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05 Introduction to AutoCAD

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Contents

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Overview & background


Starting, interface & file system
Basic drawing commands
Basic editing commands
View command

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Introduction

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

What is CAD?
Computer Aided Design and Drafting (sometimes
known as CADD)
Generally, it is the use of computers in design
and drawing processes
Traditionally, technical drawing are made using
manual drafting. It is often require a lot of effort and
time consuming particularly for large complex
drawing.
CAD is being used widely in modern practice. The
ability of computer that enable engineers to produce,
revise, store and transmit original drawings has made
it very important.
Example of CAD software:
AutoCAD, PRO/Engineer, IDEAS, UNIGRAPHICS,
CATIA,SolidWorks, etc.

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History of CAD

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Charles Barbage (1883) - developed idea for


computer.
IC Chip Revolution => Micro-Computers and CAD.
1st CAD demon by Ivan Sutherland (1963) SKETCHPAD.
A year later IBM produced the first commercial CAD
system.
Many changes has taken place since then, with the
advancement of powerful computers.
With these developments, it is now possible to do
all the designs using CAD including two-dimensional
drawings, solid modeling, complex engineering
analysis, production and manufacturing.
New technologies are constantly invented which
make this process quicker, more versatile and more
powerful.

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Advantages of CAD

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Easier Creation and Corrections - Working/detail


drawings may be created more quickly and
makings changes is more efficient than correcting
drawings made by hand.
Better Visualisation of drawings - Many systems
allow different views of the same object and 3D
pictorial view.
Database of Drawing Aids - Designs and symbols
can be stored for easy recall and reuse.
Increased Accuracy - Using the computer, the
drawing can be produced with more accuracy.
Improved Filing - Drawings can be more
conveniently filed, retrieved and transmitted on
disks and tape.
Quick Design Analysis
Simulation and Testing

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Computer System & Component

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

A computer system consists of hardware and


software.
Hardware is various pieces of physical equipment
that comprise a computer system.
Software is the programs and instructions that
permit the computer to operate. Software can be
divided into two; application programs and
operating system.
The hardware for a CAD system consists of the
physical devices used to support CAD software.
The hardware system consist of:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Computer Operating System
Display Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices

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AutoCAD

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Why use AutoCAD?

Wide of Use - 20,000 Installation World-wide


5 million user world wide
2 million student user world wide
Excellent Intro. To CAD - Cost Effectiveness Sufficiently Complex
Linked to Other Softwares - e.g. ANSYS, 3DStudio Max, etc.
Customized Application using high level
programming language Auto-LISP

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AutoCAD

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

How AutoCAD is used?


Electronic Paper with Drawings and Editing Tools Analogous to Manual Drafting
Valuable and More Efficient in Modifying Drawings.
Object can be moved, copied, rotated, erased,
redrawn, etc. Editing in AutoCAD is faster than in
manual drawing.
Drawing Layers to Enhance Drawing and Visibility.
AutoCAD provides a set of drawing layer which is
equivalent to the engineering layers on working
drawings.
Storage/database of Commonly used Object.
Complex objects that are frequently used can be
stored as symbol in the library. This would increase
the productivity in the drafting work.

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Starting, Interface & File system

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Starting with AutoCAD 2002

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

How to start
Click icon [AutoCAD 2002], or select from START menu
[Start]>Program>MDT 6>AutoCAD2002

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Starting screens

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

When AutoCAD is started, two windows will be opened


AutoCAD 2002 and AutoCAD Today

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Starting screens

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AutoCAD Today window used to open or create new


drawings

Open drawing tab

Unit

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Create new drawing tab

Option to Start from Scratch or


from Template or Wizards

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AutoCAD main window

Pull down menu


Icons/Toolbar

UCS
(User coordinate
system)

Drawing area

Cursor

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Model & layout tab

Command prompt
area
Coordinate status

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

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Creating new drawing

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

To create new drawing:


Template, Starting from scratch or Wizards
Usually start from scratch
In AutoCAD today window: Click on Create Drawings Tab
In Select how to begin: box, select Start from Scratch
Click on Metric

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Initialising (New Drawing)

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Setting up drawing limit


To define the drawing area and limit the grid display
[menu] > Format > Drawing Limits
In command box:

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Setting up drawing unit


[menu] > Format > Units
Drawing Unit Window

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Initialising (New Drawing)

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Setting up grid and snap


Very useful tool, as a guide in drawing
To activate:
Click on button GRID or SNAP

Without Grid

To modify the settings


Right click on button GRID
Select Settings

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Showing Grid

Changing Grid
and Snap setting

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Opening and saving

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

To open existing file


[menu] >File>Open or press CTRL+O
Or click Open Icon
To save drawing
[menu] >File >Save or press CTRL+S
Or click Save Icon

Open Drawing Window

Save Drawing Window

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Printing

Can be done from model view or from layout view (paper space)
From model view (Make sure in Model Tab)
[Menu] > File > Plot or CTRL +P or click Plot Icon

Paper size

Plot area
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MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Preview

Drawing
Orientation

Scale of
printout/plot

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Basic editing & drawing commands

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Using this guide

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Choosing an item from pull down menu


[pd menu]
Example:
To draw straight line,
[pd menu] >Design > Line
Icon & button
[icon item] or [button item]
Example:
To draw straight line click on [icon line]
Type in command prompt
command: command type here {enter}
Example:
To draw a straight line type in
Command: line {enter}
You just have to type in the word line and press
the key Enter (on the keyboard)
The command is not case sensitive

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Basic stuff

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Definitions :
Click
Press once and release
Also commonly used to refer to left-click
Left-click
Press left-mouse button (LMB) once and release
Commonly used to pick or choose an item
Right-click
Press right-mouse button (RMB) once and release
Commonly used to access pop-up menu
Double-click
Commonly referred to clicking left mouse button twice
Click-and-drag
Commonly referred to pressing left mouse button (and not releasing it)
and move the mouse as required
The left mouse button is released to finish the command

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Example

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

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Basic stuff

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

How to draw:
using mouse, point and click in drawing area
Type in coordinates in command prompt window
When using the mouse
Recommended to use snap and grid as guide
Set snap and grid spacing accordingly
Mouse Pointer

Command line
Points typed

Line drawn

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Type the points here


Grid

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Drawing straight line

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

3 methods to execute the command


By choosing [pd menu] > Draw > Line
By clicking [icon Line]
By typing in at command prompt
command: line {enter} or command: L
{enter}
To draw a straight line
Using mouse
Using (typing) coordinate points

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Line icon

Line command

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Drawing straight line

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Using a mouse
Move the pointer to the desired location as start
point
Click
Move the pointer to the second point, Click
To end the line press Enter
To continue, move the pointer to 3rd point, Click
Continue as required
3rd point
Use snap and grid as guides 2nd point

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4th point

Start point

End point

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Drawing straight line cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Using coordinate points, 3 methods:


Absolute coordinate
Relative coordinate
Polar
3rd point (4,4)

Absolute coordinate

2nd point (1,4)

4th point (2,2)

1st point (1,1)


Origin (0,0)

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Relative coordinate

5th point (4,1)

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Drawing straight line cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

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Polar relative coordinate

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Drawing circle

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Use mouse or type in command prompt to specify


point or value similar to drawing straight line
To execute circle command
[pd menu] > Draw > Circle >
[icon circle]
At command prompt
command: circle
{enter} or command: c {enter}
Pull-down menu

Shortcut Icon

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Circle command

Command prompt

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3.2 Drawing circle cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Methods to draw circles


Center and radius
Center and diameter
Two points circle
Three points circle
Tan, tan, radius
Tan, tan, tan

Center and radius

1. Center point (2,4)

[pd menu]

2. Radius, 1.5
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Command prompt:

Note: mouse can be used to place the center point and the radius of the circle

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Drawing circle cont


Center and diameter
[pd menu]

Command prompt:

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

1. Center point (2,4)


2. Diameter, 3

2. 2nd point (3.5,4)

Two points
[pd menu]

1. 1st point (0.5,4)


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Command prompt:

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Drawing circle cont


3 points
[pd menu]

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

1. 1st point (2,5.5)


2. 2nd point (2,2.5)

Command prompt:

3. 3rd point (3.5,4)

Tan tan radius

1. 1st object (line)

[pd menu]

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Command prompt:

2. 2nd object (line)

3. Radius (1.5)

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Drawing circle cont


Tan tan tan
[pd menu]

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

1. Select 1st line using mouse


2. Select 2nd line using mouse

3. Select 3rd line using mouse

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Command prompt:

Note: these 3 lines must exist on the drawing area before the circle can be drawn

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Drawing arc

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Use mouse or type in command prompt to specify


point or value similar to drawing circle
To execute arc command
[pd menu] > Draw > Arc >
[icon arc]
At command prompt
command: arc
{enter} or command: a {enter}
Pull-down menu

Shortcut Icon

Arc shortcut icon

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Command prompt

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Drawing arc cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Methods many ways, most used


3 points
Start, center, end
Start, center, angle
Start, end, radius

3 points
[pd menu]

3. 3rd point (2,5)

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Command prompt:

2. 2nd point (1,3.5)


1. 1st point (2,2)

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Drawing arc cont


Start, center, end
[pd menu]

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

3. End point (2,5)


2. Center point (2,3.5)

Command prompt:

Start, center, angle


[pd menu]

1. Start point (2,2)

3. Angle (90degree)

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2. Center point (2,3.5)


Command prompt:

1. Start point (2,2)

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Drawing arc cont


Start, end, radius
[pd menu]

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

3. Radius (1.5)
2. End point (3.5,3.5)
1. Start point (2,2)

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Command prompt:

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Erasing/deleting & copy entity

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Erasing or deleting entity


using mouse
(2) click the entity to be erased - the entity will
become dotted with several blue square
(3) press Delete key
to delete multiple entities, click all that need to be
deleted and press Delete key
can also use the command prompt to delete
command: erase {enter}

(1)

(2)

(3)

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...copy entity

To copy entity
can execute command from [pd menu] > Modify > Copy
type in command prompt command: copy {enter}
select on entity/entities to be copied
press Enter key after selecting entity/entities
select base point
select position of the entity to be placed
selecting can be done by mouse or typing the coordinate of the entity (touching)

(1)
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MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Command prompt:

(2)

(3)

(4)

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Moving entity

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Moving entity/entities
using [pd menu] > Modify > Move
similar to copy entity
Command prompt:

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using mouse
select entity - it will become dotted with blue
squares
click on the blue square in the middle
move your mouse to the desired location
click to place the entity on the new location

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

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Scale / Resize

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

To scale or resize entity increase or reduce


[pd menu] > Modify > Scale
Or command: scale {enter}
(2) Select entities to be scaled, press Enter
(3) Select (click) base point, mouse can be used to scale
the entities or type in scale factor at command prompt

Command prompt:

(1)

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(2)
(3)
(4)

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Line types and line thickness

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

The line type need to be loaded before it can be used


[pd menu] > Format > Linetype

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Line Types

Linetype Manager
dialog box will be
opened
initially we only have
one line type which
is continuous
click on [button
Load]
another dialog box is
opened Load or
Reload Linetypes

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Line types...

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Choose the types of


lines to be loaded by
clicking it from the
list
click [button OK]
the selected line will
be displayed in
Linetype Manager

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Line types...

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Line types and line thickness drop down list box

Before loading line types

After loading line types (DASHED)

Line thickness

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Select the
required line
type and line
thickness
Draw the
line, arc, etc

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Magnification (Zoom)

Change the size of view, not size of


object
Useful to draw small feature, to
view overall size, etc.
Several options.. Commonly used
Zoom window
Zoom all
Can be accessed from
[pd menu] > View > Zoom
[icon zoom]
Command: zoom {enter}

Zoom realtime

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Zoom window
Zoom dynamic
Zoom scale
Zoom center
Zoom in
Zoom out
Zoom all

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Zoom extents
-

[pd menu] > View > Zoom > Realtime


Or click [icon Zoom Realtime]

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Magnification (Zoom)cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Zoom window

[pd menu] > View > Zoom >Window


[icon Zoom Window]
Command: z {enter}
Use mouse to specify the window (click on one
corner, drag a rectangular window around the area
to be zoom, click on the opposite corner)
After

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Before

1st click and drag


the window

2nd click

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Magnification (Zoom)cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Zoom all

[pd menu] > View > Zoom > All


[icon Zoom All]
Command: z {enter}
Command: a {enter}

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Before

After

Magnification (Zoom)cont

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MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Zoom realtime

[pd menu] > View > Zoom > Realtime


Pan realtime
Or click [icon Zoom Realtime]
Zoom realtime
Cursor icon will change to magnifying glass
Press LMB, move mouse up to zoom in,
Zoom window
Press LMB, move mouse down to zoom out
Zoom previous
Release LMB for the new view

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Pan realtime
-

Click [icon Pan Realtime]


Cursor icon change to hand
Press LMB, move mouse to move view of
screen
Release mouse for the new view

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Pan cont
To move the view of the drawing around the
screen - left, right, etc..
To access command
[pd menu] > View > Pan >
[icon pan]
command: pan {enter} or
command: p {enter}
several options:
most used - realtime
others - left, right, up, down
effect of pan similar to moving the scroll bar
(horizontal & vertical)
REDRAW refresh display, removing
element such as markers left from editing
commands
REGEN refresh display, recalculate all
coordinates

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

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Drawing text

2 types
Multiline text
Single line text

From pull down menu


Shortcut icon

Single line text

Text icon

Several ways

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MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Type in at command prompt


Command: text {enter}
[pd menu] > Draw > Text > Single Line Text
After executing the command
Click in drawing area or type in coordinates
for start point of the text
Type in the height of the text
Type in the rotation, if required
Type in the text
Pressing enter to go to the next line
To end the command, press enter twice

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Drawing text cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Multiline text

Several ways
Type in at command prompt
st
Command: mtext {enter}
[pd menu] > Draw > Text > Multiline Text
[Icon Multiline Text]
To produce multiline text
Activate the command
Click on drawing area to specify the first corner, and click again to define the area where the text is to be drawn
Multiline Text Editor window is displayed
Type in the text in writing area, change its properties if required
Click OK button to finish

1 corner

Opposite corner

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Writing area

Font

Size

Bold

Italic

Underline

Colour

Insert symbol

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Drawing text cont

Properties tab

Justify

Width (box)

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Line spacing tab

Change line spacing

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Rotation

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Drawing aid: Object snap

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

Object snap or OSNAP


Are functions to aid the drawing process, a very useful tool
To snap on a geometric point on an object
Can be turned off or on by clicking OSNAP button on status bar or
press CTRL+F or F3 key
When turned on, the cursor will jump or snap to the certain point
on an object e.g. mid-point of a line or tangent of a circle
Includes visual aid AutoSnap
Several OSNAP modes available, can activate any number at a
time

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Endpoint
Midpoint

Tangent
Quadrant

Center
Extension
Apparent Intersection

Intersection

Nearest
Node
Insert
Parallel

Perpendicular

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Object snap cont


OSNAP setting
Right-click OSNAP
button
Drafting Setting dialog
box turns up
Can be used to turn on
or off object snap modes
Symbols indicated by
each mode are shown in
drawing with yellow
marker

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

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Object snap cont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

How to use:
You need to have an object on drawing area
Then you need to be in a drawing command, e.g. CIRCLE,
LINE, ARC, etc.
Hover the mouse over the existing object,
Yellow marker shows up with tool tip
Indicating what type of geometric point snap can be done

Endpoint

Midpoint

Intersection

Example of OTRACK

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Object snap modescont

MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005

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Endpoint
Snap to endpoint of the nearest entity, e.g. end of a line
Midpoint
Snap to the midpoint of an entity, e.g. midpoint of a straight line, or arc
Center
Snap to the center of entity such as circle, arc or ellipse
Node
Snap to the nearest point (entity)
Quadrant
Snap to the quarter position on the circumference of an arc, circle or ellipse
Intersection
Snap to the intersection of two entities
Tangent
Snap to the tangent of entities such as circle, arc or ellipse
Nearest
Snap to the nearest point on an entities
Perpendicular
Snap to the point perpendicular to an entity such as straight line

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End of chapter [05]