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cient Egyptian Mathema

Golden Ratio

The study of the mathematics,


like the Nile, begins in
minuteness but ends in
magnificence.

ANCIENT
EGYPTIAN
MATHEMATICS
Presented By
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Sangita Joshi
Deepak More
Shiji Johnson
Geeta Nair
Albina Joshi
Vaishali Falnikar

EGYPTIAN CIVILISATION

Established a writing system for words and numerals


hieroglyphics.

Kept written records papyrus.

Developed a calendar and watched the skies for


astrological events astronomy.

Built complex structures pyramids, sphinx, etc.

For example, the Great Pyramid at Giza was built around


2650 BC and it is truly an extraordinary feat of
engineering.
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EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS

Introduction to Number System


Operations in Number System
Pyramids and Golden Ratio

HIEROGLYPHIC NUMBERS

1 is shown by a single stroke.


10 is shown by a drawing of a hobble
for cattle.
100 is represented by a coil of rope.
1,000 a drawing of a lotus plant.
10,000 is represented by a finger.
100,000 a tadpole or frog
1,000,000 figure of a god with arms
raised above his head.

HIEROGLYPHIC NUMBERS

OPERATIONS IN NUMBER SYSTEM

Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division

ADDITION IN EGYPTIAN NUMERALS

Lets have some fun

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

Suppose we want to
multiply 12 x 17.
Start with 1 and 17.
Keep doubling both
numbers until the left
side gets as close as
possible to, but not
larger than 12.

17

34

68

136

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

Subtract the left side


numbers from 12 until
you reach 0.
Star the left side
numbers that are
being subtracted.
In this case,

12 8 = 4
44=0

17

34

* 4

68

* 8

136

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

To obtain the answer,


add the corresponding
right side numbers of
the starred positions.
In this case,
136

17

34

+ 68 = 204 * 4

68

* 8

136

So, 12 x 17 = 204.

Solve

18*85

MULTIPLICATION IN EGYPTIAN
NUMBERS

DIVISION 23 X ?=299

GREAT PYRAMID OF EGYPT

PYRAMIDS

The discussion of Egyptian Mathematics would be incomplete without the PYRAMIDS

The pyramids are another indication of the sophistication of Egyptian mathematics.

There are evidences that the egyptians knew the formula for the volume of a pyramid
-13 times the height times the length times the width - as well as of a truncated or clipped
pyramid ie a frustum as we call it.

They were also aware, long before Pythagoras(Greek) of the rule that a triangle with sides
3, 4 and 5 units yields a perfect right angle,

Egyptian builders used ropes knotted at intervals of 3, 4 and 5 units in order to ensure exact
right angles for their stonework (in fact, the 3-4-5 right triangle is often called "Egyptian").

It is claimed that the pyramids are first known structures to observe the golden ratio of 1 :
1.618.

GOLDEN RATIO

Two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio between


the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the same
as the ratio between the larger one and the smaller.

The golden ratio is a mathematical constant approximately


1.6180339887.

The golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter (phi).

Phi is the only number which has the mathematical


property of its square being one more than itself:
+ 1 = or
1.618 + 1 = 2.618

GOLDEN RATIO

By applying the above


Pythagorean equation to this, we
can construct a right triangle, of
sides a, b and c, or in this case a
Golden Triangle of sides , 1
and , which looks like this:
This creates a pyramid with a
base width of 2 (i.e., two
triangles above placed back-toback) and a height of the square
root of Phi, 1.272. The ratio of
the height to the base =
1.2752/2 is 0.636.

PYRAMIDS AND GOLDEN RATIO

TheGreat Pyramid of Egypt


at Gizahas a base of 230.4
meters (755.9 feet) and an
estimated original height
of 146.5 meters (480.6
feet). This also creates a
height to base ratio of
0.636, which indicates it is
indeed a Golden Triangles,
at least to within three
significant decimal places
of accuracy.

GOLDEN RATIO

GOLDEN RATIO IN NATURE AND ARTS

"The Study of Mathematics,


like the Nile, begins in
minuteness but ends in
magnificence.-Charles Caleb
Cotton

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