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Topics about the flexure design in prestressing.

Topics about the flexure design in prestressing.

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4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

It is helpful in discussing beam design to summarize the

performance of a typical concrete beam in terms of its load-

deflection curve, shown in Fig. 4.1. When the initial prestress

force is applied, there will be an immediate upward camber

resulting from the bending moment associated with prestress

eccentricity. With the beam supported mainly at its ends, the

self-weight is immediately brought into effect, superimposing a

downward component of deflection įȠ on the upward camber

due to prestressing. This is referred to as the ï

with initial prestress and self-weight acting.

It will be assumed here, for simplicity, that all losses occur at

once, such that the net deflection at the start is įpe-įo resulting

from the combination of effective prestress force | and self-

weight At this stage, the concrete flexural stress distribution

at mid-span is generally as shown by the small shaded sketch

Superimposed on the load-deflection curve, varying linearly from

a low value of tensile stress at the top face of the beam to

maximum compression at the bottom.

4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

When the superimposed dead load is added, the deflection increases in

the Positive, downward sense by the amount 8d The net deflection is

often upward at this stage, as suggested by Fig. 4.1, but this is not

always so.

At some particular loading, a ¢

will be reached, such

that the upward equivalent load from prestressing is exactly equal to

the downward

external load. The result is a uniform compressive stress in the

member, as shown in Fig. 4.1, and, neglecting the time-dependent

effects, zero deflection.

With the further addition of live load, the

is

reached, at which the concrete stress at the bottom face of the beam is

zero. The beam response is linear up to, and somewhat beyond, this

stage until the

is reached, when the concrete tensile

stress equals the modulus of rupture.

Fig 4.1 Load-Deflection curve for a typical beam

4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

The usual range of service load falls between the

decompression stage and the partially cracked stage, as

indicated in the figure. Cracking initiates nonlinear response,

although both concrete and steel stresses usually remain in the

elastic ranges until somewhat beyond the cracking load.

Eventually, as loads are further increased, either the steel will

commence yielding, or the concrete will enter the nonlinear

range, in the Near failure, the beam response is

very nonlinear, as indicated. The concrete stress distribution in

the cracked member, when failure is imminent, is approximately

as shown by the last stress sketch.

Any of the load stages described may serve as the starting point

in proportioning a prestressed concrete beam, but the member

must be checked at all other significant stages to insure that it

will be satisfactory over the full range.

4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

According to current practice in the United States, prestressed

concrete members are proportioned using the ¢

method.¶ Cross-section dimensions, prestress force, and

prestress eccentricity are selected to keep concrete stresses

within specified limits as the member ranges from the unloaded

stage to the full service load stage. When the member is

unloaded, with initial prestress force and self-weight acting,

concrete stress limits are imposed that relate to the Concrete

strength

at the time the prestress force is transferred to the

concrete. At full service load, with effective prestress force P

acting, plus the actual dead loads and specified service live

loads, other concrete stress limits are imposed that relate to the

full specified concrete strength

The prestress tendon area is

chosen, usually based on the required initial prestress force

and certain allowable stresses for the steel, related to the yield

strength and ultimate strength of the steel.

4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

Concrete stress limits imposed by the provisions of the ACI Code are

summarized in Table 3.1, and allowable steel stresses are shown in

Table 3.2.

Beams proportioned based on stress limits as just described must also

satisfy other requirements. Deflections at full service load, under

sustained load, and possibly other load combinations must be

calculated, and the results compared against limit values. For partially

prestressed beams, in which cracking at full service loads is normal,

control of crack width is important to insure that cracks will not be

visually objectionable and will not permit corrosion of the highly

stressed tendons. Most important, an adequate margin of safety

against collapse must be assured. This requires that the flexural

strength be calculated and compared against the strength required to

resist factored loads. Load factors specified in the ACI Code are given

in Table 1.2, and are used in conjunction with the strength reduction

factors shown in Table 1.3. If the strength of the trial section is found to

be inadequate, the design must be modified.

4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

Another basis for beam design is known as By

this method, the concrete section dimensions, steel area, and

steel centroid location are selected to provide the required

strength at factored loads. This approach is similar to that

generally used for reinforced concrete. It is more difficult to

employ for prestressed beams, mainly because the stress in the

tendon at flexural failure
is unknown at the start of the design

procedure. For typically under-reinforced concrete beams, the

steel stress is equal to the yield stress This difficulty can be

avoided in several ways that are described later.

A member designed by strength methods must be checked to

ensure that immediate deflections at normal service load, as

well as sustained load deflection, are not excessive. Cracking

must be investigated, and, in most cases, it is also necessary to

check that steel and concrete stress limits imposed by the Code

for the initial unloaded stage and the full service load stage are

satisfied.

4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN

All of the load stages considered in allowable stress design

must usually be investigated when using strength design,

although in a different order.

A third alternative in designing prestressed beams is to start with

¢

(see Section 1.3). Trial dimensions are selected

for the concrete section, and prestress force and eccentricity are

chosen to provide an upward equivalent load that is equal and

opposite to a certain downward load (often the full dead load).

The factored load stage is then investigated, and if the flexural

strength is less than that required, the strength is increased,

usually by adding non-pre stressed bar reinforcement to

supplement the tensile force in the prestressing tendons. The

resulting design is often a combination of reinforced concrete

and prestressed concrete. (See the discussion of partially

prestressed concrete in Section Flexural tensile cracks are

generally present at normal service load, and a check of crack

widths is important. Deflections must be calculated, accounting

for the partially cracked state of the beam, using methods similar

to those for ordinary reinforced concrete.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The emphasis in this chapter will be on the allowable stress design

approach, because this is most common presently. Alternative

approaches will be considered in Sections 4.6 and 4.7.

According to the allowable stress design method, the concrete

cross-section dimensions, prestress force, and prestress eccentricity

are selected to ensure that specified limiting concrete stresses are

not exceeded as the beam passes from the unloaded stage to the

full service load stage. Both concrete and steel may be considered

elastic in this range, and the member is usually assumed to be

uncracked. In a complete design, after member proportions have

been found, deflections, cracking, and strength must be investigated

and the tentative design modified, if necessary.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Many designers adopt a trial-and-error approach. A cross section is

as summed, and the prestress force and profile determined. The trial

member is then checked to ensure that stresses are within allowable

limits. A more systematic approach is possible, however, based on

attaining limit stresses, as nearly as possible, at the controlling load

stages (Ref. 4.1). This approach will be followed here.

Notation is established pertaining to the concrete stresses at limiting

stages as follows:

= allowable compressive stress immediately after transfer

= allowable tensile stress immediately after transfer

= allowable compressive stress at service load, after all losses

= allowable tensile stress at service load, after all losses

'

'!"#$

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

A. BEAMS IN WHICH PRESTRESS ECCENTRICITY VARIES

ALONG THE SPAN

For a typical beam in which the tendon eccentricity is permitted to

vary along the span, flexural stress distributions in the concrete at

the maximum moment section are shown in Fig. 4.2a. The eccentric

prestress force, having an initial value of | produces the linear

distribution (1). Because of the upward camber of the beam as that

force is applied, the self-weight of the member is immediately

introduced, the flexural stresses resulting from the moment are

superimposed, and the distribution (2) is the first that is actually

attained. At this stage, the tension at the top surface is not to exceed

and the compression at the bottom surface is not to exceed

as

suggested by Fig. 4.2a.

FIGURE 4.2 Flexural stress distributions for beams with variable

eccentricity. (a) Maximum moment section. *¢

*¢Support

Support section.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

It will be assumed that all the losses occur at this stage, and that the

stress distribution gradually changes to distribution (3). The losses

produce a reduction of tension in the amount at the top surface,

and a reduction of compression in the amount ǻat the bottom

surface.

As the superimposed dead load moment and the service live

load moment are introduced, the associated flexural stresses,

when superimposed on stresses already present, produce

distribution (4). At this stage, the tension at the bottom surface must

not be greater than and the compression at the top

of the section must not exceed

as shown.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The requirements for the sections moduli S1 and S2 with respect to the top

and bottom surfaces, respectively, are

(a)

(b)

where the available stress ranges and at the top and bottom face can

be calculated from the specified stress limits ,

and

, once the

stress changes ǻ and ǻ, associated with prestress loss, are known. The

effectiveness ratio has been defined in Section 3.3 as

*

*

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The changes in stress at the top and bottom faces, ǻ and ǻ2, as losses

occur, are equal to (1 times the corresponding stresses due to the initial

prestress force

(c)

(d)

where ǻ is a reduction of tension at the top surface and ǻ2 is a reduction

of compression at the bottom surface. Thus, the stress ranges available as

the superimposed load moments + , are applied are

(e)

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

And

(f)

The minimum acceptable value of @ is thus established

or

*

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Similarly, the minimum value of @ is

*

and @ Furthermore, since !

= @

= S2c2, the centroidal axis must be

located such that

*

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

% r ´ # &

ð @å

-------------------------(4.3)

@ 6 @ å

" '"& ( % %

%

ðð m ð m ð A ------------(4.4)

' %

%

O

ð ðð ---------------------(4.5)

' % %

) % % | (

" '"&( )

@

ðð A 6 @

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

from which the required eccentricity is

@ -----------------(4.6)

ðð A

6

' * % % ( % + %

% % + % %

, % %

+" '"#$ %

'"&$( , % ) %

+" '"!$" - %

+ " ' % %

+" '"'$( % % %

+" * %

+" '".$"

( +

+" '"#$% '"&$,%(

%,)% % # %&"

% (, (

,%'"&"

, % %%, %

+ %"

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

This estimate may be made on the basis of typical span-to-depth

ratios or past experience. If the estimate of member self-weight is

substantially in error, the calculations should be revised.

The stress distributions of Fig. 4.2a, on which the design equations

are based, apply at the maximum moment section of the member.

Elsewhere, " is less and, consequently, the prestress eccentricity

or the force must be reduced if the stress limits ° and ° are not to

be exceeded. In Section 4.2C expressions are developed that

establish the limits of tendon eccentricity elsewhere in the span. In

many cases, tendon eccentricity is reduced to zero at the support

sections, where all moments due to transverse load are zero. In this

case, the stress distributions of Fig.

¢are obtained. The stress in

the concrete is uniformly equal to the centroidal value ° under

conditions of initial prestress and ° after losses.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

EXAMPLE: Design of Beam wIth Variable Eccentricity Tendons

A post-tensioned prestressed Concrete beam is to carry a live load of 1,000

plf and superimposed dead load of 500 plf, in addition to its own weight, on

a 40-ft simple span. Normal density concrete will be used with design

strength ° = 6,000 psi. It is estimated that, at the time of transfer, the

concrete will have attained 70 percent of its ultimate strength, or 4,200 psi.

Time-dependent losses may be assumed at 15 percent of the initial

prestress, giving an effectiveness ratio of 0.85. Determine the required

concrete dimensions, magnitude of prestress force, and eccentricity of the

steel centroid based on ACI stress limitations as given in Tables 3.1 and 3.2.

(W l= 14.6 kN/m, = 7.3 kN/m, span = 12.2 m; ° = 41 MPa, and °, = 29

MPa.)

Referring to Table 3.1, we obtain the following stress limits:

° = - 0.6 x 4,200 = -2,520 psi

° = 3 (4200)1/2 = +195 psi

° = -0.45 x 6000 = -2700 psi

° = 6 (6000)1/2 = +465 psi

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The self-weight of the girder will be estimated at 250 plf. The moments due to

transverse loading are

Mo = 1/8 x 0.25 x 402 = 50 ft-kips

Md + Ml = 1/8 x 1.5 x 402 = 300 ft-kips

The required section moduli with respect to the top and bottom surfaces of the

Concrete beam are found from Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2):

A 6

6 6 Î Aå

@ ð

6 å

å Î

A 6 6 6 Î Aå

@å ð ð

6 åå

Î

(a) (b)

FIGURE 4.3 Beam with variable eccentricity of tendons, (a) Cross section

dimensions. *¢

*¢Stresses

Stresses at midspan.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

These values are so nearly the same that a symmetrical beam will

be adopted. The 28-in. depth l-section shown in Fig. 4.3a will meet

the requirements, and has the following properties:

- 19,904 in.4 (8.28 x 109 mm4)

S = 1 ,422 in.3 (23.3 X 106 mm3) Ac=240 in.2(155x 103 mm2)

r2 = 82.9 in.2

"= 250 plf (as assumed)

Next, the concrete centroidal stress is found from Eq. (4.4):

#

$* - fci) - 195 - 1/2 (195 + 2,520) = -1 ,163 psi

and from Eq. (4.5) the initial prestress force is

= %

From Eq. (4.6) the required tendon eccentricity at the maximum

moment section of the beam is

ðð A @ 6

6 ÎA ååå

6 å

å

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Elsewhere along the span the eccentricity will be reduced in order that the concrete

stress limits not be violated.

The required initial prestress force of 279 kips will be provided using tendons

consisting of 1/4-in. diameter stress-relieved wires. The minimum tensile strength,

according to Table 2.1, is fpu = 240 ksi, and for the normal prestressing wire, yield

strength may be taken as
#0.85 x
ï#204 ksi.

According to the ACI Code (Table 3.2), the permissible stress in the wire immediately

after transfer must not exceed 0.82 fpy =168 ksi or 0.74fpu = 178 ksi. The first

criterion controls. Required area of prestressed steel is

å

å hh å A

The cross-sectional area of one 1/4-in. diameter wire is 0.0491 in.2; hence,

the number of wires required is

h ã Î

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

It is good practice to check the calculations by confirming that stress limits

are not exceeded at critical load stages. The top and bottom surface

concrete stresses produced, in this case, by the separate loadings are:

Thus, when the initial prestress force of 279 kips is applied and the beam

self-weight acts, the top and bottom stresses in the concrete at midspan are,

respectively:

f1 = +618 -422 - +196 psi

# -2,943 + 422 = -2,521 psi

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

When the prestress force has reduced to its effective value of 237 kips and

the full service load is applied, the concrete stresses are:

f1 = +525 - 422 - 2532 = -2,429 psi

# -2501 + 422 + 2532 = +453 psi

These limiting stress distributions are shown in Fig. 4.3b. Comparison with

the specified limit stresses confirms that the design is satisfactory.

Additional Comments

From the resulting stresses shown in Fig. 4.3b, it is clear that the specified

stress limits are satisfied almost exactly at the top and bottom surface for

the initial condition (slight differences appear because of rounding errors

and selecting practical dimensions). In the fully loaded condition, the

tension at the bottom surface of 453 psi is close to the limit of 465

psi; however, the compression at the top of the beam, 2,429 psi, is

well below the allowable 2,700 psi. This result is because of the use

of a symmetricaJ member, the section modulus of which is larger

than the required S1

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

For cases such as this, in which one or both of the section moduli exceed the minimum

requirement, some flexibility exists regarding the selection of prestress force and eccentricity.

This point will be developed in Section 4.2F.

The cross section shown in Fig. 4.3a is idealized for computational purposes. The member

actually used would probably have tapered inner flange surfaces, filets, and other features to

facilitate construction.

The final design should also include non-prestressed longitudinal reinforcement to

control possible cracking resulting from shrinkage before the beam is post-tensioned, and

would undoubtedly include web reinforcement to provide the required resistance to shear

forces.

B. BEAMS WITH CONSTANT ECCENTRICITY

The design method presented in the previous section was based on stress conditions at the

maximum moment section of a beam, with the maximum value of moment "resulting from

self-weight immediately superimposed. If and were to be held constant along the span, as

is often convenient in pretensioned prestressed construction, then the stress limits fti and fci

would be exceeded elsewhere along the span, where " is less than its maximum value. To

avoid this condition, the constant eccentricity must be less than that given by Eq. (4.6). Its

maximum value is given by conditions at the support of a simple span, where "is zero.

FIGURE 4.4 Flexural stress distributions for beam with constant

eccentricity, *

*Maximum

Maximum moment section, *¢

*¢Support

Support section.

Figure 4.4 shows the flexural stress distributions at the support and

midspan sections for a beam with constant eccentricity. In this case, the

stress limits and

are not to be violated when the eccentric prestress

moment acts alone, as at the supports.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The stress changes ǻf1 and ǻf2 as losses occur are equal to (1 ² times

the top and bottom surface stresses, respectively, due to initial prestress

alone:

(a)

(b)

m In this case, the available stress ranges between limit stresses must

provide for the effect of M0 as well as Md and Ml ,as seen from Fig.

4.4a, and are

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The concrete centroidal stress may be found by Eq. (4.4) and the initial prestress

force by Eq. (4.5) as before. However, the expression for required eccentricity

differs, in this case, refering to figure 4.4b

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

A significant difference between beams with variable eccentricity

and those with constant eccentricity will be noted by comparing Eqs.

(4.1) and (4.2) with the corresponding Eqs. (4.7) and (4.8). In the

first case, the section modulus requirement is governed mainly by

the superimposed load moments and Almost all of the self-

weight is carried "free," that is, without increasing section modulus

or prestress force, by the simple expedient of increasing the

eccentricity along the span by the amount "$ In the second case,

the eccentricity is controlled by conditions at the supports, where "

is zero, and the full moment " due to self-weight must be included

in determining section moduli. Nevertheless, beams with constant

eccentricity are often used for practical reasons.

Certain alternative means are available for coping with the problem

of excessive concrete stresses resulting from prestress at the ends

of members with constant eccentricity. The prestress force may be

reduced near the ends of the span by encasing some of the tendons

in plastic sheathing, effectively moving the point of application of

prestress force inward toward midspan for a part of the strands. Or

supplementary non-prestressed bar reinforcement may be used in

the end regions to accommodate the local high stresses.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The ACI Code includes a special provision that the concrete tensile stress

immediately after transfer, before time-dependent losses, at the ends of

simply supported members, may be as high as 6(f'ci)1/2, twice the limit of

Î(f'ci)1/2 that applies elsewhere (see Table 3.1). Conditions at the supports

will generally control for beams with constant eccentricity, and may be

taken equal to 6(f'ci)1/2 in preceding equations. Superposition of " at

midspan will generally result in tension at the top surface in that region less

than the allowed 3(f'ci)1/2.

The beam of the preceding examples is to be redesigned using straight

tendons with constant eccentricity. All other design criteria are the same as

before. At the supports, a temporary concrete tensile stress of 6(f'ci)1/2 = 390

psi is permitted. Anticipating a somewhat less efficient beam, the dead load

estimate will be increased to 270 plf in this case. The resulting moment "

is 54 ft-kips. The moment due to superimposed dead load and live load is

300 ft-kips as before.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

FIGURE 4.5 Beam with constant eccentricity of tendons, *Cross section

dimensions, *¢Stresses at midspan. (c) Stresses at supports.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Using Eqs. (4.7) and (4.8), the requirements for section moduli are

web width will be kept unchanged compared with the previous example, but

in this case a beam depth of 30.5 in. is required. The dimensions of the

cross section are shown in Fig. 4.5a. The following properties are obtained:

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Again, two tendons will be used to provide the required force each

composed of multiple 1/4-in. diameter wires. With the maximum permissible

stress in the wires of 168 ksi, the total required steel area is

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The calculations will be checked by verifying concrete stresses at the top

and bottom of the beam for the critical load stages. The component stress

contributions are

in the concrete at midspan and at the supports are obtained, as shown in

Figs. 4 56 and 4.5c, respectively. When the initial prestress force of 272 kips

acts alone, as at the supports, the stresses at the top and bottom surfaces

are

# +387psi

# -2,522 psi

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

After losses, the prestress force is reduced to 231 kips and the support

stresses are reduced accordingly. At midspan the beam weight is

immediately superimposed and stresses resulting from P plus " are

f1 = +387- 392= -5psi

# -2,522 + 392 - -2,130 psi

When the full service load acts, together with the midspan stresses are

If we check against the specified limiting stresses, it is evident that the

design is satisfactory in this respect at the critical load stages and locations.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Additional Comments

Once again, it is found that the stress specification is satisfied almost exactly at the supports

under conditions of initial prestress, and closely satisfied at midspan at the bottom surface for the

loaded condition. Because of the choice of a symmetrical section, the compressive stress at the

top of the member at midspan in the fully loaded stage is well below the permitted value.

At midspan in the unloaded stage, with only and self-weight acting, compressive stresses of 5

psi and 2,130 psi are present at the top and bottom surfaces, respectively. The stress ranges that

were available in the previous example to resist superimposed dead and I've loads are reduced.

This may be thought of as a penalty that is often paid in the case of pretensioned members to

obtain the practical advantages of straight tendons. In post-tensioned members, it is easy to

provide for variable eccentricity, and it is likely that the design of the previous example would be

chosen.

Comparing the designs with variable and constant eccentricity, the increase in concrete section in

the second case is about six percent. For longer span beams, in which the self-weight is

proportionately larger, the penalty would be larger than this.

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

C. LIMIT ZONE FOR TENDON CENTROID

The equations developed in Section 4.2A for members with variable tendon

eccentricity establish the requirements for section modulus, prestress force, and

eccentricity at the maximum moment section of the member. Elsewhere along the

span, the eccentricity of the steel must be reduced if the concrete stress limits for the

unloaded stage are not to be exceeded. (Alternatively, the section must be increased,

as in Section 4.2B.) Conversely, there is a minimum eccentricity, or upper limit for the

steel centroid, such that the limiting concrete stresses are not exceeded when the

beam is in the full service load stage.

Limiting locations for the prestress steel centroid at any point along the span can be

established using Eqs. (3.5) and (3.6), which give the values of concrete stress at the

top and bottom of the beam in the unloaded and service load stages, respectively.

The stresses produced for those load stages should be compared with the limiting

stresses applicable in a particular case, such as the ACI stress limits of Table 3.1.

This permits a solution for tendon eccentricity as a function of distance & along the

span.

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