an introduction to various mathematical concepts

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an introduction to various mathematical concepts

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 27

Golden Ratio

like the Nile, begins in

minuteness but ends in

magnificence.

ANCIENT

EGYPTIAN

MATHEMATICS

Presented By

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Sangita Joshi

Deepak More

Shiji Johnson

Geeta Nair

Albina Joshi

Vaishali Falnikar

EGYPTIAN CIVILISATION

hieroglyphics.

astrological events astronomy.

2650 BC and it is truly an extraordinary feat of

engineering.

3

EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS

Operations in Number System

Pyramids and Golden Ratio

HIEROGLYPHIC NUMBERS

10 is shown by a drawing of a hobble

for cattle.

100 is represented by a coil of rope.

1,000 a drawing of a lotus plant.

10,000 is represented by a finger.

100,000 a tadpole or frog

1,000,000 figure of a god with arms

raised above his head.

HIEROGLYPHIC NUMBERS

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

Suppose we want to

multiply 12 x 17.

Start with 1 and 17.

Keep doubling both

numbers until the left

side gets as close as

possible to, but not

larger than 12.

17

34

68

136

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

numbers from 12 until

you reach 0.

Star the left side

numbers that are

being subtracted.

In this case,

12 8 = 4

44=0

17

34

* 4

68

* 8

136

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

add the corresponding

right side numbers of

the starred positions.

In this case,

136

17

34

+ 68 = 204 * 4

68

* 8

136

So, 12 x 17 = 204.

Solve

18*85

MULTIPLICATION IN EGYPTIAN

NUMBERS

DIVISION 23 X ?=299

PYRAMIDS

There are evidences that the egyptians knew the formula for the volume of a pyramid

-13 times the height times the length times the width - as well as of a truncated or clipped

pyramid ie a frustum as we call it.

They were also aware, long before Pythagoras(Greek) of the rule that a triangle with sides

3, 4 and 5 units yields a perfect right angle,

Egyptian builders used ropes knotted at intervals of 3, 4 and 5 units in order to ensure exact

right angles for their stonework (in fact, the 3-4-5 right triangle is often called "Egyptian").

It is claimed that the pyramids are first known structures to observe the golden ratio of 1 :

1.618.

GOLDEN RATIO

the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the same

as the ratio between the larger one and the smaller.

1.6180339887.

property of its square being one more than itself:

+ 1 = or

1.618 + 1 = 2.618

GOLDEN RATIO

Pythagorean equation to this, we

can construct a right triangle, of

sides a, b and c, or in this case a

Golden Triangle of sides , 1

and , which looks like this:

This creates a pyramid with a

base width of 2 (i.e., two

triangles above placed back-toback) and a height of the square

root of Phi, 1.272. The ratio of

the height to the base =

1.2752/2 is 0.636.

at Gizahas a base of 230.4

meters (755.9 feet) and an

estimated original height

of 146.5 meters (480.6

feet). This also creates a

height to base ratio of

0.636, which indicates it is

indeed a Golden Triangles,

at least to within three

significant decimal places

of accuracy.

GOLDEN RATIO

like the Nile, begins in

minuteness but ends in

magnificence.-Charles Caleb

Cotton

K

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A

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