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Sand Control

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WCP1-023a

Outline
Sand Control Market
What is Sand Production
Problems with Sand Production
Sand Production Mechanism
Factors Affecting Sand Production
Sand Production Prediction
Sand Control Methods

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Key Sand Control Markets

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What is Sand Production?


Sand Production refers to the Production of solid

particles which support the overburden


The Rock needs to fail for Solids to be produced
Fines Particles are NOT sand production
the formation

Once the destabilizing forces overcome the

formation strength, the rock will fail.


Sand production will follow if sand can be
transported.

Solid production in excess of 0.1% by Volume is


considered excessive and should be controlled
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not considered part of the mechanical structure of

Favorable Conditions
Young and Shallow Reservoir Rock
Unconsolidated with Compressive Strength <
1000 psi

Permeability

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0.5 to 8 darcies

Sand Problems
Sand Disposal
Casing / Liner Failure
Sand Erosion
Sand Bridges

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Sand Disposal
Even wells with successful sand control

Sand Separation
Disposal
Can not be dumped overboard
Must be trucked away
Classified as NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive
Material)

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measures will produce small quantities of sand.


In offshore installations, where several wells
produce into a common platform, this may be
critical.
Sand must be first separated from the produced
fluids and all oil removed prior to disposal.

Casing / Liner Collapse

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Failure may occur due


to :
Non uniform lateral
loading as rock is
produced.
Cavities or voids
behind casing are
formed
High axial
compressive load due
to slumping of the
overlying casingbearing formation.

Sand Erosion

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Sand production can cause erosion in both surface


and downhole equipment such as :
Downhole
Surface
Blast Joints
Chokes
Gas lift Equipment
Elbows / Tees
Standing Valves
Swages
Pumps
Valves
Safety Valves
Metering Devices
Circulating sleeves
Flanges
Nipples
Wellhead
Tubulars

Sand Erosion Contd

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Sand Bridges
Bridges may form in

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casing or tubing and


obstruct well flow.
Causes
Sand fall back over
time
Increase in water
production
Fluid Velocity too low
They must be removed
by bailing or washing
with Coiled Tubing
If bridging is severe
sand control will be
required.

Sanding Mechanisms
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Sand Structure
Failure Mechanism
Sand Transportation

Sanding Mechanism
In weak but consolidated formations:
Stage 2
Transportation

Failure
of
reservoir
rock
due to shear
stresses (failure
of
bonds
between grains)

Transportation
of
failed
material due to
flow

If we can predict and prevent Stage 1, we do not need to


worry about Stage 2!
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Stage 1
Failure

Consolidation

Same problem, different mechanism different solut


Unconsolidated

Consolidated
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Zero strength

Very very weak

Dry sand

Damp sand

Very weak
Weakly-cemented
high

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Consolidated
Stronger cement
lower

Sand Structure

Cementation

Overburden

Structure of Sand Grains


Packed together by
Overburden Stress
Additional support from
Pore Pressure
Sand Grains kept in place
by cementing material
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Pore
Pressure

Conditions for Rock Failure


Forces trying to fail the
Rock Structure

Intergranular bonds

Differential Pressure

(cementation)
Overburden
Pore Pressure
intergranular friction
Gravity
capillary forces

between Reservoir
and Wellbore
Drag forces related to
Fluid Viscosity
Drag forces related to
Fluid Velocity

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Forces holding the Rock


Structure together

Sand Transportation
In most sand formations, fines particles are
water-wet and move with the water phase.
No water production No, or little sand
Production
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Triggering Sand Production


Sand Production is very

Production Rate

Fluctuations
Drawdown changes
Onset of water production
Change in Oil/Water ratio

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much related to fluid


production
Even better consolidated
formations can produce
sand

Time Dependence
Reservoir Depletion

Reduction in Pore Pressure

Dissolve natural cementing material and weaken


bonds
Change capillary pressures

Formation Permeability Reduction

Fines migration
Paraffin and asphaltenes deposits
Increase in Drag Forces
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Increase in Water Production

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Sand Production
Prediction

Sand Production Prediction


Experience
Special Well Test
Core Inspection and Testing

Measurements

Log Interpretation
No direct measurements of Rock Strength.
Calculations from Sonic, Density and Neutron Logs

IMPACT
Simulator which uses data from DST, Well Tests,
Core Analysis and Logs
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X-Ray, SEM
Flow Tests
Uniaxial and Triaxial Compressive Strength

Flow Tests

POverburden
P1

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P2

Conventional Sand Strength AnalysisRock

Mechanics
Poissons Ratio (PR) was
calibrated to validated
core

data

data

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Youngs Modulus (YME) wa


calibrated to validated cor

Uniaxial Compressive
Strength
(UCS) was calibrated to
validated core data
Minimum Horizontal Stress
was calibrated to mini frac
closure gradient

Tensile and Shear failur


prediction
Sanding Tendency is
higher if both failures
are close to each other
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Formation Stress Logging


New Direction in Sonic Logging, Oilfield Review,
Spring 1998 p40
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SWA

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Rock Classification
BHN

Remarks

Unconsolidated
Partially
Friable
Consolidate
Hard
force

<2
2-5
5 - 10
10 - 30
> 30

No cementing material
Crushed with fingers
Crushed when rubbed
Crushed with force
Can not be broken with

Medium Hard
Hard
Very Hard

30 - 50
50 - 125
> 125

(BNH - Brinell Hardness Number)

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Term

Controlling the Sand


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Sand Control
Although some fines are probably always
produced in any well, in sand control we mean
control of the

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LOAD BEARING SOLIDS

Completion Options
No Shocks to the System
Keep System as stable as possible

Limit drawdown

Selective and Oriented Perforating


Selective perforations placed in the strongest
formation (based on logs)
Perforate in direction of maximum stress

Implications to Production
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Restrictive Production Rate

Sand Control Methods


In Situ Consolidation

Resin Injection into the formation


Resin Coated Gravel
use of screens

Screens - Natural Sand Packing

Placement of Screens in the wellbore without the


use of Gravel

Gravel Pack

Placement of Screens and Gravel

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Placement of a Filter in the wellbore without the

In Situ Consolidation
Resin material is

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pumped into the


formation.
Most common resins
are Phenolic, Furan or
Epoxy
Resin is followed by a
Catalyst
Resin glues formation
grain-grain into a
consolidated structure
Compressive strength
>1,000 psi with 60-75%
retained permeability.
Acid treatment prior to
treatment

Resin Coated Gravel


Proppant ( Gravel ) is

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Gravel

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precoated with resin


material.
Particles are mixed with
viscous gel and squeezed
into the formation.
A resin coated gravel plug
is left in the wellbore
Particles are contacted
grain-to-grain.
Temperature + H2O fuses
the particles together into
a consolidated permeable,
drillable network
Low Cost, onshore

Resin

Formation
(Unconsolidated)

Resin Coated Gravel


Resin coated particles are placed in the

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perforations and wellbore.


When cured a strong permeable synthetic
sandstone network is formed.
Drillable.
Diversion to be considered.
Main Well Services System : SANDLOCK V*

Slotted Liners & Prepacked


Screens
Sized to stop largest 10%

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of sand
Friable formations only
(BHN from 5-10) with > 1
Darcy Perm.
Unconsolidated formations
will cause liner or PP
Screens to quickly plug
with fines
Only 5 % of all Sand
Control completions
Simpler to install
Cheaper
Larger effective inside
diameter compared to
normal GP

Learning Points
What is Sand Production
Problems with Sand Production
Sand Production Mechanism

Sand Production Prediction


Sand Control Methods

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Structure
Failure Mechanism
Sand Transportation

Business Model and Field Life


Cycle

Activity

Product

EXIT

CONTINUE
Next activity

ETC Breaking activities down into

manageable units and defining


their purpose in manageable bits
is essential to effective planning

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Useful for planning and execution.


Breaks the Field Life Cycle down into discrete
business processes.
Each business process should have a well defined
product (deliverable) and lead to a clear decision
point (Key process
decision)
Key decision
Business
Deliverable

Module Control
WCP1_023a Sand Control

Version

1a

Course

WCP-1

Date Created

March 27, 2003

Creator

Willem van Adrichem, HTC

Checked by
Date Checked
Comments

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Module ID