Understanding by Design

the ¶big ideas· of UbD

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

3 Stages of (³Backward´) Design
1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Why ³backward´?
The stages are logical but they go against habits
We·re used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas - before clarifying our performance goals for students  By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means, and that teaching is focused on desired results 

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Understanding by Design Template 
The

UBD template embodies the 3 stages of ´Backward Designµ DDN Curriculum site provides an easy mechanism for exchange of ideas.
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002 

The

Misconception Alert: the work is non-linear

!

It doesn·t matter where you start as long as the final design is coherent (all elements aligned) 
Clarifying

one element or Stage often forces changes to another element or Stage  The template ´blueprintµ is logical but the process is non-linear (think: home improvement!)
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

You·ve got to go below the surface...

to uncover the really ¶big ideas.·

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

3 Stages of Design, elaborated
1. Identify desired results
2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Stage 1 ± Identify desired results.
Key: Focus on Big ideas
Enduring Understandings: What specific insights U about big ideas do we want students to leave with?  What essential questions will frame the teaching Q and learning, pointing toward key issues and ideas, and suggest meaningful and provocative inquiry into content? K  What should students know and be able to do? 


What content standards are addressed explicitly CS by the unit?
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Establishing Priorities
Knowledge that is worth being familiar with
Worth being familiar with

Important to know and do

Knowledge and skills that are important to know and do

³Enduring´ understanding

Understandings that are enduring

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Taking a Closer Look at Understandings: They are...
specific generalizations about the ´big ideas.µ They summarize the key meanings, inferences, and importance of the ¶content·  Require ´uncoverageµ because they are not ´factsµ to the novice, but unobvious inferences drawn from facts - counterintuitive & easily misunderstood  deliberately framed as a full sentence ´moral of the storyµ ² ´Students will understand THAT«µ 

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Six Facets of Understanding
Explain - provide thorough,
supported, and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts and data

Perspective - can see and
hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture.

Interpret - tell meaningful
stories; offer apt translations; provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make it personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models.

Empathize - find value in
what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior direct experience.

Self-Knowledge perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; having an awareness of what one does not understand and why understanding is so hard

Apply - effectively use and adapt
what is known in diverse contexts.

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Brainstorming Essential Questions Based On the Facets
Interpretation
critique illustrate judge translate provide metaphors

Explanation
describe express justify predict synthesize

Application
build create design perform solve

assume role of consider imagine relate role-play

be aware of realize recognize reflect self-assess

analyze argue compare contrast infer

Empathy

Self-Knowledge

Perspective

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Provocative Essential Questions
‡Have no one obvious right answer. ‡Raise other important questions. ‡Address the philosophical or conceptual foundations of a discipline. ‡Recur naturally. ‡Are framed to provoke and sustain student interest.

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

SD Content Standards
Goals - the "end results" of what we expect after thirteen years
of content study

Indicators - further define the goals and provide the targets
and anchors for instructional levels

Benchmarks - articulate what the goal and indicator
represent at the different developmental levels, providing the targets for student performance

Standards - represent the classroom learning objectives or
activities to help students reach the expectations articulated in the benchmarks, indicators, and goals
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Identify the Content Standards for your Unit
‡By Goal, Indicator, Benchmark ‡3-5 for a 6 week unit of study
*Remember these are the ´Big Ideasµ specifically addressed by teaching and learning experiences in the unit. *Specific knowledge and skills (grade level standards)will also be listed on the design template.

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Test Design Against Standards
To what extent are the targeted understandings:
* Enduring * Framed as Generalizations * Framed by Provocative Essential Questions
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Reflection - Stage 1
‡I was surprised« ‡I have been wondering« Share response with ‡I realized that« your team. ‡Today I learned... Team selects 2 to share with group.
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Choose 1 to answer individually.

3 Stages of Design: Stage 2
1. Identify desired results

2. Determine acceptable evidence
3. Plan learning experiences & instruction
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Just because the student ³knows it´ «
Evidence of understanding is a greater challenge than evidence that the student knows a correct or valid answer
Understanding is inferred, not seen  It can only be inferred if we see evidence that the student knows why (it works) so what? (why it matters), how (to apply it) ² not just knowing that specific inference 

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Reliability: Snapshot vs. Photo Album
We need patterns that overcome inherent measurement error 

Sound assessment (particularly of State Standards) requires multiple evidence over time - a photo album vs. a single snapshot

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

For Reliability & Sufficiency: Use a Variety of Assessments
Varied types, over time: 
authentic  academic

tasks and projects

exam questions, prompts, and problems and test items checks for understanding self-assessments 

quizzes 

informal  student

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Curricular Priorities and Assessment Methods
Assessment Types Traditional quizzes and tests Paper-pencil Selected-response Constructed-response Performance tasks and projects Open-ended Complex Authentic
Worth being familiar with

Important to know and do

³Enduring´ understanding

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Assessment of Understanding Brainstorming«.
Using the Facets of Understanding  Considering a Range of Evidence  Determining Possible Performances 

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Scenarios for Authentic Tasks

T

G R A S P S

Build assessments anchored in authentic tasks using GRASPS:  What is the Goal in the scenario?  What is the Role?  Who is the Audience? 


What is your Situation (context)?

What is the Performance challenge?  By what Standards will work be judged in the scenario?

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

A Performance Task is Authentic if it« 
Is realistic. Requires judgment and innovation. Asks a student to ´doµ the subject. Replicates or simulates the contexts in which adults are tested in the workplace. Assess a student·s ability to efficiently and effectively use a repertoire of knowledge and skills to negotiate a complex task. Allows appropriate opportunities to rehearse, practice, and consult resources; obtain feedback on performances; and refine performances and products.

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Rubrics,Checklists and Other Evidence
UBD Templates
‡Holistic Frame ‡Analytic Frame ‡Analytic Frame for the Facets

‡RubiStar ‡PBL Checklists ‡QuizStar http://4teachers.org

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Test Design Against Standards
To what extent do the assessment provide:
* Valid and Reliable Measures * Authentic Performance Task Opportunities * Sufficient and Varied Information
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Reflection - Stage 2
‡I find it interesting that... ‡I have been Share response with wondering« ‡Today·s activities your team. caused me to think differently about __ Team selects 2 to because... share with group. ‡Today I learned...
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Choose 1 to answer individually.

3 Stages of Design: Stage 3
1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence

3. Plan learning experiences & instruction
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Stage 3 big idea:
E F F E C T I V E

and

E N G A G I N G

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Taking a Closer Look at...
Coverage vs. Uncoverage Misunderstanding and Misconceptions

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Think of your obligations via W. H. E. R. E. T. O.
W H E R E T O
´Where are we headed?µ (the student·s Q!)

L

How will the student be ¶hooked·? What opportunities will there be to be equipped, and to experience and explore key ideas? What will provide opportunities to rethink, rehearse, refine and revise? How will students evaluate their work? How will the work be tailored to individual needs, interests, styles? How will the work be organized for maximal engagement and effectiveness?
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Test Design Against Standards
To what extent will students:
* Know where they are headed and why? * Be hooked? * Explore and experience key ideas? * Reflect and Rethink? * Evaluate their own work? * Have work tailored to meet their needs? * Participate in learning activities organized to be engaging and effective?
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Reflection - Stage 3
‡I feel comfortable with... ‡I would like to Share response with learn more about... ‡I am still unclear your team. or unsure about... ‡I realize I need to Team selects 2 to take a closer look share with group. at...
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

Choose 1 to answer individually.

Peer Review
Consider«. Strengths Areas needing improvement Feedback Guidance
Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002

NBPTS
In what ways does the Backward Design Process support the Five Core Propositions of ´What Accomplished Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Doµ?

Adapted From the Work and Wisdom of Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe, UBD 08/2002