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(Shear Strength)

(Source : CIL-610 Foundation Engineering)

oleh:

A. Adhe Noor PSH, ST., MT

Staf Pengajar Program Studi Teknik Sipil

Jurusan Teknik Fakultas Sains dan Teknik

Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Strength of different

materials

Steel

Tensile

strength

Concrete

Soil

Compressive

strength

Shear

strength

Complex

behavior

Soils generally fail in shear

Embankment

Strip footing

Failure surface

Mobilized shear

resistance

(mobilized shear resistance) reaches the shear

strength.

Soils generally fail in shear

Retaining

wall

Soils generally fail in shear

Retaining

wall

Mobilized

shear

resistance

Failure

surface

(mobilized shear resistance) reaches the shear

strength.

failure

surface

The

soil

grains

slide over each

other along the

failure surface.

No crushing of

individual

grains.

reaches the shear strength (f).

Mohr-Coulomb

Failure

(in terms of total stresses)

Criterion

f c tan

failu

Cohesio

n

re

pe

o

l

e

env

Friction

angle

failure, under normal stress of .

Mohr-Coulomb

Failure

(in terms of effective stresses)

Criterion

Effectiv

e

cohesio

n

re

u

l

i

a

f

pe

o

l

e

env

' u

u = pore water

pressure

Effective

friction

angle

failure, under normal effective stress of .

Shear strength consists of two

components: cohesive and frictional.

f tan

c

f

i ve t

s

e

coh ponen

com

'

frictional

compone

nt

strength.

Higher the values, higher the shear

strength.

soils (c, orc

Laboratory

tests

on

specimens

taken

from

representative undisturbed

samples

Most common laboratory tests

to determine the shear strength

parameters are,

1.Direct shear test

2.Triaxial shear test

Other laboratory tests include,

Direct simple shear test, torsional

ring shear test, plane strain triaxial

test, laboratory vane shear test,

laboratory fall cone test

Field tests

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Torvane

Pocket penetrometer

Fall cone

Pressuremeter

Static cone penetrometer

Standard penetration test

Laboratory tests

Field conditions

A representative

soil sample

vc

hc

hc

vc

Before construction

vc +

hc

hc

vc +

construction

vc +

Laboratory tests

Simulating field conditions

in the laboratory

0

vc

0

0

0

Representative

soil

sample

taken from the

site

l

a

i

x

a

r

T

t

s

te

Di

hc rect

sh

ea

r

hc

vc

hc

vc +

vc

te

st

vc

Step 1

Set the specimen in

the apparatus and

apply the initial

stress condition

hc

Step 2

Apply

the

corresponding field

stress conditions

Schematic diagram of the direct shear apparatus

Direct shear test is most suitable for consolidated drained tests

specially on granular soils (e.g.: sand) or stiff clays

Porous

plates

Preparation of a sand specimen

of specimen

Pressure plate

Specimen preparation

completed

Test procedure

Steel ball

Pressure plate

Porous

plates

S

Proving ring

to measure

shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

Test procedure

Steel ball

Pressure plate

Porous

plates

S

Proving ring

to measure

shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant rate

Shear box

Dial gauge to

measure vertical

displacement

Proving ring

to measure

shear force

Loading frame to

apply vertical load

Dial

gauge

to

measure horizontal

displacement

Analysis of test results

Normal stress

Area of cross section of the sample

Shear resistance developed at the sliding surface (S)

Shear stress

Area of cross section of the sample

Note: Cross-sectional area of the sample changes with the horizontal

displacement

Stress-strain relationship

Shear stress,

Dense sand/

OC clay

f

f

Loose sand/

NC clay

Expansion

Compression

Change in height

of the sample

Shear displacement

Shear displacement

How to determine strength parameters c and

Normal stress = 2

f3

f2

f1

Normal stress = 1

Shear displacement

Normal stress,

Shear stress,

Normal stress = 3

Some important facts on strength parameters c and of sand

Sand is cohesionless

hence c = 0

drained

and

pore

water pressures are

dissipated, hence u =

0

Therefore,

= and c = c = 0

In case of clay, horizontal displacement should be applied at a very

slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure (therefore, one

test would take several days to finish)

Failure envelopes for clay from drained direct shear tests

Normal force,

Overconsolidated clay (c 0)

In many foundation design problems and retaining wall problems, it

is required to determine the angle of internal friction between soil

and the structural material (concrete, steel or wood)

P

Soil

Foundation material

f ca ' tan

Where,

ca = adhesion,

= angle of internal friction

THE END

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