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Resources

http://mines.gov.in/new/subgroup2.pdf

Production / Resourcesratio

Product Details
The Kroll Process

2FeTiO3 +7Cl2 +6C 2TiCl4 +2FeCl3 +6CO


TiCl4 +2Mg 2MgCl2 +Ti
2Mg(l) + TiCl4(g) 2MgCl2(l) + Ti(s)
[T
800-850
C] to actively recycle used Mg.
=ZunY
i: only producer
Resource in contained TiO2;
Production in mineral concentrate

Ti ore is in the form of ilmenite or


rutile
Found on the beach sand of
our
Source
: Mineral Commodi
coast lines

KEY PROPERTIES INFLUENCING APPLICATIONS


AFFINITY TO OXYGEN :
COST AND
TEMPERATURE CAPABILITY
HIGH SPECIFIC STRENGTH OVER 300-600C: AERONEGINE AND
AIRFRAME APPLICATIONS
CORROSION RESISTANCE IN MANY MEDIA INCLUDING BIOFLUIDS:
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
LOW MODULUS OF BETA PHASE:
BIOIMPLANTS

ALLOTROPIC MODIFICATION: HCP (ALPHA)


TO BCC (BETA)

Zr

Al, Sn, O

V, Mo, Nb,

Cr, Fe, H

TITANIUM IS MELTED BY
VACUUM ARC
REMELTING,
CONSUMABLE OR NON
CONSUMABLE, IN
WATER COOLED CU
CRUCIBLES
IN INDIA AT MIDHANI,
HYDERABAD

Vacuum Arc Remelting


(images from google)

A TYPICAL TI PHASE DIAGRAM

Ms

+
Ms

Ti(Al,ZrSn,O)

s
ALPHA MORPHOLOGY,
PLATE/LATH

ALPHA IS
Beta stabilisers: V, Mo, Nb, ORIENTED WITH
Ta, W, Fe, Cr, H
RESPECT TO
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
BETA BY A
CRYSYTALLOGRA
to
PHIC
to and
RELATIONSHIP
THE BURGERS RELATIONSHIP
to
[0001]//[1-10] [1-210]//[111] [10-10]//[112]
to 1+ 2
and to intermetallic phases
CLOSE PACKED PLANE AND CLOSE
PACKED DIRECTIONS ARE
PARALLEL IN THE TWO PHASES

temperature

T
Ms

RT
time
ALPHA + BETA ALLOYS

temperature

time

FINE ALPHA PRECIPTATE


SIZE IN METASTABLE BETA
ALLOYS

RT
Ms
time

Kashiwar , ME
Thesis , 2014

PROCESSING TITANIUM
INGOT BREAKDOWN

MIDHANI

temperature

PROCESSING
ALPHA
ALLOYS
SUBTRANSUS
PROCESSING
AND
RECRYSTALLISATI
ON TO CONTROL
ALPHA GRAIN
SIZE

time

temperature

Ms

SLIDE COURTESY:
Nandy et al DMRL

Ms

temperature

% beta stabiliser

time
PROCESSING ALPHA+BETA ALLOYS

Weiss and co., 1986

RECONSTITUTION OF ALPHA TO
EQUIAXED FORM

SajidME Thesis, 2011

shanoob balachandran, phd

SLIDES COURTESY: Nandy et al DMRL

temperature

time

time

Recrystallised,
equiaxed alpha does
not have an
orientation
relationship with the
beta phase

ALPHA: ANISOTRPIC
MODULUS, BETA: LOW
MODULUS
ALPHA: LOW DIFFSUION
RATES
BETA HIGH DIFFUSION RATES

THE YIELD STRENGTH OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS

Solid Solution Strengthening

ssc

Interaction energy arises


from the work done by the
expanded volume against
the stress field of the
dislocation
Net local force on
dislocation
Interaction energy arises
from the difference in
stress (and hence energy)
over the volume of altered
modulus, assuming both

The misfit stress for a


solute atom

s=r/ro

Rigid equivalent increase in


r resulting in an elastic
volumetric compliance of
the solute atom relative to
the host cavity

Strengthening the alpha phase

Find out the shear modulus and atomic size of various alpha
stabilisers and beta stabilisers
Estimate the strengthening effects of various alpha stabilisers and
beta stabilisers
What is the maximum strength that can realized by solid solution
strengthening the alpha and beta phases with these additions?
What limits solid solution strengthening

Interstitial effects alpha phase

Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 21, August 1973 , 1117

Solution hardening: phase


Nb

Ta

Mo

F
e

C
r

BUT REMEMBER
stability with respect to , ,

19

17

Intermetallic formation
(Active vs Sluggish eutectoids)

Ta

15

Hf

13

Density
Diffusion

DENSITY (gm/cc)
11
9

Fe

Cost

Mo

5
1500

Cr
Zr
2000

Nb

V
2500

3000

MELTING POINT, K

3500

4000