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CAREER PLANNING

BY: CASTILLO, AYANNA JEAN


GELING, KRISTIANA
LUSANTA, FRANCIS
PEREZ, JOHN CARLO

ROAD MAP
I.

The Role of Career Planning and Management in


Implementing HR Grand Strategy
II. The Traditional Approach to Career Planning
III. The Traditional Approach to Career Management
IV. Problems with Traditional Approaches to Career
Planning and Management
V. Strategic Career Planning
VI. Strategic Career Management Activities

CAREER VS. JOB


CAREER

JOB

consists of the organized structure


and sequence of patterns in an
individuals work life.
What can I do now to make money
Chosen Profession for your life.
Requires a willingness to get the
training needed to build your skills
for the future.
A career is the work a person
does. It is the sequence of jobs
that an individual has held
throughout his or her working life
E.g. occupation ofnursing.

THE ROLE OF CAREER PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT


I N I M P L E M E N T I N G H R G R A N D S T R AT E GY

No HR plan will be successful unless it takes into


account individual career goals and aspirations.

WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING


-Is an individuals lifelong process of establishing
personal career objectives and acting in a manner
intended to bring them about.
-consists ofactivities and actions that you take to
achieve your individual career goals

CAREER MANAGEMENT
is the process of deciding what work opportunities to
accept or reject, depending on their perceived value
in helping achieve career objectives.
It includes not only decisions made by an individual
but also those made about the individual by
managers and others who control what work
opportunities can be made available.

CAREER MANAGEMENT
Its implications infl uences the ff :
1. The willingness of people to allow themselves
to be recruited, promoted, or transferred.
2. An individuals readiness to learn in training
3. The willingness of members in a work group
to interact
4. Job design considerations
5. Employee assistance programs
6. Union agreements.
7. Compensation and benefi ts

CAREER DEVELOPMENT
is the process of improving an individuals abilities in
anticipation of future opportunities for achieving
career objectives.

T H E T RA DI T ION A L A PP ROA C H T O C A RE E R
P LA N N IN G

Career planning is the sole responsibility of the


individual, but career-management is a responsibility
shared by the individual and by the organization.

The Traditional
Approach to
Career
Planning

TRADITIONAL APPROACH
Individuals decide what they want to
do.
Managers, in an organizational context,
decide what opportunities to off er and
what development activities are
necessary prerequisites to qualify them.
Utility- a complex term that encompasses both
extrinsic (money) and intrinsic (personal happiness)
rewards

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
Erick Erickson
He advanced the notion that individuals
progress through distinctive life stages, each
of which is characterized by an issue leading
to a central life crisis

Donald Super (1957, 1980)


was the fi rst to translate Eriksons ideas into
a scheme directly applicable to career
planning.
He asserted that individuals pass through fi ve
career stages: growth, exploration,
establishment, maintenance, and decline.

DEVELOPMETAL THEORY
Dalton et al. (1977)
expressed the belief that individuals pass
through such stages as apprenticeship, selfdependence, mentor, and senior manager.

Levinson et al. (1978)


believe career stages depend on cycling and
recycling experiences. They propose six such
stages.

THIRD CLASSIC TREATMENT


Edgar Schein (1978)
off ered a somewhat diff erent, though related, view of
development.
He based his ideas on the career anchor, which
serves to organize experience and measure success
and self-perception.
(1) broader than traditional notions of job values or
motivation,
(2) a product of discoveries made through work
experiences, (3) only possible to identify after several
years of work,
(4) a result of interaction between abilities and
values, and (5) a source of stability in the midst of
continuing personal and occupational growth.

OF WHAT VALUE IS CAREER


PLANNING THEORY?
First, it helps individuals understand themselves.
Second, it helps supervisors and HR planners
understand how people think about career matters.
With this information, individuals and managers are in
a better position to plan accordingly.

The Traditional
Approach to
Career
Management

TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO
CAREER MANAGEMENT
From the standpoint of organizational decisionmakers, career-management eff orts serve several
purposes.
(1) improve morale by giving employees information
about opportunities available in the organization;
(2) (2) encourage employees to establish and work
toward achieving career objectives;
(3) (3) motivate employees to seek out careerdevelopment opportunities, like training, education,
and developmental job assignments; and
(4) (4) provide the organization with a means to trace
relationships between jobs, and then identify
candidates for recruitment to or advancement
toward other jobs.

THE ORGANIZATIONAL CAREERMANAGEMENT PROCESS


Think of the organizational career-management
process as one in which managers and HR planners:

1. Identify or describe common, historical


career patterns in the organization.
2. Identify potential career patterns.
3. Establish formal and informal programs to
help individuals achieve their career objectives
while helping the organization develop talent
for future needs .

DESCRIBING CAREER PATHS


To identify career patternsperhaps the key step in
the whole process HR planners should:
1. Collect information on the actual work activities of
incumbents in entry job portals.
2. Assess what kinds of skills and knowledge have
historically led to success in the entry job and
contributed to promotion (or other movement).
3. Identify common movement patterns and causes of
movement.
4. Verify by checking with employees and supervisors,
predicting future movements, and assessing reliability
of predictions.

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL CAREER


PATTERNS
1 s t way: traditional approach
Employees and managers simply look at the chain of
command in each organizational unit. Career progress
is equated with upward mobility. People begin at the
lowest level and work upward. This approach,
however, is too restrictive for some.
2 n d way: career path approach
Every job in an organization is analyzed in detail for
similarities in work methods and/or work results. The
basic assumption is that jobs can be grouped around
these underlying similarities. Individuals can move
into altogether diff erent job classes as long as
similarities exist in activities or results.

3 r d way:

lattice approach

Individuals are capable of moving into any other


position over time. HR planners develop a matrix that
describes what skills and what levels of skill
profi ciency are required to perform satisfactorily in
every job. From this information, planners then develop
a comprehensive directory to help individuals chart a
course for career movement in almost any direction.

ESTABLISHING CAREERMANAGEMENT PROGRAMS


On the basis of analysis of historical and potential
career patterns, HR planners establish careermanagement programs and encourage informal
activities that contribute to individual career
development. Examples of such activities include
mentoring,
employee appraisal,
career instruction workshops,
and professional career counseling.

MENTORING
can be organizationally sponsored or individually initiated.
A mentor is an adviser.
A mentoring relationship is a mutually satisfying
experience. The sponsor enjoys seeing his or her
charge succeed much as teachers do when their pupils
learn. At the same time, the charge gains much, too:
protection from political forces, and useful information
from someone who has the status to obtain it
Formal mentoring programs are more rare than informal
mentoring relationships that arise through the initiative of
one seeking sponsorship. Yet formal programs do exist.
One example is a peer mentoring program for newcomers.
An experienced employee helps orient and socialize a new
hire. Another example is a specialized type of
management-development program

EMPLOYEE APPRAISAL
like mentoring, can be formal or informal.
The purpose of appraisal is twofold:
to evaluate how well individuals have been doing and
to advise them about the future.

CAREER INSTRUCTION
is another way to inform employees about career
paths in the fi rm. Instruction is off ered through
(1) general self-study material;
(2) organization-specifi c self-study material;
(3) group workshops and training courses; and
(4) organization-specifi c workshops and training
courses
(Rothwell and Sredl, 2000).

ORGANIZATION-SPECIFIC
WORKSHOP
Organization-specifi c workshops, like their self-study
counterparts, are geared to career paths and
opportunities in one organization. While approaches
vary, they include:
1. The pure workshop. Course participants go through a
career workbook in a small group, sharing and testing
their ideas with the help of peers and a group
facilitator.
2. The lecture/discussion . Course participants are told
about career opportunities in the fi rm, work through
tailor-made exercises on the subject, and ask careerrelated questions.
3. The forum. Four or fi ve supervisors participate in a
panel discussion about career opportunities in the fi rm
and respond to questions from the audience.

Problems with
Traditional
Approaches to
Career Planning
and Management

When you fail to plan your careers, you make bad


choices; be it in terms of choosing your specialization
or going with the wrong sector.
Traditional programs make no attempt to predict how
career patterns will probably change in the future or
how jobs should change if they are to be consistent
with strategic business plans.

Individual career development and planning is often


based on outdated information.
Employees fi nd themselves preparing for knowledge
and skills needed only now, not at a future time

An unsupportive working environment for diverse


employees
Favoritism and nepotism inpromotions often make
career planning an unsuccessful exercise.
Career planning is usually a long-term and timeconsuming process. It is based on the logicof
suff ering short-term pain to get long-term gains.
However, organizations may not beready to spend a
lot of time and resources on a process that would
prove benefi cial only inthe long term.

Strategic Career
Planning

SHORT TERM CAREER PLANNING


A short-term career plan focuses on a
timeframe ranging from the coming year to
the next few years, depending on the jobseeker

LONG TERM CAREER PLANNING


Long term career planning should be more
about identifying and developing core skills
that employers will always value while
developing your personal and career goals in
broad strokes.

STEPS ON DEVELOPING A
STRATEGIC CAREER PLAN
Step 1: self assessment
Consider what is important to you
understand your skills, knowledge and personal
qualities
Know your limits

Step 2:consider the options


fi nding out what jobs are likely to suit you best

Step 3: decide on you goals


Carefully consider the information you have gathered
Step 4: develop and implement your career strategy
put your career strategy into action
Remember, planning will increase the likelihood of
success
Step 5: review and adjust your plan
Not everything will go according to your desires
Be fl exible

Strategic
Career
Management
Activities