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Topic 1

INTRODUCTION TO
MAINTENANCE
MANAGEMENT

LEARNING OUTCOME

Acquire sufficient knowledge of


maintenance in engineering
Able to identify types of maintenance

Overview of maintenance management:


definition, history, signification

Maintenance, repair and operations


-involves fixing any sort of mechanical or
electrical device should it become out of
order or broken (repair, unscheduled or
casualty maintenance)
-includes performance routine actions which
keep the device in working order (scheduled
maintenance)
-prevent trouble of the device from arising
(preventive maintenance)

-MRO may be defined asAll actions which


have the objective of retaining or restoring
an item in or to a state in which it can
perform its required function

Maintenance in Engineering
In engineering, the term maintenance has the
following meanings:
Any activity such as tests, measurements,
replacements, adjustments and repairs
intended to retain or restore a functional unit in
or to a specified state in which the unit can
perform its required functions.
For material all action taken to retain material
in a serviceable condition or to restore it to
serviceability. It includes inspection, testing,
servicing, classification as to serviceability,
repair, rebuilding, and reclamation.

For material all supply and repair


action taken to keep a force in condition
to carry out its mission.
For material the routine recurring
work required to keep a facility (pant,
building, structure, ground facility, utility
system, or other real property) in such
condition that it may be continuously
used, at its original or designed capacity
and efficiency for its intended purpose

Types of maintenance: corrective, and


preventive

Corrective maintenance, where equipment is


maintained after break down. This maintenance is
often most expensive because worn equipment can
damage other parts and cause multiple damage
Preventive maintenance, where equipment is
maintained before break down occures. This type
of maintenance has many different variations and
is subject of various researches to determine
best and most efficient way to maintain
equipment..

Corrective maintenance

Probably the most commonly used approach, but


it is easy to see its limitations. When equipment
fails, it often leads to downtime in production.
In most cases this is costly business.
If the equipment needs to be replaced, the cost
of replacing it alone can be substantial. It is
also important to consider health, safety and
environment (HSE) issues related to
malfunctioning equipment.
Corrective maintenance can be defined as the
maintenance which is required when an item has
failed or worn out, to bring it back to working.

Preventive Maintenance
Can be described as maintenance of equipment or
systems before fault occurs.
The care and servicing by personnel for the
purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in
satisfactory operating condition by providing for
systematic inspection, detection, and correction
of incipient failures either before they occur or
before they develop into major defects.
Maintenance, including tests, measurements,
adjustments, and parts replacement, performed
specifically to prevent faults from occurring

Preventive Maintenance can be divided into two:


1. Planned Maintenance (PM) - scheduled
service visit carried out by a competent and
suitable agent, to ensure that an item of
equipment is operating correctly and to
therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown
and downtime.

2. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) maintenance when need arises. This


maintenance is performed after one or more
indicators show that equipment is going to fail
or that equipment performance is
deteriorating.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTEGES (PM)

Advantages
1.easier planning of maintenance and ordering
spares,
2.costs are distributed more evenly,
3.no initial costs for instruments for supervision
of equipment.
Disadvantages
1.less reliable than equipment with CBM
2.more expensive due to more frequent parts
change.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTEGES (CBM)


Advantages
1. Improved system reliability
2.Decreased maintenance costs
3.Decreased number of maintenance operations
causes decreasing of human error influence

Disadvantages
1.High installation costs, for minor equipment
items more than value of equipment
2.Unpredictable maintenance periods are causing
costs to be divided unequaly
3.Increased number of parts (CBM installation)
that need maintenance and checking

Example of the maintenance


Common car maintenance tasks include:
Car wash
check/replace the engine oil and replace oil filters
check/replace fuel filters
inspect or replace windshield wipers
check or refill windshield washer fluid
inspect tires for pressure and wear
Tire balancing
Tire rotation
Wheel alignment
check, clean or replace battery terminals and top up
battery fluid
inspect or replace brake pads
check or flush brake fluid

check or flush transmission fluid


check or flush power steering fluid
check and flush engine coolant
inspect or replace spark plugs
inspect or replace air filter
inspect or replace timing belt and other belts
lubricate locks, latches, hinges
check all lights
tighten chassis nuts and bolts
check if rubber boots are cracked and need
replacement
test electronics, e.g., Anti-lock braking
system or ABS
read fault codes from the Engine control unit

Maintenance Cost

MAINTENANCE OF
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

LEARNING OUTCOME

Acquire sufficient knowledge in


servicing of bearing, seals, mechanical
drives and pump

Service and Repair Principles

Service principle in engineering?????


Repair in engineering?????

Lubricant selection: lubrication


oil, grease, dry lubricants

The purpose of lubrication in bearing applications


Minimize friction at points of contact within the bearings
Protect the highly finished bearing surfaces from
corrosion
Dissipate heat generated within the bearings
Remove foreign matter or prevent its entry into the
bearings
Choice of a lubricant depends primarily on the operating
conditions, such as the temperature range, speeds, and
surrounding influences.
Over time, the lubricant in a bearing arrangement gradually
loses its lubricating properties as a result of mechanical work,
aging, and the buildup of contamination.
Necessary for grease to be replenished or renewed and for
oil to be filtered and changed at regular intervals to help
promote maximum bearing service life.

Oil lubricant
Advantage
Liquid-can
lubricate all
surfaces
Oil- better
lubricant for
high speeds or
high
temperature
Oil- easier to
keep clean for
re-circulating
systems

Disadvantage

Grease lubricant
Advantage

Liquid-harder
to retain

Easily confined
in the housing

Higher losses

Improves
efficiency of
mechanical
seals to give
better
protection to
the
bearing
Bearing

enclosure and
seal design is
simplified

Disadvantage
Restricted to
lower-speed
applications
Only within
operatingtemperature
limits of the
grease

Operation principles and servicing of


bearing, oil seals mechanical drives
and pumps

BEARING

Antifriction (rolling-element) bearings are


used whenever the reduction of friction
are required at the interface of dynamic
and static of components in machinery

Function
Reduce friction
To support force
To control position of moving element

Bearing Elements
Balls or rollers or a combination of both in some special
designs
Can support
Radial loading
Thrust loading
Capability to accomplish both
Four essential components
Inner ring
Outer ring with their raceways
Complement of rolling element (balls or rollers)
A cage, retainer, or separator
Bearings are often supplied in housed units for
simplified mounting

The bearings in a car wheel are subject to


both thrust and radial loads.

Types of Bearing

a) Sliding surface
- contains plain journal bearing and thrust
bearing
- plain journal bearing support force radially
and thrust bearing support force axially
b) Rolling contact
- Ball
deep groove ball bearing
self-alignment
angular contact

- Roller

cylindrical
needle
spherical
taper

- Thrust
ball bearing
angular contact thrust ball
cylindrical roller thrust
needle roller thrust
spherical roller thrust

Ball Bearing

The most common type of bearing.


They are found in everything from
inline skates to hard drives.
Can handle both radial and thrust
loads, and are usually found in
applications where the load is
relatively small.
The load is transmitted from the
outer race to the ball, and from the
ball to the inner race.
Since the ball is a sphere, it only
contacts the inner and outer race at
a very small point, which helps it spin
very smoothly.
Not very much contact area holding
that load, so if the bearing is
overloaded, the balls can deform or
squish, ruining the bearing.

Roller Bearing

Used in applications like conveyer


belt rollers, where they must hold
heavy radial loads.
The roller is a cylinder, so the
contact between the inner and outer
race is not a point but a line.
This spreads the load out over a
larger area, allowing the bearing to
handle much greater loads than a
ball bearing.
However, this type of bearing is not
designed to handle much thrust
loading.
A variation of this type of bearing,
called a needle bearing, uses
cylinders with a very small diameter.
This allows the bearing to fit into
tight places.

Tapered Roller
Bearing

Can support large radial


and large thrust loads.
Tapered roller bearings
are used in car hubs,
where they are usually
mounted in pairs facing
opposite directions so
that they can handle
thrust in both directions.

Thrust ball bearing

Mostly used for lowspeed applications and


cannot handle much
radial load.

Barstools and Lazy


Susan turntables use
this type of bearing

Thrust Roller Bearing

Can support large thrust


loads.
They are often found in
gearsets like car
transmissions between gears,
and between the housing and
the rotating shafts.
The helical gears used in
most transmissions have
angled teeth -- this causes a
thrust load that must be
supported by a bearing.

Bearing Failure

Fatigue is the result of shear


stresses cyclically appearing
immediately below the load
carrying surface.
After some time these stresses
cause cracks which gradually
extend up to the surface.
As the rolling elements pass over
the cracks fragments of material
break away and this is known as
flaking or spalling.
The flaking progressively increases
in extent (figs 1 to 4) and
eventually makes the bearing
unserviceable.

Corrosion

Deep Seated Rust

When water or corrosive agents reach


the inside of the bearing in such
quantities that the lubricant cannot
provide protection for the steel
surfaces.
A great danger to bearings since it can
initiate flaking and cracks.
Corrosive agents
Acid liquids corrode the steel
quickly,
Alkaline solutions are less
dangerous.
Salts that are present in fresh
water constitute, together with the
water, an electrolyte which causes
galvanic corrosion, known as water
etching.
Salt water, such as sea water, is
highly dangerous to bearings .

Fretting Rust

May be relatively deep in


places when oxidation manage
to penetrate deeper into the
material
Small particles of material
to become detached from the
surface then oxidized quickly
when exposed to the oxygen
in the atmosphere.
The bearing rings may not be
evenly supported and this has
a detrimental effect on the
load distribution in the
bearings.
Rusted areas also act as
fracture notches.

Abrasion

Wear

the surface is eroded by hard contaminants (steel chips


from the race or bearing, sand, or grit that got past the
seal) in the lubricant scraping at the bearing materials.

Caused by abrasive particles


Caused by inadequate lubrication
Caused by vibration

Indentations

Caused by faulty mounting or overloading


Caused by foreign particles

Mounting and maintenance

Because they are precision components, rolling bearings


should be handled carefully and mounted with the proper
equipment.
They must be installed correctly to realize maximum bearing
service life.
An estimated 16 percent of all premature bearing failures
are caused by poor fitting, frequently using brute force, and
being unaware of the availability of the correct mounting
tools and methods.
Individual installations may require mechanical, thermal, or
hydraulic methods for correct and efficient mounting,
depending on the bearing type and size.
In all cases the bearing rings, cages, and rolling elements or
seals should not receive direct blows and the mounting force
must never be directed through the rolling elements.

Basic rules before mounting


Maintain cleanliness
Choose a clean environment, free form dust or moisture
Use protective screen, clean cloths
Plan the work
Preparation and inspection
All component parts of the machine should be on hand and
thoroughly cleaned.
Do not use air hose on bearings!
All component part should be checked against the detailed
specification prints for dimensional accuracy
Other suggestions when mounting a bearing to promote desired
performance:
Be sure housing and shaft in the arrangement are clean and
undamaged.
Do not remove the bearing from its wrapping until ready to mount.
Do not wash the bearing.
Apply mounting forces only to the bearing ring with the interference
fit.
Use minimum force with a maximum control method

Dismounting

One reason for dismounting a bearing is to replace it


with a new one.
When proceeding, care must be taken not to damage
the shaft in the process, which can result in
compromising a machines efficiency.
Shaft condition can greatly influence the service life of
the new bearing.
Another reason to dismount bearings is for maintenance
or replacement of other machine components.
Proper dismounting methods and tools should be
enlisted because these dismounted bearings will be
mounted again (unless they are damaged during
dismounting).
Choice of tools will depend on bearing type, size, and fit

Mechanical drives
Mechanical drives are used to provide a variable
output speed from a constant speed power source or
to provide torque increase for a variable speed
power source as in an automobile.

http://www.gears-manufacturers.com/mechanical-drives.html

Types of mechanical drive

The basic types of mechanical drives are:


a) Geared Transmission - Provides specific
fixed type ratios.
b) Belt drives - Provide flexibility in the
positioning of the motor .
c) Chain Drives - Provide infinitely variable
speeds.
d) Traction Drives - Provides adjustabe
speed with relatively high speed.

Advantages
a) Mechanical drives are less costly than
competing electrical drives and their control is
much simpler.
b) They are used in industries ranging from
aerospace to mining and heavy industry.
c) With the advanced technology, the working of
mechanical drive has become more efficient.
Disadvantages
a) The disadvantage of these drives is that they
are not durable and cannot be controlled as
precisely as electrical drives. They cannot
transmit as much power as electrical drives when
variable speed is
essential.

Maintenance
Mechanical drives have internal spaces that
have void spaces where residues can be
deposited. The system should be cleaned at
regular intervals. Clean-in place (CIP) is a
method designed automatically to clean pipes
and drives. This method is used to clean the
void spaces in the drives.

Pump

a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases and


slurries.

Most common pumps


a) external gear pump
b) internal gear pump
c) lobe pump
d) vane pump

External gear pump


Two identical gears rotating
against each
other.
One driving gear and one driven
gear.

How it Works??
i) As gear spins, volume expands
at inlet.
ii) Liquid flows into pump.
iii) Liquid discharged through
outlet

Advantages
High Speed
High Pressure
Relatively quiet operation
Can use variety of materials
Disadvantages
No solids allowed
Fixed End Clearances
Applications
Various fuel oils and lube oils
Chemical additive and polymer metering
Chemical mixing and blending
(double pump)
Industrial and mobile hydraulic
applications (log splitters, lifts, etc.)
Acids and caustic (stainless steel or
composite construction)
Low volume transfer or application

Internal gear pump


One interior gear and one
exterior
gear.
Interior gear drives the
exterior gear.

How it Works??
i) Liquid enters suction port.
ii) Crescent shaped divider creates
pressure.
iii) Liquid discharges smoothly
through outlet.

Advantages
Excellent for high-viscosity liquids
Operates well in either direction
Single adjustable end clearance
Easy to maintain
Disadvantages
Requires moderate speeds
Medium pressure limitations
Applications
All varieties of fuel oil and lube oil
Resins and Polymers
Alcohols and solvents
Asphalt, Bitumen, and Tar
Polyurethane foam (Isocyanate and
polyol)
Food products such as corn syrup,
chocolate, and peanut butter
Paint, inks, and pigments
Soaps and surfactants
Glycol

Lobe pump
Similar with external gear
pump, but
the lobes do not make
contact.
Timing gears drive both lobes.

How it Works??
i) As lobes spin, volume expands
at inlet.
ii) Liquid flows into pump.
iii) Liquid discharged through
outlet

Advantages
No metal-to-metal contact

Non-pulsating discharge
Pass medium solids
Long term dry run

Disadvantages
Requires timing gears

Reduced lift with thin liquids

Applications
Polymers

Paper coatings
Soaps and surfactants
Paints and dyes
Rubber and adhesives
Pharmaceuticals
Food applications

Vane pump
Rotor with spring-equipped
vanes.
Single motor drives rotor.

How it Works??
i) Liquid enters suction port.
ii) Rotor spins, transferring
liquid to the
other side.
iii) Liquid discharges at outlet.

Advantages
Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures
Develops good vacuum
Compensates for wear through vane extension
Can run dry for short periods
Disadvantages
Complex housing and many parts
Not suitable for high pressures
Applications
Aerosol and Propellants
Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing
Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes,
Refrigeration Coolants
Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3
LPG Cylinder Filling
Alcohols
Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia
Solvents
Aqueous solutions

Common Failure

Cavitations
Air in Fluid
Coupling Misaligned
Pump worn or damaged
Excessive load
Damage caused by metal object
Excessive heat
Overpressure
Incorrect Installation

Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
Change the return or pressure hydraulic filter
Obtain a hydraulic fluid sample
Filter hydraulic fluid
Clean the inside of a hydraulic reservoir
Check and record hydraulic pressures
Check and record pump flow
Check hydraulic hoses, tubing,
and fittings
Check and record vacuum on the
suction side of the pump
Overhaul and replace

Pump Failures

Pumping machinery and pumping station are very


important components in a water supply system.

Pumping machinery is subjected to wear, tear, erosion


and corrosion due to their nature of functioning and
therefore are vulnerable for failures.

Sudden failures can be avoided by timely inspection,


follow up actions on observations of inspection and
planned periodical maintenance.

Inside the pump

Bearing and shaft

Bearing

Winding coil

Broken blade

Cavitations