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Airplane, engine-driven vehicle that
can fly through the air supported by
the action of air against its wings.
Airplanes are heavier than air, in
contrast to vehicles such as balloons
and airships, which are lighter than
air. Airplanes also differ from other
heavier-than-air craft, such as
helicopters, because they have rigid
wings; control surfaces, such as
movable parts of the wings and tail,
which make it possible to guide their
flight; and power plants, or special
engines that permit level or climbing

4.Horizontal & Vertical Stabilizer


1. Ailerons

Ailerons are located near

the outer portion of the
wing. The ailerons operate
in opposition to each other;
i.e. when the left aileron is
up, the right aileron is
down. This configuration
causes the aircraft to "roll"
to the left. Placing the
ailerons in the opposite
position causes a roll to the

2. Elevator
The Elevators are
located on the tail of
the fuselage. They
control the pitch
(nose-up or nosedown ) state of the

3. Fuselage
The fuselage
is the structure
which houses
the Pilot and
as well as the
panel and

4. Rudder
The Rudder is
hinged to the aft end
of the vertical
stabilizer. The
Rudder permits the
pilot to move the tail
of the aircraft left or
right by use of the
rudder pedals in the

5. Horizontal &Vertical
The horizontal stabilizers
are located on the tail of the
fuselage.The elevators are
hinged at the aft end of the
The vertical stabilizer is
attached to the tail of the

6. Flaps
Flaps are located on the
inboard end of the wing,
next to the fuselage.
Flaps can be deployed
during decent to landing
to provide increased lift,
and increased drag to
slow the aircraft. Flaps
permit a steeper decent
without build-up of
excessive speed.


An airplane flies because its wings create lift, the

upward force on the plane, as they interact with
the flow of air around them. The wings alter the
direction of the flow of air as it passes. The exact
shape of the surface of a wing is critical to its
ability to generate lift. The speed of the airflow
and the angle at which the wing meets the
oncoming airstream also contribute to the
amount of lift generated.

An airplanes wings push down on the air flowing

past them, and in reaction, the air pushes up on the
wings. When an airplane is level or rising, the front
edges of its wings ride higher than the rear edges.
The angle the wings make with the horizontal is
called the angle of attack. As the wings move through
the air, this angle causes them to push air flowing
under them downward. Air flowing over the top of the
wing is also deflected downward as it follows the
specially designed shape of the wing. A steeper
angle of attack will cause the wings to push more air
downward. The third law of motion formulated by
English physicist Isaac Newton states that every
action produces an equal and opposite reaction. In
this case, the wings pushing air downward is the
action, and the air pushing the wings upward is the
reaction. This causes lift, the upward force on the

Lift is also often explained using

Bernoullis principle, which states that,
under certain circumstances, a faster
moving fluid (such as air) will have a
lower pressure than a slower moving
fluid. The air on the top of an airplane
wing moves faster and is at a lower
pressure than the air underneath the
wing, and the lift generated by the wing
can be modeled using equations derived
from Bernoullis principle.

Lift is one of the four primary forces acting upon

an airplane. The others are weight, thrust, and
drag. Weight is the force that offsets lift, because
it acts in the opposite direction. The weight of
the airplane must be overcome by the lift
produced by the wings. If an airplane weighs 4.5
metric tons, then the lift produced by its wings
must be greater than 4.5 metric tons in order for
the airplane to leave the ground. Designing a
wing that is powerful enough to lift an airplane
off the ground, and yet efficient enough to fly at
high speeds over extremely long distances, is
one of the marvels of modern aircraft

Thrust is the force that propels an airplane forward

through the air. Thrust is provided by the airplanes
propulsion system; either a propeller or jet engine
or combination of the two.

A fourth force acting on all airplanes is drag. Drag is

created because any object moving through a fluid,
such as an airplane through air, produces friction as
it interacts with that fluid and because it must move
the fluid out of its way to do its work. A high-lift wing
surface, for example, may create a great deal of lift
for an airplane, but because of its large size, it is also
creating a significant amount of drag. That is why
high-speed fighters and missiles have such thin wings
they need to minimize drag created by lift.
Conversely, a crop duster, which flies at relatively
slow speeds, may have a big, thick wing because high
lift is more important than the amount of drag
associated with it. Drag is also minimized by
designing sleek, aerodynamic airplanes, with shapes
that slip easily through the air.

Managing the balance between these four forces

is the challenge of flight. When thrust is greater
than drag, an airplane will accelerate. When lift
is greater than weight, it will climb. Using
various control surfaces and propulsion
systems, a pilot can manipulate the balance of
the four forces to change the direction or speed.
A pilot can reduce thrust in order to slow down
or descend. The pilot can lower the landing gear
into the airstream and deploy the landing flaps
on the wings to increase drag, which has the
same effect as reducing thrust. The pilot can
add thrust either to speed up or climb. Or, by
retracting the landing gear and flaps, and
thereby reducing drag, the pilot can accelerate
or climb.


We collected the information from the following

And from books