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Embedded Systems

Embedded Systems
An embedded system is a computer system that cannot
be programmed by the user because it is
preprogrammed for a specific task and embedded within
the equipment which it serves
It is a integration of hardware components as well as
software's to perform a dedicated function without
human interaction
Remote controls
Cell phones
Computer network equipments, Routers, firewalls, Printers
microwave ovens, washing machine
Disk drives (FDD, HDD, CD-ROM)
House hold appliances (ovens, wash, TV sets, DVD)
Inertial guidance systems (Flight control, missiles and aircraft)
Medical equipment
automobiles (electric windows, ignitions, airbags, brakes, suspensions)

Embedded Systems are Divided into Four Major

Networked and

Autonomous Systems function in Standalone Mode.
Many Embedded Systems used for Process Control in
Manufacturing Units and Automobiles fall under this
In Process Control Systems the Inputs Originated
from Transducers that Convert a Physical Quantity,
such as Temperature into an Electrical Signals. The
Systems Output Controls the Device
In Standalone Systems, the Deadlines or Response
Times are not Critical
An Air-Conditioner can be set to turn on when the
Temperature reaches a certain level
Measuring Instruments and CD Players are examples
of Autonomous Systems

Real Time
Real-Time Embedded Systems are required
to carry out Specific Tasks in a specified
amount of time.
These Systems are extensively used to
carry out Time-Critical Task in ProcessControl.
For instance, a Boiler Plant must open the
Valves if the Pressure exceeds a Particular
Threshold. If the job is not carried out in
the Stipulated Time, a Catastrophe may

Mobile Gadgets need to store Databases
Locally in their Memory.
These Gadgets Imbibe Powerful Computing
and Communication capabilities to
perform Real-Time as well as Non-RealTime Tasks and handle Multimedia
The Gadgets Embed Powerful Processor
and OS, and a Lot of Memory with Minimal
Power Consumption

More on Embedded..
Embedded systems is present in almost every Electronic
There is Embedded Software inside your Watch, Cellular
Phone, Automobile, Thermostats, Industrial Control
Equipment and Scientific and Medical Equipment
Defense Services use Embedded Software to guide Missiles
and Detect Enemy Aircraft
Communication Satellites, Medical Instruments and Deep
Space Probes would have been nearly impossible without
these systems


Aerospace and Defense Electronics

Broadcast and Entertainment
Consumer and Internet Appliances
Data Communication
Digital Imaging
Industrial Measurement and Control
Mobile Data Infrastructures etc

Embedded in Digital Areas

Broadband Access
Cable, xDSL modems, Home Gateways
Home Media Servers

Interactive Digital TV
Cable, Satellite and Terrestrial STBs

Digital Imaging
Digital Cameras,
Printers, MFPs, Scanners, Fax

Mobile & Handheld

Mobile phones

Digital Audio/Video

Industrial Automation
Industrial Automation
Motion Control

Process Control

Steel production
Waste & water
Paper & pulp

Building Automation
Environmental controls

Power Control
Power Distribution
Load Balancing
Demand regulation

Medical Systems

Smart transducers

Microprocessor ?

Microprocessor incorporates most or all of the
functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a
single integrated circuit
Eight bi-directional data lines provide access to
a system data bus
Address bus
Control is provided by a variety of lines which
support memory and I/O interfacing, and a
flexible interrupt system
Three primary control bus lines allow the device
to identify whether the cycle in progress is for
RAM or I/O, and whether it is a Read or a Write

A General Purpose Register Array, most of which is

accessible by the programmer, and which forms the
essential data manipulation ability of the system
An address generation system consisting of the
Program Counter, Stack Pointer, address latches, and
incrementer / decrementer. Two additional 8-bit
latches are provided. The first, labeled Address
Buffer, provides the upper byte of an address to the
system address bus in a straight-through manner.
The second, labeled Data/Address Buffer, provides
the lower byte of the address early in a machine
cycle; it is used later in the cycle to provide or accept
an 8-bit data byte from the internal data bus of the
MP to the system data bus, or from the system data
bus to the MPs data bus. This buffer therefore
provides the AD0 - AD7 multiplexed address/data
function mentioned above.

A mathematical and logical subsystem composed of the

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and associated registers,
which handle the math and logic functions of the machine
An Instruction Register and decoder system which
interpret the programmers instructions and implement
them via nanocode
A timing and control package which provides the bodily
functions of power and clock circuits, and handles the
wait, interrupt, and hold functions of the system
An 8-bit internal data bus, which provides the data path
between functional elements, and to the outside world
via the Address/Data Buffer
Interrupt control interfacing which provides both the
standard 8080 interrupt structure, and 4 new interrupts
which are maskable under special program controls,
these last via the internal data bus
Two serial data lines, Serial Input Data and Serial Output
Data, which feed the internal data bus directly, and are
serviced as part of the interrupt control structure
mentioned above

The General Purpose Register Array contains the

B, C, D, E, H, and L registers, each 8 bits wide. The
B and C, D and E, and H and L registers may be
grouped into 16-bit register pairs. The H&L
register pair may be used to store indirect
The array also contains the Program Counter (PC)
and Stack Pointer (SP). These 16-bit registers
contain the address of the next instruction part to
be fetched, and the address of the top of the
stack, respectively
The GPR array also includes an Address
Latch/Incrementer-Decrementer circuit, to make
the address next required on the system address
bus available to it, and to increment or decrement
addresses or register contents as required

The mathematical and logical function of the system are

provided by an 8-bit Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU), which
accepts two 8-bit arguments and generates an 8-bit
result. It is fed by an Accumulator register and a
Temporary register, both 8 bits wide; the result returns to
the internal data bus for distribution. The ALU also has a
Condition Flags register, for the storage of the conditions
under which an operation ended, which may be used by
following instructions. In all cases, the ALU, Accumulator,
and Condition Flags function exactly as in the 8080
The Instruction Register and Instruction Decoder accept
the incoming byte from the data bus during the first
machine cycle of an instruction, and interpret it by
controlling the internal resources of the MP as S0urces
and destinations for bits and bytes. The 8085 is
Timing and Control section of the 8085 generates the
necessary timing pulses to synchronize their execution
The 8085 has its own internal oscillator, which requires
only an external crystal to generate the clocks



A microcontroller is a small, low-cost computer-on-a-chip which usually

An 8 or 16 bit microprocessor (CPU).
A small amount of RAM
Programmable ROM and/or flash memory
Parallel and/or serial I/O.
Timers and signal generators.
Analog to Digital (A/D) and/or Digital to Analog (D/A) conversion.
Often used to run dedicated code that controls one or more tasks in
the operation of a device or a system.
Also called embedded controllers, because the microcontroller and
support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they
Devices that utilize microcontrollers include car engines, consumer
electronics (VCRs, microwaves, cameras, pagers, cell phones .. ),
computer peripherals (keyboards, printers, modems.. ),
test/measurement equipment (signal generators, multimeters,

Microcontrollers usually must have low-power

requirements (~. 05 - 1 W as opposed to ~10
- 50 W for general purpose desktop CPUs) since
many devices they control are battery-operated

Microcontroller components

Microcontroller differs from




Can work in very high


Limited speed




Instruction set




Needs many external


Ports ready and



Can be used in any


Depends on the task

Then ?