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FLEXIBLE AC

TRANSMISSION
SYSTEMS
BY:SUSMITA PANDA

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS THE NEED?
LIMITATIONS OF LARGE AC SYSTEMS.
ADVANTAGES of FACTS.
SERIES COMPENSATION

PARALLEL COMPENSATION

Static Synchronous Series Compensator. (SSSC)


Thyristor controlled series compensator. (TCSC)
COMPARISON
STATCOM
SVC
COMPARISON

COMBINED SHUNT AND SERIES CONNECTED CONTROLLER.


SCCL with FACTS.
HVDC and FACTS.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The FACTS technology is a collection of controllers, which can be


applied individually or in coordination with others to control one or
more of the interrelated system parameters, such as series impedance,
shunt impedance, current, voltage, and damping of oscillations.

GENERATIONS:

1st Generation of FACTS (SVC & TCSC).


2nd Generation of FACTS (STATCOM & SSSC).
3rd Generation of FACTS (UPFC & IPFC).

What is the Need?

Thermal
For overhead line, thermal capability is a function of ambient
temperature, wind conditions, conditions of conductor, and ground
clearance.
The FACTS technology can help in making an effective used of
newfound line capability.

Dielectric
Being designed very conservatively, most lines can increase
operation voltage by 10% or even higher.
FACTS
technology could be used to ensure acceptable over-voltage and
power flow conditions.

Stability
The stability issues that limit the transmission capability include:
transient stability, dynamic stability, steady-state stability, frequency
collapse. Voltage collapse, and sub-synchronous resonance.
The FACTS technology can certainly be used to overcome any of the
stability limits.

LIMITATIONS OF LARGE AC
SYSTEMS

(LONG DISTANCE
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS)

Voltage stability
Reactive power problems
Steady state stability
Transient Stability

(INTERCONNECTED
SYSTEMS)

Load Flow Problems


(needs management of
Congestion)
Voltage Stability
Frequency Control
Oscillation Stability
Inter-Area Oscillations

ADVANTAGES of FACTS

Increase of Power Transfer without adding new


transmission lines.
Transmission Cost minimization.
Steady state and dynamic voltage control.
Improvement of System Stability and Voltage
quality.
Active damping of Oscillations.

BASIC TYPE OF FACTS


CONTROLLERS

Series controllers:

The series controller could be a variable impedance or a variable source


both are power electronics based. In principle, all series controllers inject
voltage in series with the line.

Shunt controllers:

The shunt controllers may be variable impedance connected to the line


voltage causes a variable current flow hence represents injection of current
into the line.

Combined series-series controllers:

The combination could be separate series controllers or unified seriesseries controller--- Interline Power Flow Controller.

Combined series-shunt controllers:

The combination could be separated series and shunt controllers or a


unified power flow controller.

BASIC TYPE OF FACTS


CONTROLLERS
FACTS

SERIES

SSSC

TCSC

SHUNT

SVC

STATCOM

SERIESSERIES

SERIESSHUNT

UPFC

IPFC

SERIES COMPENSATION
STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES
COMPENSATOR (SSSC)

Allows rapid and continuous changes in the


transmission line impedance so that the active
power flow along the compensated transmission
line can be controlled within a specified range .

Its output voltage is in series with the line, thus,


it controls voltage across the line.

Used for

Damping Oscillations.
Voltage Stability Improvement.

STATIC SYNCHRONOUS
SERIES COMPENSATOR
(SSSC)

STATIC SYNCHRONOUS
SERIES COMPENSATOR
(SSSC)

THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES
COMPENSATION(TCSC)
Series Capacitor banks installations protected by
thyristors.

BENEFITS

Increased Power Transfer Capability.


Improved Transient Stability.
Lower Transmission Losses.
Improved Grid voltage control.

OTHER APPLICATIONS

Power Oscillation Damping.


Sub-synchronous Resonance Mitigation.
Transient Stability Mitigation.

THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES
COMPENSATION(TCSC)

THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES
COMPENSATION(TCSC)

COMPARISON

PARALLEL COMPENATION
- STATIC VAR
Consists of fixed capacitor banks in parallel with
COMPENSATOR(SVC)

reactor bank.

BENEFITS

Increased Power Transfer Capability.


Improved Grid Voltage Control.
Improved Power Factor.

OTHER APPLICTIONS

Power Oscillation Damping.


Power Quality (Flicker Mitigation, Voltage Balancing).

STATIC VAR
COMPENSATOR(SVC)

STATIC VAR
COMPENSATOR(SVC)

STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR

Same as SVC but its capacitive or inductive o/p


current can be controlled independent of system
voltage.
It can be based on Voltage sourced or Current
sourced Converter.
When inverter fundamental o/p voltage is higher
than the system line voltage, then STATCON acts
as a capacitor and reactive VARS are generated.
Otherwise, It acts as inductor and absorbs
reactive VARS from the system.
Can be designed to be an Active Filter to absorb
System harmonics.

STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR

STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR

STATCOM-STATIC
COMPENSATOR

BENEFITS

Increased Power Transfer Capability.


Improved Grid Voltage Stability.
Improved Power Factor.
Eliminated Flicker.
Harmonic Filtering.

OTHER APPLICATIONS

Power Quality ( Flicker Mitigation & Voltage Balancing).

COMPARISON

UNIFIED POWER FLOW


CONTROLLER (UPFC)

UNIFIED POWER FLOW


CONTROLLER

It is a Combined Series-Shunt Controller.


STATCOM and SSSC used for shunt and series
compensation respectively.
BENEFITS
Increases Transmission line capacity (by
installing a series capacitor which reduces the
net series impedance) .
Power System Oscillation Damping.
Control of active and reactive power flow at
both sending- and receiving-end.

UNIFIED POWER FLOW


CONTROLLER-OPERATION

UNIFIED POWER FLOW


CONTROLLER-OPERATION

Reactive power is generated or absorbed by the


shunt inverter to control bus voltage.
Reactive power is generated or absorbed by the
series inverter to control the real and/or reactive
power flow on the transmission line.
A portion of the real power flow on the
transmission line is drawn from the bus by the
shunt inverter to charge the DC capacitor.
Real power is inserted into the line through the
series inverter.

SCCL (Short Circuit Current


Limitation) WITH FACTS.

REASONS OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

Increasing Generation in high load density networks.


Interconnection between systems.

If the short-circuit current rating of the


equipment in the system is exceeded, the
equipment must be either upgraded or replaced,
both are either very cost- or time-intensive.

Previously,Current Limitation by using reactor


was done but it reduces system stability.

SCCL (Short Circuit Current


Limitation) WITH FACTS.

This new device operates


with zero impedance in
steady-state conditions
and in case of a short
circuit, it is switched to the
limiting-reactor impedance
within a few milliseconds.

Uses a reactor along with


TPSC (Thyristor Protected
Series Compensator).

HVDC and FACTS

HVDC

Economically transmit
electrical energy long
distances via overhead
lines or cable.

FACTS

Offers low-cost power


delivery with the same
advantages as HVDC.

Increases Capacity of
existing electrical
Transmission System.

Rapidly Implemented
Installations.

Connects asynchronous
grids or grids with
different frequencies.
Costly equipments used
and takes time-not so
widespread.

THANK YOU
ANY QUESTIONS?