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Experimental investigation of

forced convective heat transfer
coefficient
in nanofluids of Al2O3/EG and
CuO/EG in a double pipe and plate
heat
exchangers under turbulent flow

•We also evaluated the effects of particle concentration and operating temperature on the forced convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids. . ranging from 2% to 50%. . Moreover.OBJECTIVE: •Forced convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids using theoretical correlations in order to compare the results with the experimental data. the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid increases. The findings indicate considerable enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids as compared to the basefluid. the results indicate that with increasing nanoparticles concentrationand nanofluid temperature.

14 by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles from 0. Suppression of natural convection heat transfer by nanofluid of Al2O3/water and CuO/water and concluded that this could be due to several factors such as nanoparticles settling and velocity difference between nanoparticles and base fluid. varies from 1.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: Nusselt number for the nanofluid to that of pure water under the same flow rate. respectively. Al2O3/ethylene glycol (EG) and Al2O3/water nanofluids in a radial flow system reported considerable improvement in heat transfer rate. .2%.05 to 1.5% to 1.

0% weight aluminum in ethylene glycol (EG) IIS base fluid MAKING OFoxide NANO FLUID AND were prepared without surfactants solely with magnetic STABILITY stirring for 1 h and subsequent ultrasonic irradiation for 2 h. samples of 0. and 1. 0. 0. 0. 0. These samples proved highly appropriate in terms of homogenous dispersion and long term stability.1%.3%.•Al2O3/EG nanofluid.5%.0% weight copper oxidein base fluid (EG) were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) alongside magnetic stirring for 1 h and subsequent ultrasonic irradiation for 2 h. •These samples proved appropriate for a cyclic system in terms of homogenous dispersion and long term stability.5%. : •CuO/EG nanofluid. samples of 0.7%. and 1.1%. .

EQUIPMENT AND METHOD : . Double pipe heat exchanger: •Inner dia of copper. •Heat exchange length of 70 cm. 50.8 mm in diameter. •The shell is made of green pipes. •Counter current flow . 12 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness.

heat conduction coefficient. •The Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. •Applied the energy balance. special heat capacity.DATA ANALYSIS: •Heat characteristics of the nanofluid. heat penetration coefficient etc. viscosity. . according to the recommended procedure for calculation. such as density.

.

NUSSLET NO can be calculated theoretical by: .

0% weight copper oxide in ethylene glycol.there is a direct relationship between temperature and the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids compared to the base fluid. •Improvements in heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids with increased fluid temperature can be caused • As the temperature increases the viscosity of base fluid decreases and the Brownian motion of nanoparticles inside the fluid increases. heat transfer is considerably enhanced for nanofluids compared to the base fluid. In double pipe heat exchanger. consequently convection-like effects are remarkably increased which lead to increasein convective heat transfer coefficient.0% weight aluminum oxide in ethylene glycol and 37% for 1. •Under all conditions.RESULT •In heat exchangers. this enhancement is maximally 26% for 1. .

reaching a maximum of 25% in the case of CuO/EG nanofluid in double pipe exchanger at 75 C of operational temperature.•Temperature and concentration are two essential parameters determining the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids and they are directly related to heat transfer coefficient. •With rising temperatures and nanoparticle concentrations. the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data grows. .

.7% IN NU ACHIEVED AT 1. ENHANCEMENT OF 20.CuO/water Nanofluid Convective Heat Transfer Through Square Duct Under Uniform Heat Flux IT HAS BEEN REPORTED THAT HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT ENHANCES WITH INCREASING NANOFLUID FLOW RATE AS WELL AS CONCENTRATION OF NANOPARTICLES IN THE NANOFLUID ESPECIALLY AT HIGH FLOW RATES.5% VOLUME CONCENTRATION OF CUO/WATER NANOFLUID. THE BASIC REASON FOR LOWERHEAT TRANSFER RATE OF SQUARE DUCTS IS EXISTENCE OF A STATIC SECTION FOR SOME PART OF FLUID NEAR CORNERS OF SQUARE DUCT AND THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT THE PRESENCE OF NANOPARTICLES DECREASE THIS UNMOVED STATIC SECTION WHICHCONSEQUENTLY INCREASE THE HEAT TRANSFER FROM THE DUCT WALL TO THE NANOFLUID.

THEIR RESULTS SHOWED THAT CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT INCREASED WITH NANOFLUIDS CONCENTRATION AND PECLET NUMBERS. while over a 150% improvement of the effective thermal conductivity at a volume fraction of 1% was reported by Choi for multiwalled carbon nanotubes suspended in oil.It is reported that a very small amount (less than1% in terms of volume fraction) of copper nanoparticles improved the measured thermal conductivity of the suspension by 40% . NASSAN ET AL. . COMPARES … THE HEAT TRANSFER OF AL2O3/WATER AND CUO/ WATER NANOFLUIDS THROUGH SQUARE DUCT WITH LAMINAR FLOW AND AT CONSTANT WALL HEAT FLUX.

THE VOLUME FRACTION OF THE NANOPARTICLES IN SUSPENSION IS DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: Volume Fraction of nano particles in susension: Density of nano fluid by: Required mass for nano particle for dispersion: .

specific heat and thermal conductivity: It is Einstein equation .RESULT Physical property of nano fluid were calculated from nanoparticle and water at inlet and outlet bulk temperature using the following equation for density. viscosity.is used for suspensions (  <2%). .

NANOFLUID EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY : Where mean temperature difference can be calculated from: .

due to combined effect of uncertainty interval .Seider Tast (for theoretical nusslet no) correlation is for laminar flow of single phase fluid The Uncertainty in R.

and between nanoparticles and the inner surface of the duct on the other hand during flowing. Since heat transfer between nanoparticles and bulk fluid is performed on the surface of nanoparticles the higher specific surface area of these nanoparticles causes the better heat exchanges. •Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid is better than that of distilled water. The reasons are due to the extensive large surface area and the interactions among the nanoparticles themselves on one hand. . Figure 2 illustrates this comparison.Result and conclusion •Experimental results for water were compared with the prediction of Seider-Tateequation for laminar flow.. which indicates that a very good agreement was achieved and maximum discrepancy between experimental results and prediction of Seider-Tate equation is which confirm the reliability of the experiment procedure.

lower heat transfer rate of square ducts is existence of a static section for some part of fluid near corners of triangular duct and it seems that the presence of nanoparticles causes to decrementthis unmoved static section. .

•lower heat transfer rate of square ducts is existence of a static section for some part of fluid near corners of triangular duct and it seems that the presence of nanoparticles causes to decrementthis unmoved static section .