Bridge Design

Structural Engineering Final Year

History of Bridge Development
‡ Bridge is one of the oldest instrument of our Civilization. ‡ In pre-historic times bridge formed with fallen trees or logs of wood ‡ Suspension Bridges with creepers of tree ‡ Oldest bridge in record is built on river Niles in about 2650 B.C but no details are available

History
‡ A wooden bridge built by the queen of Babylon in the year 783 B.C. This bridge has wooden platform supported on stone piers ‡ Alexander while returning from India used a boat bridge in 326 BC ‡ Primitive Arch bridge was built in Persia, Greece and Rome ‡ Oldest Existing Bridge in 350 B.C consist of 20 arches each of 7.5 m span total length is 380 m in Babylon

X-istics of ancient Bridges
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Crossing to the Right-Angle to the Stream Hump in the Center Narrow Width Absence of Foot-Path Aesthetics

Evolution of Bridge Engineering
‡ Resulting Combination of the evolution of ± Structures ± Materials of Construction ± Method of Design ± Method of Fabrication ‡ Timber & Stone replaced by ± Wrought Iron ----- Mild Steel ----- Concrete----Pre-stressed------ Suspension bridges---

Span Range
Type
Slab Beam Truss Arch Rib Arch Truss Cable Suspension

Material
Concrete Concrete Steel Steel Concrete Steel Steel Concrete Steel Steel

Span Range (m)
0-12 1212-210 3030-300 90-550 909090-130 120120-370 240-520 2409090-270 9090-350 300-1400 300-

Components of a Bridge
1. Super Structure ± Structural members, beams, girders, handrails, flooring, arches, cables. 2. Sub Structure ± Abutments ± Piers ± Wing Walls ± Foundations for Piers & Abutments

Basic Definitions
‡ Bridge ± A structure facilitating a communication route for carrying road, railway, pedestrian traffic or other moving loads over a depression ‡ Causeway

± It·s a pucca submersible bridge which allows flood water to pass over it. It is provided on less important routes in order to reduce the construction cost of cross drainage structures

Definitions
‡ Foot Bridge ± Bridge Exclusively used for carrying pedestrians, cycles & animals ‡ Culvert ± When a Small stream crosses a road with linear water way less than 6 meters ‡ Deck Bridge ± Bridges whose floorings are supported at top of the super structures

Definitions
‡ Through Bridge ± Whose floorings are supported at the bottom of the super-structure ‡ Cantilever Bridge ± More or less fixed at one end and free on the other end varying from 8m to 20m ‡ Square Bridge ± Bridges at Right-Angle to the axis of river ‡ Skew Bridge

± Bridges which are not at Right-Angle

Definitions
‡ Suspension Bridge ± Bridges suspended on cables anchored at ends ‡ Apron ± It·s a layer of concrete, masonry stone, etc placed like flooring at the entrance or outlet of a culvert to prevent scour ‡ Curtain Wall ± It·s a thin wall used as a protection against scouring action of a stream

Definitions
‡ Back Wall ± Retaining wall to support soil from approach road ‡ Wing-wall ± Retaining the earth from later dimension ‡ Floor Slab ± Provides the carriage way for the movement of traffic ‡ Stringers

± These are the small beams which transfer the load from floor slab to floor beams

Definitions
‡ Floor Beam ± Transfer the load from stringer to main girder ‡ Girder ± Carries the load of bridge & Transfer it to the piers & abutments ‡ Bearings ± These behaves as shock absorbers and caries thermal stresses

Definitions
Piers ± These are the intermediate supports of a bridge superstructures ‡ Abutments ± These are the end supports of the superstructure ‡ Effective Span
‡

± The C/C distance between any two adjacent supports
‡ Clear Span

± The clear distance between any two adjacent supports

Definitions
‡ Free Board ± Difference between the highest flood level and the formation level of road embankments on the approaches ‡ Headroom ± The vertical distance between the highest point of a vehicle and the lowest point of any protruding member of a bridge

Requirements of an Ideal Bridge
An ideal bridge meets following requirements to fulfill the three criteria of efficiency, effectiveness and equity 1. It serves the intended function with utmost safety and convenience 2. It is aesthetically sound 3. It is economical ‡

Selection of Bridge Site
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ground Reconnaissance Collection of hydraulic/ground data Subsoil Investigation Type of Bridge Engineering Considerations Social Considerations Aesthetic Considerations Future Requirements Design Alternatives Strategically needed

Ideal Bridge Site Characteristics
1. Geologically Suitable 2. The stream at bridge site should be well defined and as narrow as possible 3. There should be a straight reach of stream at bridge site 4. Site should have firm, permanent, straight and high banks 5. Flow of water at bridge site should be steady regime conditions, it should be free from whirls and cross currents

Ideal Bridge Site Characteristics
6. It is feasible to have straight approach roads and square alignment 7. Site providing the adequate vertical height available underneath for navigation 8. There should be no adverse environmental input 9. Construction facilities available 10. Time Considerations

Types of Bridges
1. W.r.t Materials of Construction 1. R.C.C Bridges 2. Pre- Stressed Bridges 3. Steel Bridges 4. Wooden Bridges 5. Hanging Cable Bridges

Types of Bridges
2. W.r.t Construction 1. Pre- cast Bridges 2. Cast Insitu Bridges 3. W.r.t Load Carrying Conditions 1. Compression Bridges (Arch Type) 2. Tension Bridges ( Suspension Type) 3. Flexural bridges ( Deck-Girder Type)

Types of Bridges
4. W.r.t X-Section Conditions 1. Solid Slab Bridge 2. Hollow Bridge 3. Box- Girder Bridge 5. W.r.t Design Conditions 1. Slab Bridge 2. Deck- Girder Bridge

Types of Bridges
1. Slab Bridge  Slab is Supported by Abutments & Slab is designed as one-way slab supported at edges. The main reinforcement is parallel to the flow of traffic 2. Deck- Girder Bridge  The main reinforcement is perpendicular to the flow of traffic, slab is supported on girders (interior, exterior)

Slab Bridge

Deck ± Girder Bridge

AASHTO Design Conditions
1. Design is based on Elastic- Theory 2. AASHTO Stress limitations
1. fc = 0.4 fc/ 2. fs = 0.5 fy

3. Span length 1. C/C distance between supports 2. Clear Span + Slab Thickness
(Which ever is larger)

AASHTO Design Conditions
4. Dead Load
1. (h / 12)*150 = Slab Weight

2. Weight of Wearing Surface =15 to 30 psf 3. Self weight of (a) Girder (b) Edge beam 5. Live Load 1. HS- 20 Truck 2. HS- 15 Truck 3. Equivalent Lane Load

HS- Truck Loading
4000 lbs 16000 lbs 16000 lbs

2/ 6/ 14 / 2/

HS-20 Loading
3000 lbs 12000 lbs 12000 lbs

2/ 6/ 14 2/

/

HS-15 Loading

Equivalent Lane Loading
PC w

Moment

Shear

PC = 18000 lbs W
= 640

26000 lbs

lbs/ft 3/4 th

For HS-20 Loading For HS-15 Loading Take

Loading
‡ Lane Loading / Standard Truck loading shall be assumed to occupy a width of 10 ft ‡ These loads shall be placed in 12 ft wide traffic lanes spaced across the entire bridge road way ‡ A 20 to 24 feet wide road shall have two design lanes each equal to half of width of road way

Loading
‡ Each 10 feet lane loading or single standard truck shall be considered as a unit, and fractional load lane or fractional trucks shall not be used ‡ Where maximum stresses are caused in any member by loading any number of traffic lanes simultaneously, following % age of resultant live load stresses shall be used
± One or Two lanes ± Three Lanes ± More Than 3 lanes 100 % 90 % 75 %

AASHTO Design Conditions
6. Impact Load
I = 50 / S+125 * S = Span length I > 30 % of Live Load

Design of Slab Bridge
‡ ‡ Design of Slab Design of Edge Beam 
Dead Load Moment = w l 2 / 8  Live Load Moment = HS-20 / HS-15 Live Load Moment = 900 *S for S <= 50· Live Load Moment = 1300*S ² 20,000 lb-ft for S > 50 or = 16000 / E ² w E= Equivalent Lane Loading E= 4 +0.06 * S <=7·

Design of Deck Girder Bridge
(S+2)/32 * P20 ft-lb per foot width of slab ft (S+2)/32 * P15 

for HS-20 P = 16,000 lbs HSfor HS-15 P = 12,000 lbs HS-

Design of Slab Bridge
D.L Moment + L.L Moment + Impact Load moment ‡ M = 1 /2 * fc * kd * bjd ‡ K= n / (n+r)
± n = ES /EC = 29* 106 / 57000 ¥ fc·

‡ Total Moment =

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

j =1 ² (k /3) r = fs / fc Cover = 1.5 ´ total As = M / (fs*j*d) Distribution Steel = 100 / ¥ S % age of main steel Distribution Steel =220/ ¥ S % age of main steel (Deck ²Girder Bridge)

Design of Edge Beam
‡ Dead Load of edge beam ‡ Dead load moment = wl2 /8 ‡ Live Load moment = 0.1 pc*S Where Pc is wheel load for HS-20 Pc = 16,000 lbs for HS-15 Pc = 12,000 lbs

Example
‡
Design a slab bridge having clear span of 15 / a clear width of 26 / . Live load HS-20 Truck & wearing surface load is 30 psf. Concrete strength fc· = 3,000 psi and fy = 40,000 psi

‡ Solution
± ± ± ± ± ± S = 15 · Clear width = 26 ¶ Live load = HS-20 fc· = 3,000 psi fy = 40,000 psi Wearing surface = 30psf

Example
‡ AASHTO allowable Stresses
± fc = 0.4 fc ¶ = 0.4 * 3000 = 1200 psi ± fs = 0.5 fy = 0.5 *40,000 =20,000 psi

‡ Load Calculations
± ± ± ± Assuming thickness of slab = 12µ Dead load of slab = (12 / 12 )* 150 = 150 psf Total Dead load = 150 + 30 = 180 psf Total Dead load moment = wl2 /8 = 180 (16)2 / 8 = 5760 lb-ft

Example
‡ Moment Calculations
± Live load moment = 900 * S = 900 * 16 = 14400 lb-ft ± Impact moment = I = 50 / (S+125) =50 / (16+125) = 0.3570 So we will use 0.3 Impact moment = I = 0.3 Live load moment = 0.3 * 14400 = 4320 lb-ft

‡ Total Moment calculation
± M = 5760 +14400+4320 = 24480 lb-ft

Example
‡ Using Elastic Theory
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± k =n / (n+r) n = Es/ Ec = 29*106 / 57000¥3000 = 9.3 r = fs / fc = 20000/1200 = 16.67 k = n / (n+r) = 0.358 j = 1- (k /3) = 1- 0.358/3 = 0.881 M = ½ fc bkd * jd 24480*12=1/2* 1200*12*0.358*0.881*d2 d=11.4µ h=d + Cover +0.5 ´ = 11.4 +0.75+0.5 = 12.6µ > 12 ´

Example
‡ Using Elastic Theory
± ± ± ± ± Lets assume h = 14 ´ Dead load = (14 / 12 ) * 150 = 175 psf W.S load = 30 psf Total Dead Load = 175 + 30 = 205 psf Total Dead load moment = wl2 /8 = 205 (16)2 / 8 = 6560 lb-ft ± Live load moment = 900 * S = 900 * 16 = 14400 lb-ft Impact moment = I = 0.3 Live load moment = 0.3 * 14400 = 4320 lb-ft

± M = 6560 +14400+4320 = 25280

lb-ft

‡ Calculation of Steel Area
± As = M / (fs*j*d)

Example

= (25280*12)/ (20000*0.881*12.75) d= 14-1.25 = 12.75 (0.5+0.75)
* *

± As = 1.44 in2 ± # 7 @ 5µ c/c
‡ Distribution Steel = 100 / ¥ S % age of main steel
= 100 / ¥16 = 25 % of main steel = 0.3375 in2

‡

# 5 @ 10µ c/c

Example
‡ Design of Edge Beam
± Dead load of edge beam = ((24 ´ * 24µ )/144)*15 = 600 lb/ft ± Dead load moment = 600 (16)2 /8 = 19200 lb-ft ± Live load moment = 0.1Pc*S = 0.1 (16000 *16) = 25600 lb-ft ± Total Moment = 19200+25600 = 44800 lb-ft ± M= ½ fc bkd*jd 44800*12 = ½ *1200-24µ*0.357*0.881 d2 ± d= 10.9 ´

Example
‡ Calculation of Steel Area
± As = M / (fs*j*d) ± As = (44800 *12 )/ (20000 *0.881*12.75) ± As =2.39 in2 ± Use 7 # 4 bars

±Draw the Sketches Neatly

Example
‡
Design a Deck-girder bridge having clear span of 48 / a clear width of 29 / . Live load HS-20 Truck & wearing surface load is 15 psf. Concrete strength fc· = 3,000 psi and fy = 40,000 psi

‡ Solution
± ± ± ± ± ± ± S = 4·- 4µ Clear width = 29¶ Clear Span = 48· Live load = HS-20 fc· = 3,000 psi fy = 40,000 psi Wearing Surface = 15 psf

Load Calculations
Assuming thickness of slab = 6µ Dead load of slab = (6 / 12 )* 150 = 75 psf Total Dead load = 75 + 15 = 90 psf Total (+ & - )Dead load moment = wl2 /10 = 90 (4.333)2 / 10 = 169 lb-ft lbLive load moment = 0.80 {(S+2)/32 }* P20 = 0.80 {(4.33+2)/32 }* 16000 =2530 lb-ft lbImpact moment = I = 0.3 Live load moment = 0.3 * 2530 = 760 lb-ft lb-

Total Moment calculation
M = 169 +2530+760 = 3459 lb-ft lb-

M = ½ fc bkd * jd 3459*12 =1/2*1200*12*0.375*0.875*d2 d = 4.19 in h = 6.5µ with 1µ cover below # 6 bars assumed then d=4.37 in

As = M / (fs*j*d) = (3459*12)/ (20000*0.875*4.37) = 0.54 in2 Distribution Steel = 220 / ¥ S % age of main steel 5# 5 bars

# 6 @ 10µ c/c

= 220 / ¥4.33 = 105%of main steel = 0.56 7in2

Design of Interior Girder
The interior girders are T beams with flange width equal c/c of girders, the required stem dimensions governed by either Max. moment or max. shear Assume bridges seats = 2ft Effective Span length from center of bearings = 50 ft Dead load from slab on plf of beam = {(6.5/12*150)+15}*5.5 = 528 plf Assume Section below slab = 14µx 30µ (437 plf ) Total dead Load on Beam = 965 plf Dead load moment = (965 x 502 )/8 = 302,000 lb-ft

The absolute Live load moment will occurs with HS 20 loading on the bridge in the position shown in the figure with distribution loads as specified by AASHTO Each interior girder must support 5.5/5 = 1.10 wheel load per wheel, therefore the load from rear wheel is 16000 x 1.1 = 17,600 lb and that from front wheel is 4000 x 1.1 = 4400 lb.

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