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Mathematical model of the system

S y s t e m Res p o n s e An a l y s i s (Tim e , F r e q u e n c y )

Basis of comparison of performance

Specifying particular test input signals & comparing system responses to

these!

Typ i c a l t e s t s i g n a l s ( s i m p l e f u n c t i o n s o f t i m e )

Step

Ramp

Impulse

Acceleration

etc. . .

Depends on type of input subjected to system

Gradually changing? (Use Ramp for test)

Subjected to sudden disturbances? (Step)

Subjected to shocks? (Impulse)

Types of Response

Transient: Which goes from initial state to fi nal state

Steady State: Manner in which system o/p behaves

as t approaches infi nity

but is short lived and approaches 0 as time approaches infinity

Dynamic behaviour of system from components Stable

or Unstable?

Equilibrium: O/p stays in same state in absence of any

input or disturbance

Stable: When subject to certain initial conditions, o/p

eventually comes back to equilibrium state

Critically Stable: Oscillations of o/p continue forever

Unstable: o/p diverges without bound

Relative Stability

When system is subjected to an input It does not

follow o/p immediately but exhibits a transient

response before a steady state is reached!

Steady State Error

At Steady state, if the o/p does not agree with the input

at all Steady State Error (indicative of system

accuracy)

Steady State Behaviour

First Order Systems

I/p o/p relationship is a 1 s t order D.E. (Highest power of

s in the denominator of the transfer function is 1)

Velocity of car on road, electric systems (1 capacitor, 1

inductor etc), pressure control in gas tank etc. .

Second Order Systems

I/p o/p relationship is a 2nd order D.E. (Highest power

of s in the denominator of the transfer function is 2)

RLC circuits, spring mass damper system etc . .

Order System

First

Ramp, Unit Impulse

Assume initial conditions to be zero

same o/p responses to same input!

Unit Step

Partial Fractions,

Taking Inverse LT

E x p o n e nti a l C u r v e

o / p = 0 ( t= 0 ) ; o /p = 1 ( t= )

W h e n t = T ; o /p = 0 . 6 3 2

N o te

S m al l e r th e ti m e c o n s ta n t fas te r th e

curve

O n e ti m e c o n s ta n t ( 0 6 3 . 2 % o f fi n a l

value)

S l o p e d e c re a s e s fro m (t= 0) to 0 (t= )

Fo r t 4 T re s p o n s e re m ai n s w i th 2 % o f

fi n a l v al u e

E s ti m ate o f re s p o n s e ti m e To re ac h &

s tay w i th i n 2 % l i n e o f fi n al v a l u e ( i d e al l y

)

Unit Ramp

Partial Fractions,

Taking Inverse LT

Error

For very large t (t= ) ; error

= T

Smaller the TC, smaller is the

error

Unit Impulse

Taking Inverse LT

When t = 0 ; o/p =

When t = ; o/p = 0

Summary

In general for LTI systems, (1 s t order)

Unit Step

Unit Ramp

Unit Impulse

of the equation is transient or steady state using the

above equations

Comparing

the 2 equations,

Un damped Natural Frequency

Critical Damping

Damping ratio

RESPONSE OF A 2 N D ORDER

SYSTEM TO STEP INPUT

a Step Input, we obtain the following responses

For

Underdamped Case (0 < < 1) Oscillatory Transient

Response : Poles are complex conjugate

Overdamped Case (>1) - Poles are negative, real,

unequal

Critically Damped case (=1) Poles are equal

Undamped (=0) Transient response does not die

out!

poles are equal

Applying

complex conjugate (left half of plane)

Poles of the system are

Applying

Step input 1/s ,

multiply last part of previous equation by

*To be tried*

Taking partial fractions & inverse L.T we obtain

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

SPECIFICATIONS

Transient

exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady

state. Certain characteristics that may be specifi ed are

Delay time :

Rise time

Peak time

Maximum Overshoot,

Settling time,

Delay

time

Time required for the response to reach half the fi nal

value for the very fi rst time

Rise time

Time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90%

or 5% to 95% or 0% to 100% of its fi nal value

Peak time

Time required for the response to reach fi rst peak of

the overshoot

RISE TIME

TIME REQUIRED FOR THE RESPONSE TO RISE FROM 10%

TO 90% OR 5% TO 95% OR 0% TO 100% OF ITS FINAL

VA LU E

equation

P E A K TI M E

T I M E R E Q U I R E D F O R TH E R E S P O N S E TO R E A C H F I R S T P E A K O F T H E

OVERSHOOT

Peak

equating it to 0

*Try this*

= 0, , 2, 3 . . .

(1 s t peak overshoot)

MAXIMUM OVERSHOOT

Maximum peak value of the response curve measured from

unity.

If fi nal steady state value of response diff ers from unity then

it is common to use maximum % overshoot

S E T T L I N G TI M E ,

T I M E R E Q U I R E D F O R TH E R E S P O N S E C U RVE TO R E A C H & S TAY

W I T H I N A R A N G E AB O U T TH E F I N A L VAL U E

range

This may be found in terms of the time constant T

(response decay depends on time constant)

(approx)

(approx)

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