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SCHOOL HEADS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM |

FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

K to 12 Pedagogies
Module 1: The School Head as Instructional Leader

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Session Objectives
Identify the different pedagogical
principles in which the K-12 curriculum is
founded
Identify the different constructivist
approaches and the ways in which ICT can
enhance this approach in developing the
21st century skills of learners
Design activities (using the constructivist
approach) to concretize these approaches

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Agree or
Disagree?

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

The mind is a
tabula rasa
(blank sheet of
paper).

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Students learn best


when they make
connections
between the
curriculum and
their interests and
experiences.
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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Learners construct
understanding /
meaning based on
their prior
knowledge or
experience.

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Education is a
social process,
therefore learning
should engage and
expand the
experiences of the
learners.
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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

The greatest
learning occurs
when students are
pushed slightly
beyond the point
where they can
work without
assistance.
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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Dynamic
assessment is a
way of assessing
the real
potential of
learners.
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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

RA 10533 sec.5
The Curriculum
a. shall be learner-centered, inclusive and
developmentally appropriate;
b. shall be relevant, responsive and researchbased;
c. shall be culture-sensitive;
d. shall be contextualized and global;
e. shall use pedagogical approaches that are
constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective,
collaborative and integrative;

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RA 10533 sec.5
f. shall adhere to the principles and framework of Mother
Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)

g. shall use the spiral progression approach to


ensure mastery of knowledge and skills after
each level; and
h. shall be flexible

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Constructivism
Learning is an active process
People discover how to learn
as they learn
Crucial action of constructing
meaning is mental
Learning involves language
Learning is a social activity

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Constructivism
Learning is contextual
One needs knowledge to
learn
Motivation is a key
component in learning
Learning is not
instantaneous

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Constructivism
Construction of knowledge

learners prior knowledge


have access to resources
actively learn
create, manipulate and
debate knowledge

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Constructivism
Process, not product

control of instruction
learning environment tasks
the learner with creating or
constructing representations
of individual meaning
Learners systematically
gather and evaluate
information

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Constructivism
Multiple perspectives
collaboration allowing
learners to share and
reconcile multiple
dissonant perspectives
or strategies and find
synergistic solutions

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Constructivism
Peers provide multiple
interpretations and models that
enables the learner to
systematically revisit, rearrange
and re-purpose material from
different conceptual
perspectives.
Reflexive cognition
Cognitive apprenticeship
Process-based evaluation

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E-Learning Model (Christie, 2006)

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Traditional

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Constructivism

Curriculum begins with


the part of the whole
emphasizing basic
skills

Curriculum
emphasizes big
concepts beginning
with the whole and
expanding to include
the parts

Strict adherence to fixed


curriculum is highly
valued

Pursuits of students
question and interest is
valued

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Traditional

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Constructivism

Learning is based on
repetition

Learning is
interactive

Teachers role is
directive, rooted in
authority

Teachers role is
interactive, rooted in
negotiation

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Traditional

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Constructivism

Students work
primarily alone

Students work
primarily in groups

Textbooks and
workbooks primarily
used

Manipulative materials
are primary sources

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Traditional

Constructivism

Assessment- Testing
(Correct answer)

Assessmentobservation, peer
evaluation, and testing

The teacher is superior Teachers serve as guides to


the students to challenge
and is referred as
them to think harder by
authority or master
considering new ideas

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Traditional
Assessment- Testing
(Correct answer)

Constructivism
Assessmentobservation, peer
evaluation, and testing

The teacher is superior


Teachers serve as
and is referred as
guides to the students to
authority or master
challenge them to think
harder by considering
new ideas

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Different
Constructivis
t Approaches

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Reciprocal Questioning
Jigsaw
Problem based and
inquiry learning methods
Case study
Socratic dialog
Debate
Anchored instruction
Cooperative Learning
Mind maps

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Bruners
Constructivism

in
Education

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

The Role of the Constructivist Teacher

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

DepEd on Differentiated
Instruction
DepEd Order No. 72 (2009)- asserting the critical
role of differentiated instruction in increasing the
school participation rate of children
curriculum modifications shall be implemented in
the forms of adaptations and accommodations to
foster optimum learning based on individuals
needs and potentials

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What is Differentiated
Instruction?
a way to provide increased
set of different instructional
activities to address the
increasingly diverse learning
needs of students in todays
classrooms
Tomlinson, 1999
The Differentiated Classroom:
Responding to the Needs of all Learners

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What is Differentiated
Instruction?

Practice of adapting
instruction to meet the
needs of particular
students.
Teachers adapting
their curriculum and
instructional
approaches so each
student can learn up
to his or her potential.
(Arends, 2009)

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Information and Communication Technology

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are informationhandling tools


- varied set of goods,
applications and
services used to
produce, store, process,
distribute and
exchange
information
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Use of ICT to Enhance


Constructivism
In education, computers can be used
to enhance constructivist approaches
in the classroom by developing
programs, computer-assisted
instruction, drills, and tutorials
Social networking sites can be used
for forum or group discussion where a
lot of ideas are being expressed by
the students
There are also sites in which students
can create their own portfolio, scrap
book, journals and the like

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Use of ICT to Enhance


Constructivism
Integrating ICTs with tools that support
constructivist learning increases a
learners ability to participate in peer
interactions, group reflection and
discussion (Santally et al., 2012, p. 8) in a variety of
social-web formats to support constructivist learning (Tsai,
2008).

Online social learning environments


designed using constructivist
framework allow students to present
their views and critically analyze the
views of others beyond a classroom
context (Gazi, 2009, p. 69).

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ICT Conceptual Framework

ICT Integration Matrix


DOMAIN

SUBDOMAIN

Lesson
Preparat
ion

Teachi
ng and Lecture /
Learni Demonstra
tion
ng
Proces
s
LEGENCollabora
D: tive

TEACHER
ACTIVITY

Create
and
Print
lesson
plan
Show
visual
presentati
on

Facilitate
in a
collaborat
activities ive
platform

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INDIC.

STUDENT
ACTIVITY

INDI
C.

--

--

View
presenta
tion

content
Collabor
ate with

classma
tes in
creatin
g an
output

Network
Configuration or Computer Set-up
A = Highly-needed
1 = In computer labs
B = May be substituted
C = Not needed
2 = In classrooms / instructional rooms
3 = In other locations (for teachers and
Peripherals
| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1
students)

HARDWAR
E
PERIPHER
ALS

Printer

SOFTWAR
E

Word
process
or

Presenta
Projectio tion

n device applicati
on
Digital
resource
Speake s,
resource
rs
viewer,
Access
Collaborat
ion
Send,platform
Communicate
Create, Produce
Output

CONFI
GURAT
ION

NET
WOR
K

2, 4

1, 2,
4

Collaborate
Process,
Organize, Store

ICT Integration Matrix

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

ICT Integration Matrix


DOMAIN

SUBTEACH INDIC. STUDE INDI


DOMAIN
ER
NT
C.
ACTIVI
ACTIVIT
TY
Y
----Teaching Designin Create
and
g Lesson and
Learning
Print
Process
lesson
*Creat
plan
e
A. Lesson
produc
Preparatio
t/
n
Produc
e
output
Sample 1
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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

ICT Integration Matrix


HARDWARE
SOFTWARE CONFIGURATI NETWO
PERIPHERALS APPLICATION
ON
RK
S
Printer
Word
3
C
3
(with a
processor
May be in
*Networ
computer)
other locations k or
(a computer in internet
faculty room)
is not
needed

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

ICT Integration Matrix


DOMAIN

SUBDOMAIN

Teaching and Lecture /


Learning
Demonstrati
Process
on
B. Instruction

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Sample
2

TEACHER
ACTIVITY

INDIC.

Show
visual
presentatio
n
*Send /
Communica
te
Information

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

ICT Integration Matrix


STUDENT
ACTIVITY

INDIC.

-View
presentation
content

HARDWARE
PERIPHERALS

SOFTWARE

Projection
device

Presentation
application

Access /
Get
informatio
n

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| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

ICT Integration Matrix


CONFIGURATION
2, 3, 4
2
May be in classrooms
/ instructional rooms
4
Others (Off-school /
with other digital
tools)

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NETWORK
C
*Network or
internet is not
needed

| School Heads Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE | MODULE 1

Application
GROUP ACTIVITY (20 minutes)
From the pre-assigned
competency and pedagogy,
design a 5-minute activity to
concretize such.
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