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CPD 30302: Pilot Plant Operation 2

Centrifugal Compressor
Chapter 5

Function of Compressor

A mechanical device that


increase the pressure of a
fluid by reducing the
volume

Almost similar to pump


Main action
pump=pressurize fluid to
transport
Main action
compressor=pressurize
fluid by reducing the
volume

COMPRESSOR TYPES
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
(Compress gas by
reducing the volume)
-reciprocating
-rotary

DYNAMIC
(Change the velocity of
gas to pressure)
-centrifugal
-axial

2 common type of centrifugal


compressor

Axial Flow

Centrifugal

The Working Principle of Centrifugal


Compressors

Working Principle of Centrifugal Compressor in


General

Bernoullis Law :

P 1

1.

It operates by taking in the outside


air / gas near the hub (called the
impeller eye).

2.

The velocity of the air will build up


by means of high rotational speed
of the impeller.

3.

Air leaves the impeller at high


velocity & flows through the
diffuser which convert high V
(kinetic energy) to low V & high P.

4.

A diffuser is a vessel (duct) with an


increasing cross sectional area
which slows the v of the impellers
output air. Therefore the P of the
air will increase.

Centrifugal Compressors

2 Types of Centrifugal Compressors


Single Multi-

Stage : Compress the gas once

Stage : Take the discharge of one stage


and pass it to the suction of another stage

Centrifugal Compressors:
Experiment
No

Parts

No

Parts

Two stage compressor

Pressure measuring point

Transparent intake

Electric motor in the housing

Shaped inlet for good

A speed adjuster

flow
A protective plate

10

An optical sensor

Transparent outlet

11

Housings

Butterfly valve

How do we characterized the performance


of the compressor?
The performance of a compressor is characterized by the pressure ratio
across the compressor, CPR.

P2,T2 (Exit)

Qout

Win

P1,T1( Enter)

CPR

Pexit
P2

P1
Penter

CPR is an efficiency factor that indicates how much additional work is


required.
CPR is the ratio of the air total pressure Pexit of the compressor to the air
pressure flowing in the compressor, Penter.CPR must always be > 1.0.

Typical Compressor System

Safety valves and pressure relief valves used to remove


excess pressure that could damage equipment and
people.

Silencers are mounted on the inlet and outlet of a


compressor to reduce the noise. Compressors are very
noisy.

Demister removes moisture (liquid) from the gas stream.

Dryer sometimes used on the compressor discharge


line to remove any liquids (moisture).

Centrifugal Compressor
Experiment)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Volumetric flow rate in m3 h


Electrical power Pel in W
Efficiency in %
Differential pressure 1st stage dp1 in mbar
Differential pressure 2nd stage dp2 in mbar
Compressor total pressure dp1+dp2= dptot in mbar
Inlet temperature Tin in C.
Outlet temperature Tout in C.

The speed for these measurements was 10000


rpm,11000rpm,12000rpm & 13000rpm

Measurement of flow rate via measuring nozzle at the inlet.

m
2 2 100 p
Q( ) d
3600
hr
4

with the diameter d= 0.044 m of the measuring nozzle, the


average density of air = 1.21kg/m3 at 20C and 1013 mbar
and the pressure drop p at the nozzle in mbar.

Total efficiency from hydraulic power Phyd and


supplied electrical power Pel.

Phyd
Pel

100% in %

The hydraulic power can be calculated from the total pressure


head and the flow rate

Phyd

100 dp1 dp2 Q


3600

in W

with dp1 , dp2 in mbar and V in m3/h.