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# SYSTEM RESPONSE

## ANALYSIS OF CONTROL SYSTEM

Mathematical model of the system
S y s t e m Res p o n s e An a l y s i s (Tim e , F r e q u e n c y )
Basis of comparison of performance
Specifying particular test input signals & comparing system responses to
these!
Typ i c a l t e s t s i g n a l s ( s i m p l e f u n c t i o n s o f t i m e )
Step
Ramp
Impulse
Acceleration
etc. . .

## Which of these signals?

Depends on type of input subjected to system
Gradually changing? (Use Ramp for test)
Subjected to sudden disturbances? (Step)
Subjected to shocks? (Impulse)
Types of Response
Transient: Which goes from initial state to fi nal state
Steady State: Manner in which system o/p behaves
as t approaches infi nity

## Transient Response is present as soon as we switch on the system

but is short lived and approaches 0 as time approaches infinity

## Absolute Stability (LTI systems)

Dynamic behaviour of system from components Stable
or Unstable?
Equilibrium: O/p stays in same state in absence of any
input or disturbance
Stable: When subject to certain initial conditions, o/p
eventually comes back to equilibrium state
Critically Stable: Oscillations of o/p continue forever
Unstable: o/p diverges without bound

## Any physical systems energy storage!

Relative Stability
When system is subjected to an input It does not
follow o/p immediately but exhibits a transient
response before a steady state is reached!
Steady State Error
At Steady state, if the o/p does not agree with the input
at all Steady State Error (indicative of system
accuracy)

## System Analysis Analyze the transient behaviour &

Steady State Behaviour
First Order Systems
I/p o/p relationship is a 1 s t order D.E. (Highest power of
s in the denominator of the transfer function is 1)
Velocity of car on road, electric systems (1 capacitor, 1
inductor etc), pressure control in gas tank etc. .
Second Order Systems
I/p o/p relationship is a 2nd order D.E. (Highest power
of s in the denominator of the transfer function is 2)
RLC circuits, spring mass damper system etc . .

Order System
First

## Analyze system response to inputs: Unit Step, Unit

Ramp, Unit Impulse
Assume initial conditions to be zero

## All systems having same transfer function will exhibit

same o/p responses to same input!

## UNIT STEP RESPONSE OF 1 S T ORDER SYSTEMS

Unit Step

Partial Fractions,

Taking Inverse LT

E x p o n e nti a l C u r v e

o / p = 0 ( t= 0 ) ; o /p = 1 ( t= )
W h e n t = T ; o /p = 0 . 6 3 2
N o te
S m al l e r th e ti m e c o n s ta n t fas te r th e
curve
O n e ti m e c o n s ta n t ( 0 6 3 . 2 % o f fi n a l
value)
S l o p e d e c re a s e s fro m (t= 0) to 0 (t= )
Fo r t 4 T re s p o n s e re m ai n s w i th 2 % o f
fi n a l v al u e
E s ti m ate o f re s p o n s e ti m e To re ac h &
s tay w i th i n 2 % l i n e o f fi n al v a l u e ( i d e al l y
)

## UNIT RAMP RESPONSE OF 1 S T ORDER SYSTEMS

Unit Ramp

Partial Fractions,

Taking Inverse LT

Error

## When t=0 ; error = 0

For very large t (t= ) ; error
= T
Smaller the TC, smaller is the
error

## UNIT IMPULSE RESPONSE OF 1 S T ORDER SYSTEMS

Unit Impulse

Taking Inverse LT

When t = 0 ; o/p =

When t = ; o/p = 0

Summary
In general for LTI systems, (1 s t order)
Unit Step

Unit Ramp

Unit Impulse

## For a given system response, its easy to fi nd which part

of the equation is transient or steady state using the
above equations

## Putting it into the standard form,

Comparing
the 2 equations,
Un damped Natural Frequency

## Damped Natural frequency

Critical Damping
Damping ratio

RESPONSE OF A 2 N D ORDER
SYSTEM TO STEP INPUT
a Step Input, we obtain the following responses
For
Underdamped Case (0 < < 1) Oscillatory Transient
Response : Poles are complex conjugate
Overdamped Case (>1) - Poles are negative, real,
unequal
Critically Damped case (=1) Poles are equal
Undamped (=0) Transient response does not die
out!

poles are equal

Applying

## A system is said to be underdamped if the two poles are

complex conjugate (left half of plane)
Poles of the system are

Applying
Step input 1/s ,

## To get the sine term of Laplace Transform, divide &

multiply last part of previous equation by

## If the two poles are negative real & unequal

*To be tried*
Taking partial fractions & inverse L.T we obtain

TRANSIENT RESPONSE
SPECIFICATIONS

Transient

## response of a practical control system often

exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady
state. Certain characteristics that may be specifi ed are
Delay time :
Rise time
Peak time
Maximum Overshoot,
Settling time,

Delay

time
Time required for the response to reach half the fi nal
value for the very fi rst time
Rise time
Time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90%
or 5% to 95% or 0% to 100% of its fi nal value
Peak time
Time required for the response to reach fi rst peak of
the overshoot

RISE TIME
TIME REQUIRED FOR THE RESPONSE TO RISE FROM 10%
TO 90% OR 5% TO 95% OR 0% TO 100% OF ITS FINAL
VA LU E

## Rise time is obtained by setting c() = 1 in the above

equation

P E A K TI M E
T I M E R E Q U I R E D F O R TH E R E S P O N S E TO R E A C H F I R S T P E A K O F T H E
OVERSHOOT

Peak

## time is obtained by diff erentiating c(t) w.r.t time and

equating it to 0

*Try this*

= 0, , 2, 3 . . .
(1 s t peak overshoot)

MAXIMUM OVERSHOOT

## Maximum Overshoot : occurs at t =

Maximum peak value of the response curve measured from
unity.

If fi nal steady state value of response diff ers from unity then
it is common to use maximum % overshoot

## Directly indicates relative stability of system

S E T T L I N G TI M E ,
T I M E R E Q U I R E D F O R TH E R E S P O N S E C U RVE TO R E A C H & S TAY
W I T H I N A R A N G E AB O U T TH E F I N A L VAL U E

## Settling Time usually falls in the 2% or 5% tolerance

range
This may be found in terms of the time constant T
(response decay depends on time constant)

(approx)
(approx)