Instrumentation and measurements slides for Analog to Digital (AD) converter

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Instrumentation and measurements slides for Analog to Digital (AD) converter

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 46

Instrumentation,

ADC / DAC

MCT 3332 : Instrumentation and

Measurements

Outlines

Review of Digital Fundamental

Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) &

Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)

Digital Signal

Conditioning

In our days almost all instrumentation systems rely on digital

techniques for signal processing, transmission and data storage.

Analog outputs from sensors and analog front-ends (analog

signal conditioning) have to be converted into digital signals.

This process has two steps:

Analog signal sampling (Continuous time to discrete time)

Analog to digital conversion (Continuous Voltage to discrete

amplitude values)

Digital Signal

Conditioning

Functional Diagram for Data Acquisition and Control

Signal Processing for Digital and Analog Signals

Number systems and conversion, Boolean

algebra.

Logic gate networks, multiplexers, decoder,

read only memory and programmable logic

arrays. Combinational logic circuits, sequential

logic components, flip-flops, registers, counters

and sequential circuits.

Analysis and design of synchronous and

asynchronous networks. Programmable logic

device and field programmable gate array.

Number Systems

Decimal Number Systems

dn d3d2d1d0 = dn 10n++ d2 102+ d1 101+ d0 100

Base: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

(dn d3d2d1d0)2 = dn 2n++ d2 22+ d1 21+ d0 20

Example: 11012

Bits are the digits of a binary number

MSB (Most Significant Bit)

LSB (Least Significant Bit)

Hexadecimal

Base: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,

8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F

To convert a binary number

to hexadecimal, divide the

number into groups of four

digits.

0111 10112 = 7B16

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information

Interchange)

7-bit code to denote all of the alphanumeric

characters.

Some example codes are:

A: 100 0001 = 4116=6510

B: 100 0010 = 4216=6610

0: 011 0000 = 3016=4810

1: 011 0001 = 3116=4910

BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)

4 bits are used to represent a single decimal

number.

Ex:

12310=0001 0010 0011bcd

(Binary: 12310=0111 10112)

The gates are manufactured as integrated circuit (IC) where

transistors, resistors and diodes exist on a single piece of

silicon.

TTL (Transistor-transistor logic)

CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide

semiconductors)

10

TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) uses the BJT

technology

Logic zero (0) or low (L): less than 0.8V

Logic one (1) or high (H): greater than 2.0V

The input voltage range 0.8V to 2.0V is a dead zone

where the input state is undefined.

The digital output of a TTL device ranges between 0

and 0.5V for low and between 2.7V and 5V for high.

Semiconductor) uses the FET technology:

The logic levels depend on the supply voltage.

Very little power consumption, but susceptibility to

damage from static electricity.

11

12

Digital Signals

An analog-to-digital converter,

or ADC, performs the former

task while a digital-to-analog

converter, or DAC, performs

the latter.

electrical signal such as

voltage or current and outputs

a binary number.

13

Digital Signals

inputs a binary number and

outputs an analog voltage

or current signal.

14

Digital Signals

interface with analog sensors and output devices for

control systems such as those used in automotive engine

controls

15

ADC

A/D Conversion Process

Measurement

system

16

A/D Card

ADC

Sample-and-Hold (S/H)

input to ensure input signal is always

steady and at acceptable level

before going thru conversion.

the capacitor voltage (VC) will

"tracks or follows the input voltage,

Vc(t) = Vin(t)

desired, the electronic switch opens,

the capacitor will be isolated from

the input.

-> the capacitor will hold (stay

charged) to the voltage when the

switch opened, Vc, = Vin(ts)

Sample-and-hold circuit

17

ADC

A/D Conversion Process

called as sampling period or sampling time.

Sampling rate or

sampling frequency

1

fs

T

How fast or often the signal should be sampled to

obtained an accurate representation ?.

18

ADC

Sampling Rate

19

ADC

Shannon-Nyquists Sampling Theorem

An analog signal should be

sampled at a rate more than two

times the maximum frequency

components in the analog signal.

the analog signal, the digital

samples must be taken at a

frequency, fs :

f s 2 f max

than B Hz, it is completely determined by giving its ordinates at a

series of points spaced 1/(2B) seconds apart.

20

ADC

Aliasing

components, then a completely different waveform of a lower frequency

is constructed

from the data acquired. This effect is called aliasing.

21

ADC

Quantization Theory

The analog to digital (A/D) conversion is a two-step process, which

changes a sampled analog voltage into digital form:

Quantizing: the transformation of a continuous analog input into a

set of data represented by discrete output states.

Coding: the assignment of a digital code word or number to each

output state.

22

ADC

The number of possible states, N is equal to the number of

bit combinations:

N 2

of the ADC card.

23

ADC

Resolution (or analog quantization size) defines the number of

divisions into which a full-scale input range can be divided to

approximate an analog input voltage.

Vmax Vmin

Q

N

24

ADC

Hardware for ADC

25

ADC

Hardware for ADC

26

ADC

Comparator

27

ADC

Comparator in Digital System

Va or Vb, is the variable input, and the other a

fixed value is the reference voltage.

28

ADC

Comparator

In basic form, a comparator can be made from an op-amp without feedback:

where the real open loop gain of the op-amp AOL is of order 510 or more. Thus,

some small voltage difference, V2-V1 , produces a large VOUT .

this property can be exploited in a logical operation including the effects of

amplifier saturation:

29

ADC

An ideal comparator behaves in the following manner:

30

ADC

1. Flash/Parallel Converter

a simple way to get better (more bits of) resolution is to use more

comparators.

with reference voltages that are equally spaced over the desired

conversion range.

31

ADC

all the digital outputs with reference input voltages below the

input signal will be true and all of the digital outputs with

reference signals above the input signal level will be false.

the output logic circuit converts these 2n-1 binary values into an

n-bit number.

32

ADC

outputs is analyzed by

combinational logic

circuits (i.e. gates) to

determine the output.

flash (or parallel)

encoding.

33

ADC

34

35

DAC

Digital to analog converter

Analog signal

Binary number

DAC

digital devices to interface with

external analog circuits and

devices.

36

DAC

analog form by using a summing amplifier.

Summing Amplifier

Vout

RF

RF

V1

V2

R2

R1

37

DAC

VR b

0 LSB

128R

Weightedresistor DAC

b1

64R

b2

32R

b3

16R

b4

8R

b5

4R

b6

2R

b7 MSB

RF

Vout

8-bit DAC

38

DAC

The output voltage of the summing amplifier Vout is,

Vout

RF

VR

R1

Vout

RFVR

b7

b6

b0

1

0 1 7

R1 2 R 2 R

2 R

b0

b7 b6

0 1 7

2

2 2

39

DAC

For n-bit DAC

Vout

RFVR

b0

bn 1 bn 2

0 1 n 1

2

2

2

Vout

2 RF VR

40

41

ADC

Vin 1 n

)2 ]

VR 2

Example:

A bipolar 8-bit successive approximation ADC is used to convert the signal

from the sensor. The voltage input range is -5 5 Volt (or 5V ref). Determine

the binary number as the result of the conversion, when the voltage input to

the ADC card is -0.85 volt.

0.85 1 8

)2 ]

5

2

N INT [84.48] 8410 01010100 2

N INT [(

42

DAC

Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs)

VOUT VR b1 2 1 b2 2 2 ........bn 2 n

VR = reference voltage

b1,b2.bn = n-bit binary word

size of the binary word

43

DAC

N

VOUT n VR

2

N = base 10 whole-number equivalent of DAC input

Bipolar DAC

VOUT

N

1

V

VR

n R

2

2

If the maximum value for N is 2n-1 ; VOUT(max) is

2

Vout (max)

1

1

1

VR

V

R

R

R

2n

2

2

2n

44

DAC

Conversion Resolution

word.

more bits, the smaller the change in analog output for a 1-bit change

in binary word, gives a better resolution.

Vout VR 2 n

VOUT = smallest output change

VR

= reference voltage

n

= number of bits

45

DAC

Problem

A control valve has a linear variation of opening as the input voltage

varies from 0 to 10V. A microcomputer outputs an 8-bit word to control

the valve opening using an 8 bit DAC to generate the valve voltage.

(Vout = 10V)

b. Find the percentage of valve opening for a 1-bit change in the

input word

46

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