You are on page 1of 86

Crossovers

Manual Reference Pages 222 – 227

1

What is a Crossover?

Audio crossovers are a class of
electronic filters designed
specifically for use in audio
applications
Crossovers serve the purpose of
splitting an audio signal into
separate frequency bands which can
be handled by individual loudspeaker
drivers optimized for those bands.
2

What is a Crossover?

They are generally described
according to the number of
frequency bands available (twoway, three-way and four-way).

3

How it works

It uses bandwidth limiting filters
to separate the input signal into
multiple outputs, each of which
has a steep cut-off below and/or
above its range (24dB/octave is
typical). In some, the cut-off
slope (and in some of those, even
the type of filter:
Bessel/Butterworth/LinkwitzRiley, etc.) is user-determined.
4

.

.

.

8 .

3 types of crossover filters    High-pass Low-pass Band-pass 9 .

10 .

.   A high-pass filter will block low frequencies A low-pass will block high frequencies A band-pass will block low and high frequencies below and above crossover points.

.

The rate of attenuation for every octave away from the crossover frequency Crossovers do not block undesired frequencies completely (unless you are using digital crossovers) Crossovers cut frequencies progressively A crossover "slope" describes how effective a crossover is in blocking frequencies 13 .Slope      Slope is expressed as decibels per octave.

14 .Slope  A 6dB per octave crossover reduces signal level by 6dB in every octave starting at the crossover point.

15 .

16 .

17 .

18 .

.

- 6db 20 .

- 6db 12d b 21 .

6db 12d b 18d b 22 .

6db 12d b 18d b 24d b 23 .

     1st order filters have a 6 dB/octave slope 2nd order filters have a 12 dB/octave slope 3rd order filters have an 18 dB/octave slope 4th order filters have a 24 dB/octave slope 5th order filters have a 48 dB/octave slope 24 .

- 6db
12db
18db
24db
48db
63hz

125hz

250Khz

25
500hz

1Khz

Crossover Point

The nominal dividing line between
frequencies sent to two different speaker
drivers.
In a crossover network, the frequency at
which the audio signal is directed to the
appropriate driver (low frequencies to the
woofer, high frequencies to the tweeter).
The single frequency at which both filters
of a crossover network are down 3dB.
The frequency at which an audio signal is
divided.
26

There is 1 crossover point in a 2
way crossover
There are 2 crossover points in a
3 way crossover
There are 3 crossover points in a
4 way crossover

Types of Filters        Butterworth filter Chebyshev filter Linkwitz-Riley (L-R) filter Elliptic filter Bessel filter Legendre filter Gaussian filter 32 .

Butterworth filter  It is designed to have a frequency response which is as flat as mathematically possible in the passband 33 .

.

36 .

Linkwitz-Riley filter .

2 Types of Crossovers Active Passive 38 .

A passive crossover has no power. But. ground. . or turn-on leads and are rather inexpensive.Passive    Passive crossovers are usually built into speaker cabinets (typically in the form of a printed circuit board with one or more capacitors and/or resistors and/or inductors mounted on it) A passive crossover appears in the circuit after the amplifiers. and divides the signal that then goes to your speakers. they tend to be inefficient and can even add some 39 distortion.

.

.

.

.

Advantages of Passive Crossovers  Less Amplification needed   compared to active Less Expensive No ac power required to operate nothing to turn on. 44 .

Disadvantages of Passive Crossovers     Less Efficient More Distortion Fixed crossover point No level control for individual frequency ranges 45 .

delay and limiting functions .are described as controllers. Some usually with system-specific EQ settings.Active Crossover  Active crossovers usually come in the form of a 19" 1U rackmounted box with knobs or buttons and some sort of menu display on the front. 46 .

as well as independent control of the output level of each frequency band.Active Crossover    Most active crossovers allow adjustment of the crossover points. crossover does its job pre-amp (taking the signal directly from the mixer before it gets to the amplifier) Needs an external power source. 47 . or electronic. An active.

Active Crossover    Active crossovers give you control over which frequencies you want to use as the crossover points for bass mid and treble Some active crossovers allow you to customize the crossover slope as well as the crossover point Because they filter frequencies before the signal is amplified. 48 which is very efficient . active crossovers ensure that the amp gives its full attention to the filtered signal.

.

.

.

BSS .

ASHLY .

RANE 54 .

Advantages of Active Crossovers  Selectable Crossover Points      Level Control of each band Better system efficiency Driver Delay control Less Distortion Signal is not affected as much as with passive crossovers. since everything is done at low voltages. 55 .

Disadvantages of Active Crossovers    Need separate amps for each band of frequencies Increasing systems expense dramatically More complex setup 56 .

57 .

Active & Passive 58 .

.

for example) must overlap a little. The crossover point appears within 60 this overlap . The frequency response of two separate speakers (woofer and midrange. or you will hear a "gap" in the sound. The frequency response is the range of frequencies that the speaker can successfully reproduce.How To Choose Crossover  Choose your crossover Points points and    crossover slopes by consulting the frequency response measurement on your speaker specs.

62 .

63 .

18” Driver 64 .

65 .

12” Driver 66 .

67 .

Range .1" Line Array High Frequency Driver  Freq.500Hz to 20kHz 68 .

DSP  Digital Signal Processor 69 .

Digital Crosovers     Also known as loudspeaker management systems Give us complete control of all elements of loud speaker system including: EQ. all in one unit. Storable programs and setups ie: stereo 4 way or 4 x 2way etc. BSS Omni Drive is one example of this type of unit 70 . Compression. Crossover points. Delay. Limiting.

.

Behinger DCX2496 73 .

XTA Loudspeaker Management 74 .

XTA Loudspeaker Management 75 .

.

77 .

LAKE PROCESSOR .

LAKE PROCESSOR .

80 .

81 .

.

83 .

84 .

85 .

86 .

87 .

88 .

.

.

.

92 .