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# Presented By:

Emmanuel A. Rosales

FUELS &
COMBUSTION

INTRODUCTION

## Solar energy is converted to chemical

energy through photo-synthesis in plants
Energy produced by burning wood or
fossil fuels
Fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas

CLASIFICATION OF FUELS
CHEMICAL
FUELS
SECONDARY OR
DERIVED FUELS

PRIMARY OR
NATURAL FUELS
SOLID:

Wood,coal,
lignite
LIQUID:
Crude oil

GASEOUS:
Natural gas

SOLID:
coke,charcaol,
petroleum

LIQUID:
Petrol,
kerosene,diesel
.

GASEOUS:
coal gas, water
gas, biogas

Calorific value

## Calorific value is the total quantity of heat liberated when a

unit mass of fuel burn completely.

Measured at 25C.

condensed

## v latent heat of water vapour at reference temperature,

normally at 298.15K.

v at 298.15K = 2442.5kJ/kg.

## Units of calorific values

For solid and liquid calorific value are
Joules/kg [ in SI system]
calori / gram [ in cgs system]
kcalori/kg [ in mks system]
B.T.U/Lb [ British system ]
Relation 1kcal/kg = 1.8B.T.U/lB.
For gases; kcal/cubic meter.
BTU/cubic feet.
Relation: 1kcal/cubic meter = 0.107BTU/IB.

TYPES OF FUELS

Liquid Fuels
Usage
Used extensively in industrial applications
Examples
Furnace oil
Light diesel oil
Petrol
Kerosene
Ethanol
LSHS (low sulfur heavy stock)

Liquid Fuels
Density
Ratio of the fuels mass to its volume at
15 oC,
kg/m3
Useful for determining fuel quantity and
quality

Liquid Fuels
Specific gravity
Ratio of weight of oil volume to weight
of same water volume at a given
temperature
Specific gravity of water is 1 at 4C.
Hydrometer used to measure
Table 1. Specific gravity of various fuel oils
Fuel oil
type

LDO
(Light Diesel Oil)

Furnace oil

## LSHS (Low Sulfur

Heavy Stock)

Specific
Gravity

0.85-0.87

0.89-0.95

0.88-0.98

Liquid Fuels
Viscosity
Measure of fuels internal resistance to flow
Most important characteristic for storage and use
Decreases as temperature increases
Flash point

## Lowest temperature at which a fuel can be

heated so that the vapor gives off flashes when an
open flame is passes over it
Flash point of furnace oil: 66oC

Liquid Fuels
Pour point
Lowest temperature at which fuel will flow
Indication of temperature at which fuel can
be pumped
Specific heat
kCal needed to raise temperature of 1 kg oil
by 1oC (kcal/kgoC)
Indicates how much steam/electricity it
takes to heat oil to a desired temperature

Liquid Fuels
Sulfur content

## Depends on source of crude oil and less on the

refining process
Furnace oil: 2-4 % sulfur
Sulfuric acid causes corrosion
Ash content

## Inorganic material in fuel

Typically 0.03 - 0.07%

## Corrosion of burner tips and damage to materials

/equipment at high temperatures

Liquid Fuels
Carbon residue
Tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid
residue on a hot surface
Residual oil: >1% carbon residue
Water content

## Normally low in furnace oil supplied (<1% at

refinery)
Free or emulsified
form
Can damage furnace surface and impact flame

Solid Fuels

## Coal is a highly homogeneous matter.

Coal is the most important fossil fuel.

Solid Fuels
Coal classification
Anthracite: hard and geologically the
oldest
Bituminous
Lignite: soft coal and the youngest
Further classification: semi- anthracite,
semi-bituminous, and sub-bituminous

Solid Fuels
Physical properties
Heating or calorific value (GCV)
Moisture content
Volatile matter
Ash
Chemical properties
Chemical
constituents:
carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur

## Solid Fuels (Physical

properties)
Moisture content
% of moisture in fuel (0.5 10%)
Reduces heating value of fuel
Weight loss from heated and then cooled powdered
raw coal
Volatile matter
Methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, CO, other
Typically 25-35%
Easy ignition with high volatile matter
Weight loss from heated then cooled crushed coal

## Solid Fuels (Physical properties)

Ash
Impurity that will not burn (5-40%)
Important for design of furnace
Ash = residue after combustion
Fixed carbon
Fixed carbon = 100 (moisture + volatile matter +
ash)
Carbon + hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen
residues
Heat generator during combustion

## Solid Fuels (Physical properties)

Proximate analysis of coal
Determines only fixed carbon, volatile matter, moisture
and ash
Useful to find out heating value (GCV)
Simple analysis equipment
Ultimate analysis of coal
Determines all coal component elements: carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, other
Useful for furnace design (e.g flame temperature, flue duct
design)
Laboratory analysis

## Solid Fuels (Chemical Properties)

Proximate analysis

(%)
Indian
Coal

Indonesian
Coal

South African
Coal

Moisture

5.98

9.43

8.5

Ash

38.63

13.99

17

Volatile
matter

20.70

29.79

23.28

Fixed Carbon

34.69

46.79

51.22

## Solid Fuels (Chemical Properties)

Ultimate analysis

## Typical ultimate analysis of coal (%)

Parameter
Moisture
Mineral Matter (1.1 x Ash)
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen

Indian Coal, %
5.98
38.63
41.11
2.76
1.22
0.41
9.89

Indonesian Coal, %
9.43
13.99
58.96
4.16
1.02
0.56
11.88

Gaseous Fuels
Least amount of
handling
Simplest burners systems
Burner systems require least
maintenance
Environmental benefits: lowest GHG
and other emissions

Gaseous Fuels
CLASSIFICATION OF GASEOUS FUELS
(A) Fuels naturally found in nature
Natural gas
Methane from coal mines
(B) Fuel gases made from solid fuel
Gases derived from coal
Gases derived from waste and biomass
From other industrial processes
Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG)
Refinery gases
Gases from oil gasification
(D) Gases from some fermentation

Gaseous Fuels
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

## Propane, butane and unsaturated, lighter

C2 and heavier C5 fractions
Hydrocarbons are gaseous at atmospheric
pressure but can be condensed to liquid
state
LPG vapor is denser than air: leaking
gases can flow long distances from the
source

Gaseous Fuels
Natural gas
Methane: 95%
Remaining 5%: ethane, propane, butane,
pentane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, other gases
High calorific value fuel
Does not require storage facilities
No sulfur
Mixes readily with air without producing smoke
or soot

COMBUSTION

Principles of
Combustion

## Combustion: rapid oxidation of a fuel

Complete combustion: total oxidation of fuel
Air: 20.9% oxygen, 79% nitrogen and other
Nitrogen: (a) reduces the combustion
efficiency (b) forms NO2 at high
temperatures
Carbon forms (a) CO2 (b) CO resulting in
less heat production

Principles of Combustion

1T) Temperature
2T) Turbulence
3T) Time

## Water vapor is a by-product of burning

fuel that contains hydrogen and this robs
heat from the flue gases

Principle of Combustion

## Oxygen is the key to combustion

Stoichiometric calculation of
air required

## Stochiometric air needed for combustion

of furnace oil
Theoretical CO2 content in the flue
gases
Actual CO2 content and % excess air
Constituents of flue gas with excess air
Theoretical CO2 and O2 in dry flue gas
by volume