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Kuat Geser Tanah

(Shear Strength)
(Source : CIL-610 Foundation Engineering)

oleh:
A. Adhe Noor PSH, ST., MT
Staf Pengajar Program Studi Teknik Sipil
Jurusan Teknik Fakultas Sains dan Teknik
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Strength of different
materials
Steel

Tensile
strength

Concrete

Soil

Compressive
strength

Shear
strength

Complex
behavior

Presence of pore water

Shear failure of soils


Soils generally fail in shear
Embankment
Strip footing

Failure surface
Mobilized shear
resistance

At failure, shear stress along the failure surface


(mobilized shear resistance) reaches the shear
strength.

Shear failure of soils


Soils generally fail in shear

Retaining
wall

Shear failure of soils


Soils generally fail in shear

Retaining
wall

Mobilized
shear
resistance
Failure
surface

At failure, shear stress along the failure surface


(mobilized shear resistance) reaches the shear
strength.

Shear failure mechanism

failure
surface

The
soil
grains
slide over each
other along the
failure surface.
No crushing of
individual
grains.

Shear failure mechanism

At failure, shear stress along the failure surface ()


reaches the shear strength (f).

Mohr-Coulomb
Failure
(in terms of total stresses)

Criterion

f c tan
failu

Cohesio
n

re

pe
o
l
e
env

Friction
angle

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without


failure, under normal stress of .

Mohr-Coulomb
Failure
(in terms of effective stresses)

Criterion

f c' ' tan '


Effectiv
e
cohesio
n

re
u
l
i
a
f

pe
o
l
e
env

' u

u = pore water
pressure

Effective
friction
angle

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without


failure, under normal effective stress of .

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion


Shear strength consists of two
components: cohesive and frictional.

f c' ' f tan '

f tan
c
f

i ve t
s
e
coh ponen
com

'

frictional
compone
nt

c and are measures of shear


strength.
Higher the values, higher the shear
strength.

Determination of shear strength parameters of


soils (c, orc
Laboratory
tests
on
specimens
taken
from
representative undisturbed
samples
Most common laboratory tests
to determine the shear strength
parameters are,
1.Direct shear test
2.Triaxial shear test
Other laboratory tests include,
Direct simple shear test, torsional
ring shear test, plane strain triaxial
test, laboratory vane shear test,
laboratory fall cone test

Field tests

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Vane shear test


Torvane
Pocket penetrometer
Fall cone
Pressuremeter
Static cone penetrometer
Standard penetration test

Laboratory tests
Field conditions

A representative
soil sample

vc
hc

hc
vc

Before construction

vc +
hc

hc
vc +

After and during


construction

vc +

Laboratory tests
Simulating field conditions
in the laboratory
0

vc
0

0
0

Representative
soil
sample
taken from the
site

l
a
i
x
a
r
T

t
s
te

Di
hc rect
sh
ea
r

hc
vc

hc

vc +

vc
te

st

vc

Step 1
Set the specimen in
the apparatus and
apply the initial
stress condition

hc

Step 2
Apply
the
corresponding field
stress conditions

Direct shear test


Schematic diagram of the direct shear apparatus

Direct shear test


Direct shear test is most suitable for consolidated drained tests
specially on granular soils (e.g.: sand) or stiff clays

Preparation of a sand specimen


Porous
plates

Components of the shear box

Preparation of a sand specimen

Direct shear test


Preparation of a sand specimen

Leveling the top surface


of specimen

Pressure plate

Specimen preparation
completed

Direct shear test


Test procedure

Steel ball
Pressure plate

Porous
plates
S

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

Direct shear test


Test procedure

Steel ball
Pressure plate

Porous
plates
S

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant rate

Direct shear test


Shear box

Dial gauge to
measure vertical
displacement

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Loading frame to
apply vertical load

Dial
gauge
to
measure horizontal
displacement

Direct shear test


Analysis of test results

Normal force (P)


Normal stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Shear resistance developed at the sliding surface (S)
Shear stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Note: Cross-sectional area of the sample changes with the horizontal
displacement

Direct shear tests on sands


Stress-strain relationship
Shear stress,

Dense sand/
OC clay

f
f

Loose sand/
NC clay

Expansion
Compression

Change in height
of the sample

Shear displacement

Dense sand/OC Clay


Shear displacement

Loose sand/NC Clay

Direct shear tests on sands


How to determine strength parameters c and

Shear stress at failure,

Normal stress = 2

f3

f2

f1

Normal stress = 1

Shear displacement

Mohr Coulomb failure envelope

Normal stress,

Shear stress,

Normal stress = 3

Direct shear tests on sands


Some important facts on strength parameters c and of sand

Sand is cohesionless
hence c = 0

Direct shear tests are


drained
and
pore
water pressures are
dissipated, hence u =
0
Therefore,
= and c = c = 0

Direct shear tests on clays


In case of clay, horizontal displacement should be applied at a very
slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure (therefore, one
test would take several days to finish)
Failure envelopes for clay from drained direct shear tests

Normally consolidated clay (c = 0)

Normal force,

Shear stress at failure,

Overconsolidated clay (c 0)

Interface tests on direct shear apparatus


In many foundation design problems and retaining wall problems, it
is required to determine the angle of internal friction between soil
and the structural material (concrete, steel or wood)
P

Soil

Foundation material

f ca ' tan

Where,
ca = adhesion,
= angle of internal friction

THE END