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Motivation

Dr J Balamurugan

Introduction
Psychology, being a science of adjustive behaviour, is concerned not
only with what and how of behaviour but also with WHY of behaviour.
Why we do, what we do is a fundamental question.
Because, we are motivated to do, i.e.
some need conditions push us to do and
at the same time the goal before us pulls us to do.

Thus, push and pull factors operate behind all our activities.
This aspects is what we call Motivation is involved in all kinds of our
behaviour.

Meaning of Motivation
The term motive drives from Latin word movere, i.e. that moves or
arouses.
In literal sense, the motive means that force within the organism that
implies to
act or
that drives or
energies to perform an action.

Hence, motive is the mover of the behaviour.


Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and
maintains goal-oriented behaviors.

Characteristics of Motivation

This state is aroused out of need, want or drive.


In motivational state, the organism finds himself in a state of
restlessness and tends to act.
Motivational state is selective in nature which is directed towards
attainment of the goal.
The aroused motivational behaviour persists in the organism till
attainment of the goal.

Types of Motivation

1. Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivations are those that arise from outside of the
individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social
recognition or praise.
2. Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivations are those that arise from within the individual,
personal gratification of solving a problem.
Behavior that is performed for its own sake.

Theories of Motivation
Incentive (Extrinsic) Theory of Motivation
People are motivated to do things because of external rewards. For example, you
might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetary reward of being paid.

Intrinsic Theory of Motivation


People are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily
programmed to do so. An example of this in the animal world is seasonal migration.
These animals do not learn to do this, it is instead an inborn pattern of behavior.

Drive Theory of Motivation


People are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension
that is caused by unmet needs. For example, you might be motivated to drink a glass
of water in order to reduce the internal state of thirst.

Maslows (Humanistic) Theory of


Motivation
Humanistic theories of motivation are based on the idea that
people also have strong cognitive reasons to perform various
actions.
This is famously illustrated in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of
needs, which presents different motivations at different levels.
First, people are motivated to fulfill basic biological needs for food
and shelter, as well as those of safety, love and esteem.
Once the lower level needs have been met, the primary motivator
becomes the need for self-actualization, or the desire to fulfill
one's individual potential.

Basic Human Needs


Food
Air
Water
Clothing
Sex

Physiological Needs

Safety and Security


Protection
Stability
Pain Avoidance

Safety Needs

Routine/Order

Love and Belonging


Affection
Acceptance

Social Needs

Esteem
Esteem Needs

Self-Respect
Self-Esteem
Respected by
Others

Self-Actualization
Achieve full potential
Fulfillment

Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs

Lo
we
s

tt
o

hi

gh
e

st

or
d

er

SA
Esteem
Love (Social)
Safety & Security
Physiological

McClellands Need Theory

Need for Achievement


Need for Power
Need for Affiliation

McClellands Need Theory:


Need for Achievement

Need for Achievement - a


manifest (easily perceived)
need that concerns individuals
issues of excellence,
competition, challenging goals,
persistence, and overcoming
difficulties

McClellands Need Theory:


Need for Power
Need for Power - a
manifest (easily perceived)
need that concerns an
individuals need to make
an impact on others,
influence others, change
people or events, and make
a difference in life

McClellands Need Theory:


Need for Affiliation

Need for Affiliation - a


manifest (easily perceived)
need that concerns an
individuals need to establish
and maintain warm, close,
intimate relationships with
other people

Thank you