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ENGINEERING

METROLOGY
QAS 0312

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ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Course Objective
Students should be able to:
Explain the basic concepts of testing,

measuring and gauging procedures used in


engineering.
Perform inspection of linear and angular
measurement by using various types of
measuring instruments and gauging methods.

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ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Main Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Fundamentals of Metrology
Basic Inspection and Procedures
Measurement Errors
Vernier Caliper
Micrometer
Mechanical Dial Indicator
Gauge Blocks
Surface Plate Inspection
Instruments for Testing Angles
Gauges
Profile Projector
Surface Roughness Measurement
Measurement of Threads

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ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Assessment:
CMM 40%
Metrology 50%
KQ 10%
1. PBL 1

: 10%
2. PBL 2 & Practical : 25%
3. Test
: 15%
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
CHAPTER 1

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
Learning Objectives
Define the term metrology
Differentiate between accuracy and precision
Explain the needs and functions of inspection
List the objectives of metrology
Identify SI units and dimensions
Perform conversion of SI units

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
What is Metrology?
Science of measurement.
Concerns in correctness of measurement
Precision
Accuracy
Methods and techniques of measurement based

on agreed units and standards

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Precision vs
Accuracy
Inaccurate and imprecise (unrepeatable)
Stone age man
missed the bull'seye and the 3
attempts were not
near each other.
Precise but inaccurate
Robin Hood's Merry
Man missed the
bull's-eye but the 3
attempts were near
each other.
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Precision vs Accuracy (cont)


Accurate but imprecise
American Indian's 3
attempts are near
the bull's-eye, but
were not near each
other.
Accurate and precise
Olympic archer hits
the bull's-eye 3
times!

FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
Why is Metrology important?
Standardization in trade
Eliminating technical barriers in trade,
manufacturing industry, construction etc etc.
Promoting awareness to Quality Assurance
What is Inspection?
Formal or Official examination of products with
the use of accurate (calibrated) measuring
instruments
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Needs and Functions of


Inspection
To achieve
interchangeability
To determine
good or bad parts

To improve and develop


precision measuring
instruments

To support the
manufacturing department

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
To determine good and bad parts
1. To determine the conformance of products to
specifications or requirements important in
assisting manufacturing process and assuring
of quality.
2. In industry, inspection is used for selection of
products whether it can be accepted or
rejected
3. To maintain the product quality meet
customer satisfaction index
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
To achieve Interchangeability
1. Interchangeability products should be able to
fit and mate if chosen randomly from different
manufacturers
2. Examples: Screws and threads, nuts and bolts,
pipes and pressure vessels, pnuematic and
hydraulics fittings/valves, etc.
3. Can be achieved by means of measuring and
gauging
1.

2.

Calipers, micrometers, thickness gauge, radius


gauge etc
Plug gauge, pin gauge, ring gauge etc
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
To improve and develop precision measuring

instruments
Due to demands of high accuracy and
precision works or products
2. Promote spirit of competition between
manufacturers to produce high quality
precision parts
1.

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
To support the manufacturing department
1. Functions of inspection in manufacturing
industries

Conformity of products appearance and functions


Conformity of products dimensional specifications
Conformity of products performance
Providing data for products improvement analysis

Production process

Manpower skills

Material analysis

Machines accuracy and maintainance


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OBJECTIVES OF METROLOGY
Ensure products designed within process spec &

measuring instrument capabilities. (products)


Determine process capabilities. (processes)
Determine the measuring instrument capabilities.

(instruments)
Reduce the cost of rejects & rework. (products)
Minimize the cost of inspection. (products)
Maintenance of the accuracy of measurement.

(instruments)
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Principles of
Metrology
Fundamentals Units and standards
International System of Units (SI)
- established in 1960
- by CGPM (General Conference of
Weight and Measures)
- e.g : Force Newton N (kgm/s2)

advantages of coherency of SI
units.

same system & units of


measurement regardless of industries

minimum of conversion factors


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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
Principles of Metrology
Fundamentals Units and Standards

Language of measurement and must be constant


worldwide

SI base units:
1.
Length
: Meter
(m)
2.
Mass
: Kilograms
(kg)
3.
Time
: second
(s)
4.
Current
: Ampere (A)
5.
Thermo. Temp: Kelvin
(K)
6.
Amount of subs. : Mole
(mol)
7.
Luminous intensity : Candela (cd)
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
Principles of Metrology
SI Prefixes
Prefixes

Symbol

Multiplier

Prefixes

Symbol

Multiplier

peta

1015

deci

10-1

tera

1012

centi

10-2

giga

109

mili

10-3

mega

106

micro

10-6

kilo

103

nano

10-9

hecta

102

pico

10-12

deka

da

101

femto

10-15

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
Principles of Metrology
SI derived units:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Area : square meter


(m2)
Volume
: cubic meter
(m3)
Velocity : meter per second
(m/s)
Acceleration
: meter per square sec.
(m/s2)
Force : Newton
(N)
Luminance
: candela per square meter (cd/m2)

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
METROLOGY
Convert the following unit:

a)

0.88dm to mm:
b) 200m to Mm :
c) 15mg/Gm to kg/cm :

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