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Below are pictures showing proper

storage and stacking of tools, utensils

and equipments.
Proper stacking of glassware, chinaware and

Stacking and storing of spices,

herbs and other condiments

Stacking and storing of spices,

herbs and other condiments

Stacking and storing of spices,

herbs and other condiments

Storage of bottled and canned

food items and other condiments

Storage of equipment , tools

utensils and other implements

Stacking and storage of


Measuring Ingredients
Accurate techniques in
measuring are as important
as the tools for measuring.
Therefore, always observe
the following procedures:

Measuring Ingredients Correctly

Rice and flour. Fill the cup to
overflowing, level-off with a spatula
or with a straight edged knife

Sifted flour. Most cake recipes call for

sifted flour. In this case, sift flour 2 or
3 times. Spoon into the cup
overflowing, level off with a spatula.
Refined sugar. Sift sugar once to
take out lumps, if any. Spoon into cup
and level off with a spatula. Do not
pack or tap the sugar down.

Brown sugar. Pack into cup just

enough to hold its shape when
turned out off cup. Level off with a
spatula before emptying.

Level a measuring spoon with

straight edge of a knife to measure
small amounts of salt, pepper,
leavening agents or solid fats.
Liquid ingredients. liquid measuring
cup -- a glass or plastic cup with
graduated markings on the side.
Place the cup on a flat, level surface.
Hold the cup firmly and pour the
desired amount or liquid into the cup.
Lean over and view the liquid at eye
level to make sure it is the proper

Check and calibrate

timers/thermometers, scales and
other measuring devices
according to manufacturers
manual before using.

Ingredients which measure by volume and

by weight demand standardized
measuring tools and equipment.
Do not shake the dry measuring cup to
level off dry ingredients.
It is easier to weigh fat, butter, margarine
if bought in pre-measured sticks. If fat
does not come in pre-measured sticks, use
a scale to weigh the needed amount.
Liquids should be poured into cup in
desired level. Cup should stand on a flat

Spring scales should be adjusted so

that pointer is at zero (0). Place pan,
bowl, or piece of waxed paper on
scale to hold ingredient to be
When using balance scales, place the
pan on the left-hand side of the
balance and the pan weight on the
right-hand side. Add the required
weights to the right-hand side and
adjust the beam on the bar so that
the total is the weight needed.

Ranges, sometimes called

stoves, provide heat for cooking
on top and in the oven. The
controls for range heat must be
accurate and easy to operate.
Tools and utensils needed for
cooking on the range and work
space should be within easy
Learn to match the size of pan
to the size of the unit and to

In microwave cooking, time

schedules must be followed
exactly because every second is
important. The microwaves shut
off automatically when the door
is opened.
Refrigerators are operated by
electricity. The unit that does the
cooling is underneath the box
behind the grill.

Follow the plan for stacking as

suggested in the direction by
manufacturers manual.
Mixers are the most useful
machines in commercial kitchens
and even at home. It is good for
making salad dressings,
sandwich fillings, for sauces,
mashing potatoes, beat batter
and eggs. Attachments are also
available to chop, whip, squeeze

Coffee makers mostly are

automatic, requiring only the
measurement of coffee and
In preparing foods on the
range or in the fryer, heat is
transferred by conduction.

Tips in measuring

1.Firmly packed
2. Lightly packed
3. Even/level
4. Heaping / heaped
5. Sifted

How to Calculate Markup


Remember these important terms:

Production cost-combined
costs of raw material and
labor in producing goods.
Percentage markup-the
increase on original selling

How to Calculate Markup


Markup is the difference

between how much an item
costs you, and how much you
sell that item for--it's your
profit per item.

How to Calculate Markup

1. Calculate your peso markup. This is
done by subtracting your buying price
from your
selling price.
Selling price 15.00
Purchase cost/buying price
- 10.00
Peso markup

2. Decide whether you want to

calculate your percentage markup
based on cost or selling price. Once
you choose which you will be using to
calculate, it is important you stick to
the method you choose throughout all
your calculations, or you will end up
with faulty data.
*if percentage markup will be
based on cost, go on step 3
*if percentage markup will be
based on selling price, go on step

3. Calculate percent markup based

on cost. This is done by dividing the
peso markup by the cost.
Peso markup
Purchase cost/buying price
Percentage mark up
= .5 or 50%

4. Calculate your percent markup

based on selling price. This is done
by dividing the peso markup by the
selling price.
Peso markup
Selling price
Percentage mark up
= .33 or

5. Make sure you consistently use either

cost of the product or selling price to find
the percent markup on an item. Even
though the cost, selling price, and peso
markup will always be the same, the
percentage markup will be drastically
different depending on if you calculate it
using selling price or cost. Using selling
price will give you a lower percentage
markup (assuming you are making a
profit), while using cost will give you a
higher percentage markup.


Purchase Selling
cost/buyi price
ng price





_________ ________

Cup cake 7.00








Chicharo 25.00


_________ _________






ge mark


Interpret Kitchen Lay-out

Kitchen floor plans and



Understanding the basic

principles of kitchen layout
will help take much of the
mystery out of the design
process. One of the most
basic layout principles is the
work triangle.

The work triangle Creating

an ideal work flow
*The work triangle is an
imaginary line drawn from each
of the three primary work
stations in the kitchen - the
food storage,
preparation/cooking, and
clean-up stations. By drawing
these lines, you can assess the
distance required to move to and
from each area and thus

The three primary kitchen work

stations which create the work
triangle are:
1. The food storage station Your refrigerator and pantry are
the major items.
2. The preparation/cooking
station - Your range, oven,
microwave, and smaller
appliances are found in this

3. The clean-up station Everyone's least favorite

activity is one of the
kitchen's most important clean-up. This area is home
to the sink, waste disposal,
and dishwasher.

Work zones- make

everyday tasks easy
Three main zone, in
relevance to the working
Cooking zone
Washing zone
Storage zone

Types of kitchen layout

A kitchen is part of a dwelling
that gets a great deal of traffic
When designing a kitchen, the
first thing to consider is the
layout of kitchen.
The kitchens layout is the shape
that is made by arrangement of
the countertops, major
appliances and storage areas.

There are five primary
kitchen layout shapes the U-Shaped, LShaped, Island, GShaped,
Corridor/Gallery, and
Single Wall shapes.

1. The U-Shaped Kitchen - Named

for the "U" shape it resembles, this
kitchen is popular in large and small
homes alike.
Perfect for families who use their
kitchens a great deal
Provides plenty of counter space
Efficient work triangle
Can convert one cabinet leg into a
breakfast bar

2. The L-Shaped Kitchen - This

kitchen shape is one of the most
flexible and most popular, providing a
compact triangle.
Very flexible layout design
Major appliances can be placed in
a variety of areas
Work areas are close to each other
Can easily convert to a U-Shape
with a cabinet leg addition

L- Shape

3. Island Kitchen(Block Kitchen).

Islands are extremely popular in
homes today and are most often
seen in L-Shaped kitchens or U
Islands can not
only keep work areas traffic-free, but
also create a wealth of extra counter
and storage space. The island is also
an ideal place to add an extra sink or
an island grill.

Island Kitchen(Block Kitchen).

Islands can not only keep

work areas traffic-free, but
also create a wealth of extra
counter and storage space.
The island is also an ideal
place to add an extra sink or
an island grill.


4. The G-Shaped Kitchen - Built very

much like the U-Shaped with the addition of
an elongated partial wall, the G-Shaped
kitchen offers a great deal of space can
support two work triangles
Ideal for larger families needing extra
storage space
Plenty of counter and cabinet space
Multiple cooks can function well in this
Can convert one cabinet leg into a
breakfast bar or entertaining area



Double-file Kitchen/Two-Way

style kitchen
makes the most out of
a smaller space, has
two rows of
cabinets at opposite
walls this is the


Double-file Kitchen/Two-Way

Great for smaller kitchens

Appliances are close to one
Easy for one cook to
Can easily convert to a UShape by closing off one end

Double-file Kitchen/Two-Way

6. The Single-file/Pullman Kitchen Designed for homes or apartments, the

single wall kitchen offers a very open and
airy feel. It has along one wall
Ideal for apartments and smaller homes
Works well with the open designs found
in many contemporary homes
Small moveable table can provide
eating space
Can be enhanced with the addition of
an island

Single- File/Pullman:

Practice Occupational
Health and Safety

Occupational accidents and

diseases can result in
sickness, productivity loss,
disability or even death. All
these can be prevent by
enforcing and practicing
occupational safety and
health procedures

The commercial cooking

industry is an important
industry. It provides
employment for large number
of people. Providing a safe and
healthy working environment
contributes to the well- being,
morale, and productivity of

Definition of Terms
Bacteria a simple, single
celled microorganism. They food
, moisture and warmth to thrive.
Electroshock - caused by
touching exposed electrical wire
or a piece of
electrical equipment which is not
grounded properly.

Grounded means that the electrical

conductor is connected to the ground,
which becomes part of the electrical
Hazard a situation that could be
dangerous to people in the workplace
Microorganisms are living cells so
small that they can only be seen in a
microscope. They are commonly found
to contaminate food bacteria, mold,
and yeast.

Molds also a microorganism,

that has furry growth often
found on spoiled food.
Sanitation the science and
practice of maintaining clean
and healthy conditions of food
production so that the food
served to customers cannot
make him ill.
Toxin a poisonous substance
that makes you sick

Electrical Hazards
Potential Hazard
Workers in restaurants are exposed to
shocks and electrical hazards from:
Worn electric cords or improperly used or
damaged extension cords
Improperly wired or ungrounded outlets
Faulty equipment and wiring
Damaged receptacles and connectors
Wet clean-up processes
Unsafe work practices

We face many problems in these

kitchens on a day to day use and
these are listed below:
a. Electrically operated kitchen
b. LPG Operated Kitchen Equipment
c. Water Operated Kitchen Equipment

Apply health, safety and security

procedures in the workplace
Consider the following responsibilities
if you are a worker or an owner of
such business.
Protecting your property from fire;
Protecting your property from
natural hazards;
Protecting your property from crime;

Protecting your staff and

visitors from accidents;
Legislation that may affect
your business

Most kitchen fires occur in kitchen

ranges, boilers or deep-fat fryers and
can often be traced back to poor
cleaning regimes.
A.Protecting Property from Fire

Apply health, safety

and security
procedures in the

Consider the following responsibilities

if you are a worker or an owner of
such business.
Protecting your property from fire;
Protecting your property from
natural hazards;
Protecting your property from crime;
Protecting your staff and visitors
from accidents;
Legislation that may affect your

A.Protecting Property from Fire

.Electrical faults
Prevention of faults is the answer here
and this can be achieved by:
Frequent visual inspections of all
portable electrical items and fixed
electrical wiring.
Regular maintenance of these items
by an authorized agency or licensed
electrician may
be recorded and monitored.

A. Protecting Property from Fire

Ideally smoking should be prohibited
throughout the premises (including yards and
open areas) and notices to that effect
prominently displayed.
Ensure smoking is restricted to a designated
area that is kept free of combustible items
such as paper, curtains, flammable liquids.
Provide metal bins for the disposal of
ashtray contents and ensure they are emptied
safely every day. Do not dispose of them with
other combustible waste.

B. Protecting establishment from

natural hazards Flood
Firstly, check with the Local Authority
whether property is in a flood risk area. If
it is then you should:
Prepare a flood plan for your business
detailing the actions you will need to
take to minimize damage and
disruption. Practice putting the plan into
action so that you
and your staff will be sure it works and
have experience of what to do

Water Escape
Get dripping taps repaired as they
can cause damages.
Ensure pipes are properly lagged
using suitable insulation material.
If your premises are likely to be
unoccupied for a longer period e.g.
over Christmas and New Year, turn
the water off at the stopcock and
drain the system if possible.

Storm Damage
Making sure your premises are in
a good state of repair, it will
minimize the chance
of storm damage - check the
building regularly (walls, roof and
any outbuildings) and ensure any
problems you find are repaired

C. Protecting property from



Thieves frequently
see catering
businesses as an
easy target and it
is wise to ensure
that you have a
good level of
security at your

All accessible opening windows should be

fitted with key-operated locks but protect
secluded windows and roof-lights with steel
bars, grilles or shutters. Consider fitting shopfronts with grilles or shutters to deter smash
and grab raiders
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) can help deter
and capture evidence of robbery. Any system
should be fitted and maintained by an installer
registered with a nationally recognized
installation body such as - NSI (National
Security Inspectorate) and SSAIB (Security
Systems and Alarms Inspection Board).

Theft of money

Keeping cash on the

premises overnight
increases the
chance of a break in:
Keep as little cash
on the premises as
possible and keep it
out of public view.

D. Protecting your staff and

visitors from accidents.
Prevention is better (and
cheaper) than cure.
Slips, Trips and Falls
The most common type of
workplace accident, these can be
easily and cheaply prevented in
most cases and will often bring
other benefits.

Keeping the premises clean, tidy,

congestion-free and well lit will go a long
way to preventing most of this type of
Clear up spillage promptly and post
warning notices.
Repair or replace damaged floor coverings
immediately especially on stairways and
areas where the public have access.
Keep a clearly marked first-aid kit
available at all times.

Electricity can, and does, kill and the law
insists that your electrical installation
must be safe.
Ensure electrical equipment is only used
for the purpose for which it was designed.
Use a qualified electrician for electrical
installation work and for regular testing of
portable electrical items to ensure they
are in good working order.

Manual handling/lifting
Preventing injuries caused by manual lifting of
heavy items is also the subject of regulations and
solutions to this problem can easily be achieved.
If loads must be manually lifted, ensure they are
carried by at least two people and that
training in lifting techniques is provided.
Provide mechanical equipment e.g. trolleys to
assist staff in unloading and moving
deliveries. In addition, ensure deliveries are as
close as possible to the location where they
will be stored or used.

Accident reporting and

Make sure that all accidents and
incidents are recorded and
investigated as lessons can be
learned to prevent them in future. As
long as the recording method is
accessible and secure
it will be accepted computer records
are fine.

F. Legislations that may affect

We have mentioned some areas where
legislation may affect your business Fire Safety,
Food Hygiene and Electricity. There
maybe other regulations from other
regulatory board
like Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) particularly on manufacturing,
packaging and
storing food. Be aware and

Control hazards and risks in the


Use caution when working around hot oil.

Get trained in the proper use and
maintenance of your deep fryer.
Observe all safety procedures and wear all
protective equipment provided for your use
while preparing hot items
Use gloves and scrapers and other cleaning
tools with handles provided by your
Use the correct grease level and cooking
temperatures for your deep fryer.

Keep stove surfaces clean to prevent

grease flare-ups.
Avoid reaching over or climbing on top of
fryers and other hot surfaces. Clean vents
when oil is cool.
Keep floor surfaces clean and dry to
prevent slipping or falling onto hot
surfaces. Wear slip-resistant shoes. Floors
should be cleaned often with greasecutting

Do not work closely to hot fryers when

the floor is wet.
Do not spill water or ice into oil. Do not
store employee drinks by deep fryers.
They could be easily bumped into the hot
oil and cause a flare-up.
Do not overfill or pour excessive
amounts of frozen fries into deep fryer at
one time. Overfilling causes excessive
splashing and bubbling over of hot oil.
Do not pour excess ice from fry
packages into the fryer.

Do not pour excess ice from fry packages

into the fryer.
Do not overheat the oil; use only
manufacturer's recommended cooking
Do not move or strain hot oil
containers; wait until the oil is cool!
Do not store oil on floors by grill area.
Someone could slip and fall into the oil.
Extinguish hot oil/grease fires by using a
class K fire extinguisher.

Workplace hazards and their


Work-related injuries and

diseases occur as a result of
unsafe acts and condition.
Unsafe acts occur when
employee are unaware of
hazards and the proper

1. Small appliances
Keep cords away from the edge of
the countertop.
Keep small appliances and their
power cord away from the sink or
other water sources.
Never reach into appliances like
mixers and blenders while theyre

Keep the crockpot away from the

edge of the counter so children can't
accidentally touch it and get burned
by the hot outer housing.

2. Kitchen tools
Utensil Drawer
Utensils drawers in kitchens are
filled with forks, knives and other
sharp object that could potentially
result in puncture injuries if not
stored properly and handled with

Cuts and even amputation
can be cause by misuse or
poor maintenance of knives.
Keep the knife block out of
reach of children

3. Household chemicals
The most common storage spot for
these types of products is
underneath the sink not in kitchen.
They should not be within the easy
reach of children, and even pets.
Cabinet doors should always be
properly closed with lock.

4. Household chemicals
Store bleach and ammonia in
separate areas because they can
produce a dangerous reaction if
they come in contact with one
Keep the number for poison
control posted on the refrigerator
or inside a cabinet door in case
help is needed in a hurry.

5. Garbage Disposals
Garbage disposals are common in
many homes, and using them
improperly can result in injury.

6. Stove and Oven Hazards

Whether your stove is gas or electric,
it can pose a safety risk for every
member of the household. Many
people have burned their hands on a
hot stove or as a result of reaching
into an oven without a proper oven
mitt. The risk of burns, however, is
not the only reason that stoves can
be dangerous:

6. Stove and Oven

Leaving stove burners on under empty
pots and pans can be a fire hazard. Verify
that the stovetop is turned off when food
is finished cooking.
Pots and pans filled with hot food can
easily be knocked off if the handles are
not situated properly. Always turn
handles so they are facing away from the
front of edge of the stove.

6. Stove and Oven

Failure to properly clean out
the oven can cause fires
while cooking. Clean the oven
regularly, and never leave an
oven unattended while in use.

7. Bad Storage Habits in the

.The fridge is one place we ought to be
paying attention, says Dean Cliver.
Dont put drippy raw stuff over the salad
The USDA Food Safety and Inspection
Service suggests placing raw meat,
seafood, and poultry in sealed containers
or plastic bags to prevent their juices
from contaminating other foods.

Bad storage habits in the