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4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ It is helpful in discussing beam design to summarize the
performance of a typical concrete beam in terms of its load-
deflection curve, shown in Fig. 4.1. When the initial prestress
force is applied, there will be an immediate upward camber
‡ resulting from the bending moment associated with prestress
eccentricity. With the beam supported mainly at its ends, the
self-weight is immediately brought into effect, superimposing a
downward component of deflection įȠ on the upward camber
due to prestressing. This is referred to as the ï  
with initial prestress and self-weight acting.
‡ It will be assumed here, for simplicity, that all losses occur at
once, such that the net deflection at the start is įpe-įo resulting
from the combination of effective prestress force | and self-
weight  At this stage, the concrete flexural stress distribution
at mid-span is generally as shown by the small shaded sketch
Superimposed on the load-deflection curve, varying linearly from
a low value of tensile stress at the top face of the beam to
maximum compression at the bottom.
4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ When the superimposed dead load is added, the deflection increases in
the Positive, downward sense by the amount 8d The net deflection is
often upward at this stage, as suggested by Fig. 4.1, but this is not
always so.
‡ At some particular loading, a ¢
   will be reached, such
that the upward equivalent load from prestressing is exactly equal to
the downward
‡ external load. The result is a uniform compressive stress in the
member, as shown in Fig. 4.1, and, neglecting the time-dependent
effects, zero deflection.
‡ With the further addition of live load, the 
   is
reached, at which the concrete stress at the bottom face of the beam is
zero. The beam response is linear up to, and somewhat beyond, this
stage until the

   is reached, when the concrete tensile
stress equals the modulus of rupture.
Fig 4.1 Load-Deflection curve for a typical beam
4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ The usual range of service load falls between the
decompression stage and the partially cracked stage, as
indicated in the figure. Cracking initiates nonlinear response,
although both concrete and steel stresses usually remain in the
elastic ranges until somewhat beyond the cracking load.
‡ Eventually, as loads are further increased, either the steel will
commence yielding, or the concrete will enter the nonlinear
range, in the   Near failure, the beam response is
very nonlinear, as indicated. The concrete stress distribution in
the cracked member, when failure is imminent, is approximately
as shown by the last stress sketch.
‡ Any of the load stages described may serve as the starting point
in proportioning a prestressed concrete beam, but the member
must be checked at all other significant stages to insure that it
will be satisfactory over the full range.
4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ According to current practice in the United States, prestressed
concrete members are proportioned using the ¢ 
 method.¶ Cross-section dimensions, prestress force, and
prestress eccentricity are selected to keep concrete stresses
within specified limits as the member ranges from the unloaded
stage to the full service load stage. When the member is
unloaded, with initial prestress force  and self-weight acting,
concrete stress limits are imposed that relate to the Concrete
strength 
 at the time the prestress force is transferred to the
concrete. At full service load, with effective prestress force P
acting, plus the actual dead loads and specified service live
loads, other concrete stress limits are imposed that relate to the
full specified concrete strength 
 The prestress tendon area is
chosen, usually based on the required initial prestress force 
and certain allowable stresses for the steel, related to the yield
strength and ultimate strength of the steel.
4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ Concrete stress limits imposed by the provisions of the ACI Code are
summarized in Table 3.1, and allowable steel stresses are shown in
Table 3.2.
‡ Beams proportioned based on stress limits as just described must also
satisfy other requirements. Deflections at full service load, under
sustained load, and possibly other load combinations must be
calculated, and the results compared against limit values. For partially
prestressed beams, in which cracking at full service loads is normal,
control of crack width is important to insure that cracks will not be
visually objectionable and will not permit corrosion of the highly
stressed tendons. Most important, an adequate margin of safety
against collapse must be assured. This requires that the flexural
strength be calculated and compared against the strength required to
resist factored loads. Load factors specified in the ACI Code are given
in Table 1.2, and are used in conjunction with the strength reduction
factors shown in Table 1.3. If the strength of the trial section is found to
be inadequate, the design must be modified.
4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ Another basis for beam design is known as     By
this method, the concrete section dimensions, steel area, and
steel centroid location are selected to provide the required
strength at factored loads. This approach is similar to that
generally used for reinforced concrete. It is more difficult to
employ for prestressed beams, mainly because the stress in the
tendon at flexural failure   is unknown at the start of the design
procedure. For typically under-reinforced concrete beams, the
steel stress is equal to the yield stress  This difficulty can be
avoided in several ways that are described later.
‡ A member designed by strength methods must be checked to
ensure that immediate deflections at normal service load, as
well as sustained load deflection, are not excessive. Cracking
must be investigated, and, in most cases, it is also necessary to
check that steel and concrete stress limits imposed by the Code
for the initial unloaded stage and the full service load stage are
satisfied.
4.1 BASIS OF DESIGN
‡ All of the load stages considered in allowable stress design
must usually be investigated when using strength design,
although in a different order.
‡ A third alternative in designing prestressed beams is to start with
 ¢
  (see Section 1.3). Trial dimensions are selected
for the concrete section, and prestress force and eccentricity are
chosen to provide an upward equivalent load that is equal and
opposite to a certain downward load (often the full dead load).
The factored load stage is then investigated, and if the flexural
strength is less than that required, the strength is increased,
usually by adding non-pre stressed bar reinforcement to
supplement the tensile force in the prestressing tendons. The
resulting design is often a combination of reinforced concrete
and prestressed concrete. (See the discussion of partially
prestressed concrete in Section  Flexural tensile cracks are
generally present at normal service load, and a check of crack
widths is important. Deflections must be calculated, accounting
for the partially cracked state of the beam, using methods similar
to those for ordinary reinforced concrete.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The emphasis in this chapter will be on the allowable stress design
approach, because this is most common presently. Alternative
approaches will be considered in Sections 4.6 and 4.7.
‡ According to the allowable stress design method, the concrete
cross-section dimensions, prestress force, and prestress eccentricity
are selected to ensure that specified limiting concrete stresses are
not exceeded as the beam passes from the unloaded stage to the
full service load stage. Both concrete and steel may be considered
elastic in this range, and the member is usually assumed to be
uncracked. In a complete design, after member proportions have
been found, deflections, cracking, and strength must be investigated
and the tentative design modified, if necessary.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ Many designers adopt a trial-and-error approach. A cross section is
as summed, and the prestress force and profile determined. The trial
member is then checked to ensure that stresses are within allowable
limits. A more systematic approach is possible, however, based on
attaining limit stresses, as nearly as possible, at the controlling load
stages (Ref. 4.1). This approach will be followed here.
‡ Notation is established pertaining to the concrete stresses at limiting
stages as follows:


 = allowable compressive stress immediately after transfer
 = allowable tensile stress immediately after transfer

 = allowable compressive stress at service load, after all losses
 = allowable tensile stress at service load, after all losses
‡ '      
'!"#$
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
A. BEAMS IN WHICH PRESTRESS ECCENTRICITY VARIES
ALONG THE SPAN
‡ For a typical beam in which the tendon eccentricity is permitted to
vary along the span, flexural stress distributions in the concrete at
the maximum moment section are shown in Fig. 4.2a. The eccentric
prestress force, having an initial value of | produces the linear
distribution (1). Because of the upward camber of the beam as that
force is applied, the self-weight of the member is immediately
introduced, the flexural stresses resulting from the moment  are
superimposed, and the distribution (2) is the first that is actually
attained. At this stage, the tension at the top surface is not to exceed
 and the compression at the bottom surface is not to exceed 
 as
suggested by Fig. 4.2a.
FIGURE 4.2 Flexural stress distributions for beams with variable
eccentricity. (a) Maximum moment section. *¢
*¢ Support
Support section.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ It will be assumed that all the losses occur at this stage, and that the
stress distribution gradually changes to distribution (3). The losses
produce a reduction of tension in the amount  at the top surface,
and a reduction of compression in the amount ǻ at the bottom
surface.
‡ As the superimposed dead load moment  and the service live
load moment  are introduced, the associated flexural stresses,
when superimposed on stresses already present, produce
distribution (4). At this stage, the tension at the bottom surface must
not be greater than  and the compression at the top
‡ of the section must not exceed 
 as shown.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The requirements for the sections moduli S1 and S2 with respect to the top
and bottom surfaces, respectively, are

(a)

(b)
‡ where the available stress ranges  and  at the top and bottom face can
be calculated from the specified stress limits , 
  and 
, once the
stress changes ǻ and ǻ, associated with prestress loss, are known. The
effectiveness ratio  has been defined in Section 3.3 as

* 

‡ Thus, the loss in prestress force is


* 
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The changes in stress at the top and bottom faces, ǻ and ǻ2, as losses
occur, are equal to (1   times the corresponding stresses due to the initial
prestress force  
   

(c)

(d)
‡ where ǻ is a reduction of tension at the top surface and ǻ2 is a reduction
of compression at the bottom surface. Thus, the stress ranges available as
the superimposed load moments  + , are applied are

(e)
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ And

(f)
‡ The minimum acceptable value of @ is thus established

‡ or

*
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ Similarly, the minimum value of @ is

*

‡ The cross section must be selected to provide at least these values of @


and @ Furthermore, since !
= @
 = S2c2, the centroidal axis must be
located such that

*
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ ˜         % r ´ # &
ð @å
-------------------------(4.3)
 @ 6 @ å
‡   " '"& (      %   % 
%   
 ðð   m ð   m  ð A ------------(4.4)
‡ '          %     
      %           
O 
 ð  ðð ---------------------(4.5)
‡ '              %  %   
)         %    %  |  (
   " '"&(   )             
             


@
    ðð A 6 @

4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ from which the required eccentricity is
@ -----------------(4.6)
     ðð A 
6 


‡ '  *   %    %       ( %   + %
     %   %       + %  %
,      %          %  
+" '"#$ %
'"&$( ,    % ) % 
+" '"!$" -  %     
   +      " '     %      %
   
+" '"'$(   % %        % 
+" *  % 
  
+" '".$"
‡  (   +
+" '"#$% '"&$,%( 
%,)%  % # %&"
   % (,        (
,%'"&"
‡ , %  %%,   %
    + %"
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ This estimate may be made on the basis of typical span-to-depth
ratios or past experience. If the estimate of member self-weight is
substantially in error, the calculations should be revised.
‡ The stress distributions of Fig. 4.2a, on which the design equations
are based, apply at the maximum moment section of the member.
Elsewhere, " is less and, consequently, the prestress eccentricity
or the force must be reduced if the stress limits °  and ° are not to
be exceeded. In Section 4.2C expressions are developed that
establish the limits of tendon eccentricity elsewhere in the span. In
many cases, tendon eccentricity is reduced to zero at the support
sections, where all moments due to transverse load are zero. In this
case, the stress distributions of Fig.
¢ are obtained. The stress in
the concrete is uniformly equal to the centroidal value ° under
conditions of initial prestress and ° after losses.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
EXAMPLE: Design of Beam wIth Variable Eccentricity Tendons
‡ A post-tensioned prestressed Concrete beam is to carry a live load of 1,000
plf and superimposed dead load of 500 plf, in addition to its own weight, on
a 40-ft simple span. Normal density concrete will be used with design
strength ° = 6,000 psi. It is estimated that, at the time of transfer, the
concrete will have attained 70 percent of its ultimate strength, or 4,200 psi.
Time-dependent losses may be assumed at 15 percent of the initial
prestress, giving an effectiveness ratio of 0.85. Determine the required
concrete dimensions, magnitude of prestress force, and eccentricity of the
steel centroid based on ACI stress limitations as given in Tables 3.1 and 3.2.
‡ (W l= 14.6 kN/m,  = 7.3 kN/m, span = 12.2 m; ° = 41 MPa, and °, = 29
MPa.)
‡ Referring to Table 3.1, we obtain the following stress limits:
° = - 0.6 x 4,200 = -2,520 psi
°  = 3 (4200)1/2 = +195 psi
° = -0.45 x 6000 = -2700 psi
°  = 6 (6000)1/2 = +465 psi
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The self-weight of the girder will be estimated at 250 plf. The moments due to
transverse loading are
Mo = 1/8 x 0.25 x 402 = 50 ft-kips
Md + Ml = 1/8 x 1.5 x 402 = 300 ft-kips
‡ The required section moduli with respect to the top and bottom surfaces of the
Concrete beam are found from Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2):
  A  6
6    6 Î Aå
@      ð

   6 å 
å  Î
  A 6 6    6 Î Aå
@å   ð   ð


 6   åå
  Î

(a) (b)
FIGURE 4.3 Beam with variable eccentricity of tendons, (a) Cross section
dimensions. *¢
*¢ Stresses
Stresses at midspan.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES

‡ These values are so nearly the same that a symmetrical beam will
be adopted. The 28-in. depth l-section shown in Fig. 4.3a will meet
the requirements, and has the following properties:

- 19,904 in.4 (8.28 x 109 mm4)
S = 1 ,422 in.3 (23.3 X 106 mm3) Ac=240 in.2(155x 103 mm2)
r2 = 82.9 in.2
" = 250 plf (as assumed)
‡ Next, the concrete centroidal stress is found from Eq. (4.4):

 #  
$ * - fci) - 195 - 1/2 (195 + 2,520) = -1 ,163 psi
‡ and from Eq. (4.5) the initial prestress force is
 = %


 # 240 x 1 .163 - 279 kips (1241 kN)


‡ From Eq. (4.6) the required tendon eccentricity at the maximum
moment section of the beam is
     ðð A @ 6 

 6 ÎA ååå
 6   å
å   
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES

‡ Elsewhere along the span the eccentricity will be reduced in order that the concrete
stress limits not be violated.
‡ The required initial prestress force of 279 kips will be provided using tendons
consisting of 1/4-in. diameter stress-relieved wires. The minimum tensile strength,
according to Table 2.1, is fpu = 240 ksi, and for the normal prestressing wire, yield
strength may be taken as   # 0.85 x  ï # 204 ksi.
‡ According to the ACI Code (Table 3.2), the permissible stress in the wire immediately
after transfer must not exceed 0.82 fpy =168 ksi or 0.74fpu = 178 ksi. The first
criterion controls. Required area of prestressed steel is
å 
  å  hh å A

‡ The cross-sectional area of one 1/4-in. diameter wire is 0.0491 in.2; hence,
the number of wires required is

h   ã  Î


‡ Two 17-wire tendons will be used, as shown in Fig. 4.3a.


4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡It is good practice to check the calculations by confirming that stress limits
are not exceeded at critical load stages. The top and bottom surface
concrete stresses produced, in this case, by the separate loadings are:

‡Thus, when the initial prestress force of 279 kips is applied and the beam
self-weight acts, the top and bottom stresses in the concrete at midspan are,
respectively:
f1 = +618 -422 - +196 psi
 # -2,943 + 422 = -2,521 psi
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ When the prestress force has reduced to its effective value of 237 kips and
the full service load is applied, the concrete stresses are:
f1 = +525 - 422 - 2532 = -2,429 psi
 # -2501 + 422 + 2532 = +453 psi
‡ These limiting stress distributions are shown in Fig. 4.3b. Comparison with
the specified limit stresses confirms that the design is satisfactory.
Additional Comments
‡ From the resulting stresses shown in Fig. 4.3b, it is clear that the specified
stress limits are satisfied almost exactly at the top and bottom surface for
the initial condition (slight differences appear because of rounding errors
and selecting practical dimensions). In the fully loaded condition, the
tension at the bottom surface of 453 psi is close to the limit of 465
psi; however, the compression at the top of the beam, 2,429 psi, is
well below the allowable 2,700 psi. This result is because of the use
of a symmetricaJ member, the section modulus of which is larger
than the required S1
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ For cases such as this, in which one or both of the section moduli exceed the minimum
requirement, some flexibility exists regarding the selection of prestress force and eccentricity.
This point will be developed in Section 4.2F.
‡ The cross section shown in Fig. 4.3a is idealized for computational purposes. The member
actually used would probably have tapered inner flange surfaces, filets, and other features to
facilitate construction.
‡ The final design should also include non-prestressed longitudinal reinforcement to
control possible cracking resulting from shrinkage before the beam is post-tensioned, and
would undoubtedly include web reinforcement to provide the required resistance to shear
forces.
‡ B. BEAMS WITH CONSTANT ECCENTRICITY
‡ The design method presented in the previous section was based on stress conditions at the
maximum moment section of a beam, with the maximum value of moment " resulting from
self-weight immediately superimposed. If  and  were to be held constant along the span, as
is often convenient in pretensioned prestressed construction, then the stress limits fti and fci
would be exceeded elsewhere along the span, where " is less than its maximum value. To
avoid this condition, the constant eccentricity must be less than that given by Eq. (4.6). Its
maximum value is given by conditions at the support of a simple span, where " is zero.
FIGURE 4.4 Flexural stress distributions for beam with constant
eccentricity, *
* Maximum
Maximum moment section, *¢
*¢ Support
Support section.

‡ Figure 4.4 shows the flexural stress distributions at the support and
midspan sections for a beam with constant eccentricity. In this case, the
stress limits  and 
 are not to be violated when the eccentric prestress
moment acts alone, as at the supports.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The stress changes ǻf1 and ǻf2 as losses occur are equal to (1 ²  times
the top and bottom surface stresses, respectively, due to initial prestress
alone:
(a)
(b)

m In this case, the available stress ranges between limit stresses must
provide for the effect of M0 as well as Md and Ml ,as seen from Fig.
4.4a, and are
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES

‡ and the requirements on the section moduli are that

‡ The concrete centroidal stress may be found by Eq. (4.4) and the initial prestress
force by Eq. (4.5) as before. However, the expression for required eccentricity
differs, in this case, refering to figure 4.4b
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ A significant difference between beams with variable eccentricity
and those with constant eccentricity will be noted by comparing Eqs.
(4.1) and (4.2) with the corresponding Eqs. (4.7) and (4.8). In the
first case, the section modulus requirement is governed mainly by
the superimposed load moments  and  Almost all of the self-
weight is carried "free," that is, without increasing section modulus
or prestress force, by the simple expedient of increasing the
eccentricity along the span by the amount "$ In the second case,
the eccentricity is controlled by conditions at the supports, where "
is zero, and the full moment " due to self-weight must be included
in determining section moduli. Nevertheless, beams with constant
eccentricity are often used for practical reasons.
‡ Certain alternative means are available for coping with the problem
of excessive concrete stresses resulting from prestress at the ends
of members with constant eccentricity. The prestress force may be
reduced near the ends of the span by encasing some of the tendons
in plastic sheathing, effectively moving the point of application of
prestress force inward toward midspan for a part of the strands. Or
supplementary non-prestressed bar reinforcement may be used in
the end regions to accommodate the local high stresses.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The ACI Code includes a special provision that the concrete tensile stress
immediately after transfer, before time-dependent losses, at the ends of
simply supported members, may be as high as 6(f'ci)1/2, twice the limit of
Î(f'ci)1/2 that applies elsewhere (see Table 3.1). Conditions at the supports
will generally control for beams with constant eccentricity, and  may be
taken equal to 6(f'ci)1/2 in preceding equations. Superposition of " at
midspan will generally result in tension at the top surface in that region less
than the allowed 3(f'ci)1/2.

EXAMPLE: Design of Beam with Constant Eccentricity Tendons


‡ The beam of the preceding examples is to be redesigned using straight
tendons with constant eccentricity. All other design criteria are the same as
before. At the supports, a temporary concrete tensile stress of 6(f'ci)1/2 = 390
psi is permitted. Anticipating a somewhat less efficient beam, the dead load
estimate will be increased to 270 plf in this case. The resulting moment "
is 54 ft-kips. The moment due to superimposed dead load and live load is
300 ft-kips as before.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES

FIGURE 4.5 Beam with constant eccentricity of tendons, * Cross section
dimensions, *¢ Stresses at midspan. (c) Stresses at supports.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ Using Eqs. (4.7) and (4.8), the requirements for section moduli are

‡ Once again, a symmetrical section will be chosen. Flange dimensions and


web width will be kept unchanged compared with the previous example, but
in this case a beam depth of 30.5 in. is required. The dimensions of the
cross section are shown in Fig. 4.5a. The following properties are obtained:
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES

‡ Again, two tendons will be used to provide the required force  each
composed of multiple 1/4-in. diameter wires. With the maximum permissible
stress in the wires of 168 ksi, the total required steel area is

‡ A total of 34 wires is required as before, 17 in each tendon.


4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ The calculations will be checked by verifying concrete stresses at the top
and bottom of the beam for the critical load stages. The component stress
contributions are

‡ superimposing the appropriate stress contributions, the stress distributions


in the concrete at midspan and at the supports are obtained, as shown in
Figs. 4 56 and 4.5c, respectively. When the initial prestress force of 272 kips
acts alone, as at the supports, the stresses at the top and bottom surfaces
are
 # +387psi
 # -2,522 psi
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
‡ After losses, the prestress force is reduced to 231 kips and the support
stresses are reduced accordingly. At midspan the beam weight is
immediately superimposed and stresses resulting from P plus " are
f1 = +387- 392= -5psi
 # -2,522 + 392 - -2,130 psi
‡ When the full service load acts, together with  the midspan stresses are

 # +328 - 392 - 2,178 = -242 psi

2 = -2,144 + 392 + 2,178 = +426 psi


‡ If we check against the specified limiting stresses, it is evident that the
design is satisfactory in this respect at the critical load stages and locations.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
Additional Comments
‡ Once again, it is found that the stress specification is satisfied almost exactly at the supports
under conditions of initial prestress, and closely satisfied at midspan at the bottom surface for the
loaded condition. Because of the choice of a symmetrical section, the compressive stress at the
top of the member at midspan in the fully loaded stage is well below the permitted value.
‡ At midspan in the unloaded stage, with only  and self-weight acting, compressive stresses of 5
psi and 2,130 psi are present at the top and bottom surfaces, respectively. The stress ranges that
were available in the previous example to resist superimposed dead and I've loads are reduced.
This may be thought of as a penalty that is often paid in the case of pretensioned members to
obtain the practical advantages of straight tendons. In post-tensioned members, it is easy to
provide for variable eccentricity, and it is likely that the design of the previous example would be
chosen.
‡ Comparing the designs with variable and constant eccentricity, the increase in concrete section in
the second case is about six percent. For longer span beams, in which the self-weight is
proportionately larger, the penalty would be larger than this.
4.2 FLEXURAL DESIGN BASED ON
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
C. LIMIT ZONE FOR TENDON CENTROID
‡ The equations developed in Section 4.2A for members with variable tendon
eccentricity establish the requirements for section modulus, prestress force, and
eccentricity at the maximum moment section of the member. Elsewhere along the
span, the eccentricity of the steel must be reduced if the concrete stress limits for the
unloaded stage are not to be exceeded. (Alternatively, the section must be increased,
as in Section 4.2B.) Conversely, there is a minimum eccentricity, or upper limit for the
steel centroid, such that the limiting concrete stresses are not exceeded when the
beam is in the full service load stage.
‡ Limiting locations for the prestress steel centroid at any point along the span can be
established using Eqs. (3.5) and (3.6), which give the values of concrete stress at the
top and bottom of the beam in the unloaded and service load stages, respectively.
The stresses produced for those load stages should be compared with the limiting
stresses applicable in a particular case, such as the ACI stress limits of Table 3.1.
This permits a solution for tendon eccentricity  as a function of distance & along the
span.