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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

ME 268

MODEL LAB
Lecture 1

Study of Boilers and Steam Turbine

Lecture delivered by
Md. Muntasir Alam
Lecturer
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
BUET, Dhaka-1000
muntasiralam@me.buet.ac.bd , muntasir.shubro91@gmail.com

ME 170

AlamAlam
Rezwan (BUET)
Md. Aashique
Muntasir

Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler

A closed vessel in which


water or other liquid is
heated, steam or vapor is
generated, steam is
superheated, under
pressure or vacuum.
An essential component in
modern thermal power
plants.
Source of heat for boiler is
combustion of any several
fossil fuels, such as wood,
coal, oil or natural gas.

ME 170Alam (BUET)
Md. Muntasir

Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

STEAM GENERATOR: BOILER

ME 170Alam (BUET)
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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

STEAM GENERATOR: BOILER


SCHEMATIC OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

MODERN PACKAGE BOILER

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

CLASSIFICATION OF BOILER:

1. Based on containing material in tube


a. Fire tube boiler
b. Water tube boiler
2. Based on working pressure
a. High pressure boiler (80 bar or above)
b. Low pressure boiler ( less than 80 bar)
3. Based on installation
a. Stationary boiler
b. Mobile boiler
4. .Based on axis of boiler
a. Horizontal axis boiler
b. Vertical axis boiler

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

FIRE TUBE BOILER:

Flames and hot gases pass through the tubes


which are surrounded by water.
Example: Lancashire boiler, Cochran boiler.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

WATER TUBE BOILER:

The water is contained inside the tubes that


are surrounded by flames and hot gases
from outside.
Example: Babcock and Wilcox boiler, Stirling
boiler.

ME 170Alam (BUET)
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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

MODERN PACKAGE BOILER


THREE PASS BOILER

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Md. Muntasir

Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Mountings are required for proper and safe functioning of the
boiler which are generally mounted over the boiler shell.
Water Level Indicator
Pressure gauge
Safety valves
Steam stop valve
Blow off cock
Fusible plug
Feed Check valve

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Water Level Indicator
The water level
indicator is needed to
ascertain the water level
of a boiler.
Two water level
indicators should be
fitted for each boiler in
such a place that the
water level can be
constantly seen.

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Md. Muntasir

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Pressure Gage

Fig.: A Bourdon Tube Pressure Gage

A pressure gauge is an instrument by means of which the


pressure exerted inside a vessel can be measured.
There are two types of pressure gauges, one is Bourdon tube
pressure gauge and the other is diaphragm type gauge.

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Md. Muntasir

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Safety Valve
The safety valve (pressure relief
valve) is used in a boiler to relieve the
pressure of steam when it is above the
working pressure.
Its function is to discharge a portion of
the steam from the boiler automatically
when the steam pressure exceeds the
normal limit. It is mounted on the top of
the shell.
As per boiler regulation two safety
valves are required to be fitted in each
boiler.
Fig.: A Spring Loaded Safety Valve

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Steam Stop Valve

From Boiler

The function of the stop valve or junction valve is to regulate the


flow of steam from the boiler to the main steam pipe.
To shut off the steam completely when required.

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Md. Muntasir

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Fusible Plug

Fig.: A Fusible Plug

The function is to extinguish the fire in the event of water level in


the boiler shell falling below a certain specified limit

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings

Blow off Cock


Principal functions of a blow
off cock :

To empty the boiler


whenever required
To discharge the mud,
scale or sediments
which are accumulated
at the bottom of the
boiler

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Mountings
Feed check valve
The feed check valve is used to
control the supply of water to the
boiler and to prevent the escaping
of water from the boiler when the
pump pressure is less or the pump
is stopped.
It is fitted over the shell slightly
below the normal water level of the
boiler.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Accessories
Accessories are used for efficient running of the boiler.
Superheater
Economiser
Air preheater
Reheater

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Accessories
Superheater

Superheater is an important device of a steam generating


unit. Its purpose is to increase the temperature of a
saturated steam without raising its pressure.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Accessories

Economizer

Economiser is a
device used for
preheating the feed
water before
entering the boiler. It
extracts heat from
the hot gases before
leaving through
chimney

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler Accessories

Air preheater
An air preheater (APH) is a heat
exchanger device.
The purpose of the air preheater is
to recover the heat from the
boiler flue gas which increases the
thermal efficiency of the boiler by
reducing the useful heat lost in the
flue gas.

Reheater
Reheater is used to reheat the
steam so that the quality of steam
does not deteriorate. This is used
for multistage turbine and increase
the lifetime of turbine blade along
with efficiency.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

BOILER CAPACITY
The Tonnage rating is widely used by boiler manufacturers. Kw
rating and boiler hp rating are also used

Tonnage Rating
It is the amount of water evaporated from feed water
at 100 C and formed into dry and saturated steam at
100C at normal atmospheric pressure. Each
kilogram of steam would thenhave received 2257 kJ
of heat from the boiler.
It is normally expressed as amount of steam (kg/hr).

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Schematic of a Boiler Plant

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Boiler at BUET lab


Boiler Specification
BRAND NAME Philipp Loos GmbH
Model 12 D-57629 Norken
Country of Made Germany
Capacity 1600 kg/hr
Maximum working
16 bar
pressure
Type of Burner

Dual Fuel Burner


(Natural Gas/Diesel)

Fuel used Natural Gas

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

STEAM TURBINE

A steam turbine is a device


that extracts thermal energy
from pressurized steam and
uses it to do mechanical work
on a rotating output shaft.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

CLASSIFICATION

Turbines are mainly of two


types:
Impulse Turbine
Reaction Turbine
Most steam turbines use a
mixture of the reaction and
impulse designs. Typically,
higher pressure sections
are impulse type and
lower pressure stages are
reaction type.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Impulse Turbine

Reaction Turbine
Reaction effect results
from issuing a fluid at very
high velocity from a
nozzle. This results in a
reaction which moves the
nozzle in opposite
direction.

Impulse Steam
Turbine stage
consists as usual
from stator which
known as the
nozzle and rotor
or moving blades

F = mV

Impulse Turbine
are characterized
by the that most
or all enthalpy
and hence
pressure drop
occurs in the
nozzle

Pure reaction happens if


the flow is accelerated
from zero velocity to its
exist velocity in the
moving blades Since this
is not the case in turbines,
thus there are no pure
reaction turbine but a mix
between impulse and
reaction.
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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

COMPOUNDING OF IMPULSE TURBINE

This is done to reduce the rotational speed of the impulse


turbine to practical limits. (A rotor speed of 30,000 rpm is
possible, which is pretty high for practical uses.)
Compounding is achieved by using more than one set of
nozzles, blades, rotors, in a series, keyed to a common
shaft; so that either the steam pressure or the jet velocity
is absorbed by the turbine in stages.
Three main types of compounded impulse turbines are:
Pressure compounded
velocity compounded and
pressure and velocity compounded impulse turbines.

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Pressure Compounded
Impulse Turbine

Velocity Compounded
Impulse Turbine

This involves splitting up of the


whole pressure drop from the
steam chest pressure to the
condenser pressure into a series
of smaller pressure drops across
several stages of impulse turbine.

Velocity drop is arranged in many


small drops through many moving
rows of blades instead of a single
row of moving blades.

ME 170
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Alam (BUET)

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

PRESSURE-VELOCITY COMPOUNDED IMPULSE


TURBINE

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Steam Generator & Steam Turbine

Feeling Sleepy!!!

Enough for today.

Thank You

ME 170

Aashique
Alam Rezwan
Md.
Muntasir
Alam (BUET)

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