Sharpes

Telford Technical Centre
e

Level 1 Training
Developed By:

Ryan Stauffer

Peter Hughes

Application Engineer

Training Officer

Commercial Operations

## Measuring Systems Group

Course Objectives

Course Objectives

## Understand why and how a Probe Qualification is

performed
Get a thorough understanding of how we create
Part Alignments
Understand how PC-DMIS handles Solid Geometry
Learn how to Edit your part programs
Write a logical, organized part program from
beginning to end

The Cartesian
Coordinate System
Z

Y
X
X

## The Cartesian Coordinate System

Z
The measurement
VOLUME of a CMM
can be represented by
a cube. Each
direction within the
cube is an AXIS.
The ORIGIN is the
location where all
three axes intersect.
ORIGIN

## The Cartesian Coordinate System

Z
Each axis is
divided into
equal divisions,
representing the
units of
measurement.
Any point in the
measurement
cube can be
defined in terms
of a unique X, Y,
and Z value.

10

Y
5

10
5

|
5

|
10

Z

## What are the

coordinates of:

10

X = 010
5
Y = 010
Z = 50

Y
5

10
5

0 |
00

10

Touch Trigger Probe (Ttp)

The A axis
rotates from
0 to +105
in 7.5
increments

B axis rotates
from -180 to
+180 in 7.5
increments

Contact
Broken

## Mechanical Probes such as

the TP2 contain 3 electrical
contacts. When the stylus is
deflected, at least one of the
contacts is broken. At this
instant, the machines X, Y,
and Z scales are read. These
values represent the ball
center position of the stylus
at the time of contact.

Touch Probe
Example #1 :
Measuring point
on side of part
Recorded point

## Touch Trigger Probes

Touch Probe
Example #2 :
Crashing into part
with high velocity
Bent probe tip
OUCH !!!

Probe Qualifications

Probe Qualification

PROBE QUALIFICATION
is the process of defining
effective probe diameter
and position of the probe tip
for measurement. To
accomplish this, a
qualification artifact with
a known diameter is
measured with the probe tip
to be qualified.

Probe with
Unknown
Position and
Diameter to
be Qualified
Artifact with Known
Diameter, Traceable
to National Standards

Probe Qualification

## Ball Centre coordinates at

each measurement point
around the artifact are
compared to the known
artifact diameter. The
effective probe diameter is
calculated from the
difference between this
diameter and the diameter
of the spherical pattern of
the measured points.

Effective Probe

## Building The Probe

Probe Qualification

Working Planes Of
PcDmis

## PC-DMIS Working Planes

Z
In PC-DMIS, it is
important that the
correct WORKING
PLANE is specified
for measuring
circles, calculating
2D distances, etc.
The available
working planes are:

Z PLUS
Y PLUS
X

MINUS

X
PLUS

Y MINUS
Z MINUS

ORIGIN

## What Is A Working Plane

The working plane is the view that you are
currently looking from, for instance if you wish to
measure the top surface of a part, then you are
working in the ZPLUS working plane. If you are
measuring features in the front face you are in the
YMINUS working plane. This selection is
important when you are working in polar coordinates, because PcDmis uses the working plane
to decide where Zero Degrees (start point) is for
that work plane.

## * In the Zplus plane, zero deg is in the +X direction

and 90 deg is in the +Y direction.
* In the Xplus plane, zero deg is in the +Y direction
and 90 deg is in the +Z direction.
* In the Yplus plane, zero deg is in the -X direction
and 90 deg is in the +Z direction.

## Circle Measurement Direction

90 deg
45 deg

135 deg

0 deg

180 deg

+Y

315 deg

225 deg
270 deg

+X

Vectors
K

Directional Cosines
J

Vectors

The
directions
of a
Directions
of features
vector
relate tofor
the three
and directions
axes
the coordinate
probeofapproach
to a
system.
I direction
point areThe
represented
is
direction ofAthe
bythe
VECTORS.
X
axis, can
J direction
is the
vector
be thought
direction
of 1Y,unit
andlong,
K is
of as a line
the
direction
of the
pointing
in the
Zdirection
axis. of the vector.

Z
(+K direction)

Y
(+J direction)

X
(+I direction)

Vectors
What is the vector
direction of :

ZZ
(+K
(+Kdirection)
direction)

YY
(+J
(+Jdirection)
direction)

0.7071
1.0
I = 0.0
J = 0.7071
0.0
K = -1.0
0.0
Cosine of 45o

XX
(+I
(+Idirection)
direction)
45

## Incorrect Vector = cosine error

Approach Direction
Angle
Normal Vector

Introduced Error
Probe Dia
Angle Error
1.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0

0.5
0.0000
0.0010
0.0039
0.0088
0.0160

## Expected Contact Point

1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
Magnitude of error introduced by not probing normal to surface
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0003
0.0019
0.0038
0.0057
0.0076
0.0077
0.0154
0.0231
0.0309
0.0176
0.0353
0.0529
0.0709
0.0321
0.0642
0.0963
0.1284

6.00
0.0005
0.0115
0.0463
0.1058
0.1925

Alignment

t
en

m
n
il g
A
Alignment

Alignment
Alignment is the process of establishing a part
coordinate system, where the Axes of the part and
CMM are the same.
Three things are needed to complete a part alignment:
A LEVEL (Any measured feature with a vector direction).
The level feature controls the orientation of the working plane.
A ROTATE AXIS (Any measured feature with a vector
direction). The rotate feature needs to be perpendicular to the
level feature. This controls the timing or rotational position
of the axes relative to the working plane.
An ORIGIN (Any measured feature or features which define
the X, Y, and Z zero point of the part).

Alignment
STEP 1Feature
: Level =ZPlane
Axis to Plane
Level
STEP 2 : Rotate X Axis to Line
Z
Rotate3 Axis
Feature
= Line to Circle
Y
STEP
: Translate
X Origin
Y
ALIGNMENT
Y STEP 4 : Translate Y Origin to Circle
Origin Feature = Circle
Z STEP 5 : Translate Z Origin to Plane
COMPLETED!!!!
Y
X
XX
X
Z
Machine Home
Y X
Position
ZZZ

Desired Part
Coordinate System

Alignment
ZZ Z
ALIGNMENT
Y
Y
Y

COMPLETED!!!!
X XX

Machine Home
Position

Required Part
Origin Position

## STEP 1 : Level Z Axis to Plane

Level 2Feature
STEP
: Rotate=XPlane
Axis to Line
STEP
3 Axis
: Translate
X Origin
Rotate
Feature
= Lineto Point
STEP 4 : Translate Y Origin to Line
Origin5 Feature
= Corner
STEP
: Translate
Z Origin to Plane

## How To Align a Part

Measure 3 Points To Create Plane
Measure 2 Points To Create Line
Measure 1 Point On Side Face

## Building The Alignment

Alignment How To Do It

Click The
Utilities
Option

## And Then Select

Alignment

Alignment How To Do It

## From The Features

List Select
PLN1
LINE1
PNT1

Measured Features

## Click On Auto Align

PcDmis will
automatically
align the part by
Levelling and
setting Z zero to
PLN1
Rotate and set Y
zero to LINE1,
and then set X
zero to PNT1.

Geometric Elements

Z
Element:

POINT

Min Points: 1
Position:

XYZ location

Vector:

None

Form:

None

2D/3D:

3D

EXAMPLE

Y
5

Output X = 5
Y=5
Z=5

Z
Element:

LINE

EXAMPLE

Min Points: 2
Position:

Centroid

Vector:

From 1st to
last point

Form:

Straightness

2D/3D:

2D/3D

Output

X = 2.5

X
I = -1

Y=0

J=0

Z=5

K=0

Z
Element:

EXAMPLE

CIRCLE

Min Points: 3

Position:

Centre

Vector*:

Matches
reference plane

Form:

Roundness

Y
5
1

3
2

2D/3D:

2D
Output

## * The vector of a circle is only for

measurement purposes, and does not
uniquely describe the features geometry.

X=2

5
I=0

D=4

Y=2

J=0

R=2

Z=0

K=1

Z

EXAMPLE
2

Element:

PLANE

Min Points: 3
Position:

Centroid

Vector:

Perpendicular

Form:

Flatness

2D/3D:

3D

Y
5
3

Output

5
X = 1.67

I = 0.707

Y = 2.50

J = 0.000

Z

EXAMPLE
4

Element:

CYLINDER

Min Points: 5
Position:

Centroid

Vector:

## From 1st level of

hits to last level

Form:

Cylindricity

2D/3D:

3D

Y
5
1

3
2

X = 2.0

I=0

5
D=4

Y = 2.0

J=0

R=2

Z = 2.5

K=1

Z
Element:

CONE

EXAMPLE

5
4

Min Points: 6
Position:

Apex

Vector:

## From 1st level of

hits to last level

Form:

Conicity

2D/3D:

3D

6
5

5
1

3
2

X = 2.0

I=0

Y = 2.0

J=0

Z = 5.0

K=1

5
A = 43deg

Z
Element:

SPHERE

Min Points: 4
Position:
Vector*:

EXAMPLE

Centre
Toward North
Pole of Hits

Form:

Sphericity

2D/3D:

3D

## * The vector of a sphere is only for

measurement purposes, and does not
describe the features geometry.

X = 2.5

I=0

5
D = 5.0

Y = 2.5

J=0

R = 2.5

Z = 2.5

K=1

Constructed Features
Points

Constructed Features
POINT : AT ORIGIN

A point is constructed
at the origin of the
current alignment
system. Coordinates of
the point will be 0, 0, 0.

X
POINT

Constructed Features
POINT : CAST

CIRCLE1

## A point is created at the

centroid of the selected
feature. Its coordinates
(x y z) are equal to that
of the Circle
INPUT : CIRCLE1
POINT

Constructed Features
POINT

POINT : CORNER
A point is created at the
intersection of three
planes.
INPUT : PLN1
PLN2
PLN3

PLN2

PLN3
PLN1

Constructed Features
POINT

POINT : PIERCE

PLN1

A point is created
where feature 1 pierces
the surface of feature 2.
The order of selection
is Important
INPUT : CYL1
PLN1

Y
CYL1
5

Constructed Features
POINT : OFFSET
A point is created at the
specified offsets from
the selected feature.

POINT

Y
5

INPUT : PNT1
X Offset = 0

Y Offset = 4
Z Offset = 1

PNT1

Constructed Features
POINT : INTERSECT
A point is created at the
location where the two
selected features cross.

LINE2

INPUT : LINE1
LINE2
LINE1
POINT

Constructed Features
POINT : DROP

CIRCLE1

A point is created by
projecting the first
features centroid onto
the second feature (line,
cone, cylinder, or slot).
INPUT : CIRCLE1
LINE1

LINE1

POINT

Constructed Features
POINT : MID

CIRCLE1

## A point is created at the

midpoint of the two
selected features.

INPUT : CIRCLE1
CIRCLE2
POINT

CIRCLE2

Constructed Features
POINT

POINT : PROJECT
A point is created by
projecting the feature
onto the selected plane.

PLN1

INPUT : PNT1
PLN1
PNT1

Constructed Features
Circles

Constructed Features
CIRCLE : BF

CIRCLE

A best-fit circle is
created through the
selected features.
CIR1
INPUT : CIR1
CIR2
CIR3
CIR4

CIR4

CIR2

CIR3

Constructed Features
CIRCLE : CONE
A circle is created
inside a cone at the
specified diameter.

CONE1
CIRCLE

INPUT : CONE1
DIAMETER = 2

Constructed Features
CIRCLE : INTERSECT
A circle is created at
the intersection of a
plane and a cone,
cylinder, or sphere.
INPUT : CONE1
PLN1

CONE1

CIRCLE
PLN1

Constructed Features
Lines

Constructed Features
LINE : ALIGNMENT

## A line is created along

an axis of the current
coordinate system,
perpendicular to the
current working plane.

Z+ PLANE
CURRENT
WORKPLANE = Z+

X
LINE

Constructed Features
LINE : BF
A best-fit line is created
through the selected
features.
INPUT : CIR1

CIR1

CIR2

CIR2
LINE

Constructed Features
LINE : INTERSECT
A line is created at the
intersection of two
planes.

LINE
PLN2

INPUT : PLN1
PLN2

PLN1

Constructed Features
LINE : PERP
A line is created
perpendicular to the first
selected feature, passing
through the second feature

CIRC1

INPUT : LINE1
CIRC1

LINE1

LINE

Constructed Features
LINE : PARALLEL
A line is created parallel to
the first selected feature,
passing through the
second feature.

CIRC1

LINE
INPUT : LINE1
CIRC1

LINE1

Constructed Features
LINE : REVERSE
A new line is created in
the opposite direction
of the selected line.

LINE

LINE1
INPUT : LINE1

Constructed Features
LINE : OFFSET
A line is created through
the centre of the first
feature, passing by the
second feature at the
specified offset.
INPUT : CIR1

CIR1

CIR2

CIR2
OFFSET = 1

LINE

Dimensioning Features
Location

Dimensioning Features
LOCATION
The dimension LOCATION option reports the specified
characteristic of the selected feature. Characteristics that can be
reported are:

ang

Dimensioning Features
LOCATION
EXAMPLE:

Reporting CIR1
X=2
Y=2
Z=0
D=2
R=1

2
2

CIR1

1 1
0

Dimensioning Features
LOCATION
EXAMPLE:

Reporting CONE1
A = 60
V = 0, 0, 1
(I, J, K)

CONE1

2
2

60

1 1
0

Dimensioning Features
LOCATION
EXAMPLE:

Reporting POINT1

2
Pang = 45

POINT1

1 1

2
8
.
2

45
0

Dimensioning Features
True Position

Dimensioning Features
TRUE POSITION
The following is an example of normal tolerancing of a
Circle:
0.1
1.00 .05

0.1
1.00 .05

2.00 .05

Dimensioning Features
TRUE POSITION
Zooming in on the theoretical circle centre...
Location of measured
circle centre:

1.05

GOOD
OUT OF
TOLERANCE
.95
1.95

2.05

Dimensioning Features
TRUE POSITION
Why are two points the same distance from nominal not both
in tolerance?
OUT OF
TOLERANCE
GOOD

True Position
tolerance zone
True Position tolerancing creates a circular tolerance zone, which
better judges parts based on the fit and function of mating parts

True Position
MMC
Maximum Material Condition
20+/- 0.2
0.15
A
Dia Bonus

30

19.80
19.90
20.00
20.10
20.20

0
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40

MMC
0.15
0.25
0.35
0.45
0.55

40
Sizes in MM

NB: The bonus will not be applied if the Dia of the hole is out of tolerance

True Position
MMC -MMC

30

## Maximum Material Condition - Maximum Material Condition

20+/- 0.2
MMC 0.15
A
Dia A Dia 2
MMC

19.80 19.80
19.90 19.90
20.00 20.00
20.10 20.10
20.20 20.20

0.15
0.35
0.55
0.75
0.95

40
20+/- 0.2

NB: The bonus will not be applied if the Dia of the hole is out of tolerance

True Position
LMC

Bonus

19.80
19.90
20.00
20.10
20.20

0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.

30

## Least Material Condition

20+/- 0.2
0.15
A
Dia

LMC
0.55
0.45
0.35
0.25
0.15

40
NB: The bonus will not be applied if the Dia of the stud is out of tolerance

True Position
LMC - LMC
Least Material Condition - Least Material Condition

30

0.15

19.80 19.80
19.90 19.90
20.00 20.00
20.10 20.10
20.20 20.20

40

Dia A Dia 2

LMCLMC

0.95
0.75
0.55
0.35
0.15

20+/- 0.2
NB: The bonus will not be applied if the Dia of the stud is out of tolerance

Dimensioning Features
2D Distances

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
The 2-dimensional distance option calculates distances
between features within the current working plane.
TYPICAL 2D DISTANCE USAGE : Point to Line or
Circle to Circle or Circle to Line

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
When calculating a 2-Dimensional distance, you have
many options to determine which distance to report. For
Example, you could report these distances from CIR1 to
CIR2 :
Y

DIST2

CIR2
3
T
S
DI

CIR1
DIST1

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
The options available are:

DIST2

3
T
S
DI

DIST1

Centre to Centre
To Feature
Parallel to
To X Axis
To Y Axis &
Perpendicular to
To Z Axis
DIST1 can be created using:
DIST2 can be created using:
DIST3
To X Axis, Parallel to
Centre
To Y Axis,
to Centre
Parallel to
(no
ToTo
Y Axis,
axisPerpendicular
selected)
To X Axis, Perpendicular
X

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
The To Feature option can be used when a
distance to be calculated is not parallel or
perpendicular to an axis of the current coordinate
system.
The order of feature selection is important for this
option. The distances are calculated to either
Perpendicular or Parallel to the SECOND feature,

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
How can you report the overall length of this part?
Measure a line on one side, a point on the other.
Report the 2D Distance from PNT1 to LINE1, using the
To Feature option, Perpendicular to LINE1.
LINE1
DISTANCE
PNT1

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
If you just click on PNT1 and LINE1, and choose
no To option, the distance will be straight from
the lines centroid to PNT1. THIS IS NOT
WHAT YOU WANT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
LINE1
DISTAN
CE

PNT1

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
When calculating 2-Dimensional distances, it is very
important that the correct WORKING PLANE is selected.
In the last example, the working plane was set to Z PLUS.
Y
Z PLUS
Working
Plane

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 2D
the calculated distance to include or subtract the radii of
dimensioned circles.
Y
Normal
Distance
Distance
Distance

Dimensioning Features
3D Distances

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 3D
3-dimensional distances calculate the shortest distance
between two features, regardless of the working plane.
TYPICAL 3D DISTANCE USAGE: Point to Plane

Dimensioning Features
DISTANCE 3D
EXAMPLE:
PLN1
3D Distance from
PNT1 to PLN1

DISTANCE

PNT1

Dimensioning Features
ANGLES
An angle is created at
the intersection of two
lines
LINE 1

LINE 2

60
ANGLE

Perpendicularity
0.15 Wide Tolerance Zone

0.15

Possible orientation of
the actual surface

Parallelism
0.15 Wide Tolerance Zone

0.15

Possible orientation of
the actual surface

Angularity

## 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone

0.5

A
Possible orientation of
the actual surface

35

35