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SYSTEM RESPONSE

ANALYSIS OF CONTROL SYSTEM


Mathematical model of the system
S y s t e m Res p o n s e An a l y s i s (Tim e , F r e q u e n c y )
Basis of comparison of performance
Specifying particular test input signals & comparing system responses to
these!
Typ i c a l t e s t s i g n a l s ( s i m p l e f u n c t i o n s o f t i m e )
Step
Ramp
Impulse
Acceleration
etc. . .

Which of these signals?


Depends on type of input subjected to system
Gradually changing? (Use Ramp for test)
Subjected to sudden disturbances? (Step)
Subjected to shocks? (Impulse)
Types of Response
Transient: Which goes from initial state to fi nal state
Steady State: Manner in which system o/p behaves
as t approaches infi nity

Transient Response & Steady State Response

Transient Response is present as soon as we switch on the system


but is short lived and approaches 0 as time approaches infinity

Absolute Stability (LTI systems)


Dynamic behaviour of system from components Stable
or Unstable?
Equilibrium: O/p stays in same state in absence of any
input or disturbance
Stable: When subject to certain initial conditions, o/p
eventually comes back to equilibrium state
Critically Stable: Oscillations of o/p continue forever
Unstable: o/p diverges without bound

Any physical systems energy storage!


Relative Stability
When system is subjected to an input It does not
follow o/p immediately but exhibits a transient
response before a steady state is reached!
Steady State Error
At Steady state, if the o/p does not agree with the input
at all Steady State Error (indicative of system
accuracy)

System Analysis Analyze the transient behaviour &


Steady State Behaviour
First Order Systems
I/p o/p relationship is a 1 s t order D.E. (Highest power of
s in the denominator of the transfer function is 1)
Velocity of car on road, electric systems (1 capacitor, 1
inductor etc), pressure control in gas tank etc. .
Second Order Systems
I/p o/p relationship is a 2nd order D.E. (Highest power
of s in the denominator of the transfer function is 2)
RLC circuits, spring mass damper system etc . .

Order System
First

Analyze system response to inputs: Unit Step, Unit


Ramp, Unit Impulse
Assume initial conditions to be zero

All systems having same transfer function will exhibit


same o/p responses to same input!

UNIT STEP RESPONSE OF 1 S T ORDER SYSTEMS

Unit Step

Partial Fractions,

Taking Inverse LT

E x p o n e nti a l C u r v e

o / p = 0 ( t= 0 ) ; o /p = 1 ( t= )
W h e n t = T ; o /p = 0 . 6 3 2
N o te
S m al l e r th e ti m e c o n s ta n t fas te r th e
curve
O n e ti m e c o n s ta n t ( 0 6 3 . 2 % o f fi n a l
value)
S l o p e d e c re a s e s fro m (t= 0) to 0 (t= )
Fo r t 4 T re s p o n s e re m ai n s w i th 2 % o f
fi n a l v al u e
E s ti m ate o f re s p o n s e ti m e To re ac h &
s tay w i th i n 2 % l i n e o f fi n al v a l u e ( i d e al l y
)

UNIT RAMP RESPONSE OF 1 S T ORDER SYSTEMS

Unit Ramp

Partial Fractions,

Taking Inverse LT


Error

When t=0 ; error = 0


For very large t (t= ) ; error
= T
Smaller the TC, smaller is the
error

UNIT IMPULSE RESPONSE OF 1 S T ORDER SYSTEMS

Unit Impulse

Taking Inverse LT

When t = 0 ; o/p =

When t = ; o/p = 0


Summary
In general for LTI systems, (1 s t order)
Unit Step

Unit Ramp

Unit Impulse

For a given system response, its easy to fi nd which part


of the equation is transient or steady state using the
above equations

A standard 2 n d Order equation is represented by

Consider a 2 n d order system given below

Putting it into the standard form,


Comparing
the 2 equations,
Un damped Natural Frequency

Damped Natural frequency

Critical Damping
Damping ratio

RESPONSE OF A 2 N D ORDER
SYSTEM TO STEP INPUT
a Step Input, we obtain the following responses
For
Underdamped Case (0 < < 1) Oscillatory Transient
Response : Poles are complex conjugate
Overdamped Case (>1) - Poles are negative, real,
unequal
Critically Damped case (=1) Poles are equal
Undamped (=0) Transient response does not die
out!

CRITICALLY DAMPED SYSTEM (=1)

Poles of the system are

The system is said to be critically damped if the two


poles are equal

System may be represented as,


Applying

Step Input, R(s) = 1/s

Taking partial fractions

& inverse L.T we obtain

UNDERDAMPED SYSTEM (0<<1)

A system is said to be underdamped if the two poles are


complex conjugate (left half of plane)
Poles of the system are

System may be represented as,

Applying
Step input 1/s ,

Taking partial fractions

Taking Laplace Transform for the above

To get the sine term of Laplace Transform, divide &


multiply last part of previous equation by

OVERDAMPED SYSTEM (>1)

If the two poles are negative real & unequal

*To be tried*
Taking partial fractions & inverse L.T we obtain

TRANSIENT RESPONSE
SPECIFICATIONS

Transient

response of a practical control system often


exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady
state. Certain characteristics that may be specifi ed are
Delay time :
Rise time
Peak time
Maximum Overshoot,
Settling time,


Delay

time
Time required for the response to reach half the fi nal
value for the very fi rst time
Rise time
Time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90%
or 5% to 95% or 0% to 100% of its fi nal value
Peak time
Time required for the response to reach fi rst peak of
the overshoot

RISE TIME
TIME REQUIRED FOR THE RESPONSE TO RISE FROM 10%
TO 90% OR 5% TO 95% OR 0% TO 100% OF ITS FINAL
VA LU E

Rise time is obtained by setting c() = 1 in the above


equation

P E A K TI M E
T I M E R E Q U I R E D F O R TH E R E S P O N S E TO R E A C H F I R S T P E A K O F T H E
OVERSHOOT

Peak

time is obtained by diff erentiating c(t) w.r.t time and

equating it to 0

*Try this*

= 0, , 2, 3 . . .
(1 s t peak overshoot)

MAXIMUM OVERSHOOT

Maximum Overshoot : occurs at t =


Maximum peak value of the response curve measured from
unity.

If fi nal steady state value of response diff ers from unity then
it is common to use maximum % overshoot

Directly indicates relative stability of system

S E T T L I N G TI M E ,
T I M E R E Q U I R E D F O R TH E R E S P O N S E C U RVE TO R E A C H & S TAY
W I T H I N A R A N G E AB O U T TH E F I N A L VAL U E

Settling Time usually falls in the 2% or 5% tolerance


range
This may be found in terms of the time constant T
(response decay depends on time constant)

(approx)
(approx)