You are on page 1of 28



What is an Accident ???

An accident is an unplanned & uncontrolled event
which causes or is likely to cause an injury.
It is some thing which is un-expected, un-predictable
or intended or not desired.
Undesired circumstances which give rise to ill-health
or injury, damage to property, plant, products or the
environment; production losses or increased
An accidents may cause a result of some unsafe
activity, act, working condition etc ,..

What is an Industrial Accident ???

It can be defined as an event that suddenly occurs when
one or number of employees / workers are placed in plant.
For instance, in an organization a person / labour while
working receiving an electric current, a labor cut his finger
from machine, blast in chemical industry because of
various reasons, fire in textile section etc..
These are all the example of industrial accidents.
An accident stops the normal course of events and causes
property damage, or personal injury, minor or serious and
occasionally results in a fatality.

What is an Incident?
Unplanned and unwanted event which disrupts the work process
and has the potential of resulting in injury, harm, or damage to
persons or property.
An incident disrupts the work process, does not result in injury
or damage, but should be looked as a wake up call.
Incidents represent situations which have the potential to cause
harm to a person or damage equipment or property.
It can be thought of as the first of a series of events which could
lead to a situation in which harm or damage occurs.
Employers should investigate an incident to determine the root
cause and use the information to stop process and behaviors that
could just as easily have resulted in an accident.

Example of an incident: A 50 lb box falls off the top shelf of a 12 high rack
and lands near a worker. This event is unplanned, unwanted, and has the
potential for injury.

Accidents are incidents which occur and result in
harm to a person or damage to equipment or property.
Examples might include:
Trips or falls causing injury.
Explosion of a pressurized vessel
Chemical spills (e.g. a dropped bottle).
Injuries occurring while machining.
Activities or equipment failure causing fire or
property damage.

Industrial Accidents
Industrial Accidents are caused by chemical, mechanical, civil,
electrical, or other process failures due to accident, negligence
or incompetence, in an industrial plant which may spill over to
the areas outside the plant causing damage to life and property.
These may originate in:
Manufacturing and formulation installations including during
commissioning and process operations; maintenance and
Material handling and storage in manufacturing facilities, and
isolated storages; warehouses and godowns including tank farms
in ports and docks and fuel depots.
Transportation (road, rail, air, water, and pipelines).

Types of Accidents
A) According to Length of Recovery:
I)First Aid Accidents
Here these worker receives first aid at plant
hospital and then return to the job.

II)Lost Time Accidents

Here worker loses a day or shift in which accidents
occur. Compensation is given to the employee
by employer for the severity of

A) According to the Nature of Injury
I) Fatal Accidents :it includes the accidents
that could result in the death of the injured
worker. The death could occur on the spot
due to the unbearable injuries.
II) Temporary Disablement: accident that
reduces the earning capacity of an employee
when he engaged in the injury. But once he
got ok he start work again.
III) Permanent Disablement: an accident that
completely reduces the earning capacity of
an employee..!!!!

Category of Accidents
There Are FOUR Category of Accidents..
1) Minor Accidents
2) Reportable Accidents
3) Fatal Accidents
4) Accidents due to Dangerous Occurrence

Minor Accidents
It includes all those accidents that are :
Less harmful in nature to the worker
Preventing employees from working for the
period less than 48 hours from the time of
These accidents are not reported to the higher
These accidents are easily controlled.

Reportable Accidents
It includes the category of accidents
which is little complicated then of
minor accidents.
Here the injuries caused to the worker
prevent him from working for the
period of 48 hours or more.
Here supervisor is responsible to
report to the higher management and
arrange another worker so that the
production could not be affected.

Accidents due to the Dangerous Occurrences

These occurs due to :
Bursting of vessel for containing steam under
pressure greater than atmospheric pressure.
Failure of crank or other appliances.
Explosion of fire causing damage to any room or
place where person are employed.
Explosion of container used for storage of any gas
or liquid at a pressure greater than atmospheric

Major Accident

An unexpected, sudden occurrence including, in

particular, a major emission, fire or explosion,
resulting from abnormal developments in the course
of an industrial activity, leading to a serious danger
to workers, the public or the environment, whether
immediate or delayed, inside or outside the
installation and involving one or more hazardous

Causes of Accidents
As we know that an accidents is an unplanned
activity and hence an accidents dont have any
specific cause to occur, the causes of accident
vary from situation to situation.
In general sense an accident may be cause due

Technical cause

II. Human cause

Causes of Accidents
The mechanical factors includes:
Unsafe mechanical design and construction,
Hazardous arrangement,
Improper machine guarding,
defective device,
improper material handling,
The environmental factors includes:
Too low & too high temp to cause shivering & sweating
too high humidity to cause fatigue and drowsiness,
defective illumination,
inadequate rest,
poor housekeeping,
noise, bad odor and flash coming from nearby machinery,
equipment or process etc

Personal Factors
It includes
Lack of knowledge & skill
Improper attitudes towards work.
Emotional in stability such as jealousy.
Mental worries
Non use of safety device
Working and unsafe speed.
Improper use of tools.

Seven Common Accident Causes

Consider this statistic: 80 out of every 100 accidents are the
fault of the person involved in the incident. Unsafe Acts cause
four times as many accidents & injuries as unsafe
Taking Shortcuts: Short cuts that reduce your safety on the job
are not shortcuts, but an increased chance for injury.
Being Over Confident: Confidence is a good thing.
Overconfidence is too much of a good thing. "It will never
happen to me" is an attitude that can lead to improper
procedures, tools, or methods in your work. Any of these can
lead to an injury.
Starting a Task with Incomplete Instructions: To do the job
safely and right at the first time you need complete information.
Don't be shy about asking for explanations about work
procedures and safety precautions.

Seven Common Accident Causes

Poor Housekeeping: is an accurate indicator of everyone's attitude
about quality, production and safety. Poor housekeeping creates hazards
of all types. A well maintained area sets a standard for others to follow.
Good housekeeping involves both pride and safety.
Ignoring Safety Procedures: Purposely failing to observe safety
procedures can endanger you and your co-workers. Being "casual"
about safety can lead to a casualty!
Mental Distractions from Work: Having a bad day at home and
worrying about it at work is a hazardous combination. You can also be
distracted when you're busy working and a friend comes by to talk
while you are trying to work.
Failure to Pre-Plan the Work: Being hasty in starting a task, or not
thinking through the process can put you in harms way. Instead, Plan
Your Work and then Work Your Plan!
"It is better to be careful 100 times than to get killed once." (Mark

Accident Prevention Fundamentals

Accidents are Preventable
Unfortunately, many people, either through ignorance
or misunderstanding, believe that accidents are the
inevitable results of unchangeable circumstances, fate,
or a matter of bad luck.
It must be emphasized that accidents do not happen
without cause and the identification, isolation and
control of these causes are the underlying principles of
all accident prevention techniques.
There are many methods of determining the causes of

Causes of Accidents
Causes of accidents can be divided into three major categories:
Unsafe acts of people;
Unsafe physical or mechanical conditions; and,
Acts of nature (floods, hurricanes, etc.).
According to National Safety Council statistics, 88% of all
accidents are a result of unsafe acts of people.
Approximately 10% of all accidents are caused by unsafe
equipment or unsafe surroundings.
The other 2% of all accidents are caused by acts of nature.
Therefore, elimination of unsafe acts of people will be the main
thrust of any effective safety program.

Unsafe Acts of People

Some causes of unsafe acts include:
Failure to follow a proper job procedure;
Cleaning/repairing equipment that is moving, electrically energized or
Failure to use appropriate PPE-gloves, goggles, hardhats or seatbelts;
Failure to wear safe personal attire;
Failure to secure or warn;
Improper use of equipment;
Improper use of hands or body parts;
Making safety devices inoperative;
Operating or working at unsafe speeds;
Taking unsafe position or posture;
Unsafe placing, mixing or combining materials;
Using tools or equipment known to be unsafe;
Driving errors; and,
Unsafe acts can usually be attributed to one of the following:
Lack of knowledge; Improper attitude; and Lack of safety awareness.

Unsafe Physical or Mechanical Conditions

Most unsafe or hazardous conditions can be
grouped into one or more of the following
Defective or unsuitable tools, machinery,
equipment or materials;
Casual housekeeping;
Unsafe or lack of methods or procedures;
Employee not mentally or physically
compatible with job requirements.
Acts of Nature

Control of Accident Causes

There are three main methods utilized to control accident
Education and training, and
These methods are sometimes referred as Three Es of
mechanical revisions or modifications to eliminate existing,
unsafe conditions and, in some cases, to prevent unsafe acts.
Design of machine guards, automobile brakes, traffic
signals, pressure relief valves and hand rails are varied
examples of safety engineering at work. and, in some
cases, to prevent unsafe acts.

Control of Accident Causes

Education and Training
Safety education is the most effective tool in preventing
accidents by human causes.
Through adequate instruction, personnel gain useful
knowledge and development of safe attitudes.
Training is a particularly important accident prevention
control; it gives each employee a personal safety tool by
developing habits of safe practice and operation.
Strict enforcement of safety practices is necessary, backed by
prompt corrective action.
No organized accident prevention can be successful without
effective enforcement because accidents are frequently the
direct result of violations of safety principles.

Elimination of Unsafe Conditions

Effective means of preventing accidents is elimination of unsafe
The following unsafe conditions must not be permitted to exist:
Obstacles to safe movement of personnel, vehicles/machines
Unsafe working and walking surfaces;
Worn, damaged or misused tools;
Failure to provide proper equipment and supports for the hoisting and
movement of heavy objects;
Operation of equipment with guards for moving parts of machinery
removed and/or defeated;
Allowing employees to work without using required PPE such as
goggles, gloves, hardhats, adequate footwear or seatbelts;
Damaged/unguarded electrical wiring, fixtures and power cords; and,
Absence of required signage warning of particular hazards in the area.
Near-miss occurrences need to be investigated and corrected as they are a
warning of a condition that may eventually lead to an accident.

Observable or predicted from knowledge

Not directly observable - probability of harm to system elements
being realised from exposure to hazards and danger.

Damage to system elements - long or short term


Injuries Ill-Health Damage

Special Emphasis Programme (SEP)

Work place vary and hence associated hazard
Even for a similar industry, the exposure may be
different, resulting in special focus on different
The Special Emphasis Programmes (SEP) is another
tool used to address high-risk activities so that
accidents, fatalities and severe injuries can be avoided.
SEP is an organized approach that focuses specifically
on one particular hazard to achieve the desired safe
work performance. specific hazards - such as ladder
safety, hand safety, back injuries prevention, electrical
safety, etc.

Key elements of SEP :
Purpose and objectives;
Step-by-step procedures;
List of identified equipment used;
Checklist, signage, tags or stickers;
Inspection and auditing frequency;
Indicators that track the implementation; and
Rewards/penalties for safe work performance.