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Original Title: AE 233 (Chapter 1) Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering.ppt

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You are on page 1of 38

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Chapter 1: Fluid Mechanics and

Fluid Properties

SEQUENCE OF CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Objectives

1.1 Definition of A Fluid

Shear stress in moving fluid

Differences between liquid and gases

Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid

1.2 Engineering Units

1.3 Fluid Properties

Vapor Pressure

Engineering significance of vapor pressure

Surface Tension

Capillarity Example 1.2

Example 1.3

Summary

Introduction

Fluid mechanics is a study of the behavior of fluids,

either at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid

dynamics).

The analysis is based on the fundamental laws of

mechanics, which relate continuity of mass and energy

with force and momentum.

An understanding of the properties and behavior of

fluids at rest and in motion is of great importance in

engineering.

Objectives

1. Identify the units for the basic quantities of time,

length, force and mass.

2. Properly set up equations to ensure consistency of

units.

3. Define the basic fluid properties.

4. Identify the relationships between specific weight,

specific gravity and density, and solve problems using

their relationships.

Fluid mechanics is a division in applied mechanics related to

the behaviour of liquid or gas which is either in rest or in

motion.

The study related to a fluid in rest or stationary is referred

to fluid static, otherwise it is referred to as fluid dynamic.

Fluid can be defined as a substance which can deform

continuously when being subjected to shear stress at any

magnitude. In other words, it can flow continuously as a

result of shearing action. This includes any liquid or gas.

A fluid is a substance, which deforms continuously, or

flows, when subjected to shearing force

In fact if a shear stress is acting on a fluid it will flow

and if a fluid is at rest there is no shear stress acting on

it.

Fluid Flow

Fluid Rest

Shear stress No

Thus, with exception to solids, any other matters can be

categorised as fluid. In microscopic point of view, this

concept corresponds to loose or very loose bonding between

molecules of liquid or gas, respectively.

Examples of typical fluid used in engineering applications are

water, oil and air.

In fluid, the molecules can move freely but are constrained

through a traction force called cohesion. This force is

interchangeable from one molecule to another.

For gases, it is very weak which enables the gas to

disintegrate and move away from its container.

For liquids, it is stronger which is sufficient enough to hold

the molecule together and can withstand high compression,

which is suitable for application as hydraulic fluid such as oil.

On the surface, the cohesion forms a resultant force directed

into the liquid region and the combination of cohesion forces

between adjacent molecules from a tensioned membrane

known as free surface.

Free surface

k

k

k

k

(a) Solid

(b) Liquid

(c) Gas

linked to each other with springs.

If fluid is in motion, shear stress are developed if the

particles of the fluid move relative to each other. Adjacent

particles have different velocities, causing the shape of the

fluid to become distorted

On the other hand, the velocity of the fluid is the same at

every point, no shear stress will be produced, the fluid

particles are at rest relative to each other.

Shear force

Moving plate

Fluid particles

Fixed surface

Liquid

Gases

regarded as incompressible

is large, cannot normally be neglected

and are related to temperature

take the shape of the container

expand to fill the containing vessels

volume of container is greater

than the liquid.

surface is formed.

Fluid

obey

Newtons law

of viscosity

refer

du

dy

(1.1)

= shear stress

= viscosity of fluid

du/dy = shear rate, rate of strain or velocity gradient

Newtonian fluids

Example:

Air

Water

Oil

Gasoline

Alcohol

Kerosene

Benzene

Glycerine

The viscosity is a function only of the condition of the fluid, particularly its

temperature.

The magnitude of the velocity gradient (du/dy) has no effect on the magnitude of .

Do not obey

Fluid

Newtons law

of viscosity

Non- Newtonian

fluids

velocity gradient as well as the condition of the fluid.

Newtonian Fluids

a linear relationship between shear stress and the velocity gradient (rate

of shear),

the slope is constant

the viscosity is constant

non-Newtonian fluids

Figure 1.1

Shear stress vs.

velocity gradient

Bingham plastic : resist a small shear stress but flow easily under large shear

stresses, e.g. sewage sludge, toothpaste, and jellies.

Pseudo plastic : most non-Newtonian fluids fall under this group. Viscosity

decreases with increasing velocity gradient, e.g. colloidal

substances like clay, milk, and cement.

Dilatants

: viscosity decreases with increasing velocity gradient, e.g.

quicksand.

The primary quantities which are also referred to as basic

dimensions, such as L for length, T for time, M for mass and

Q for temperature.

This dimension system is known as the MLT system where it

can be used to provide qualitative description for secondary

quantities, or derived dimensions, such as area (L), velocity

(LT-1) and density (ML-3).

In some countries, the FLT system is also used, where the

quantity F stands for force.

An example is a kinematic equation for the velocity V of a

uniformly accelerated body,

V = V0 + at

where V0 is the initial velocity, a the acceleration and t the

time interval. In terms for dimensions of the equation, we

can expand that

LT-1 = LT -1 + LT-2 T

Example

The free vibration of a particle can be simulated by the

following differential equation:

du

m

kx 0

dt

where m is mass, u is velocity, t is time and x is

displacement. Determine the dimension for the stiffness

variable k.

Example

By making the dimension of the first term equal to the

second term:

[u]

[m]

= [k][x]

[t]

Hence,

[m][u]

[k] = [ t ] [ x ] =

M LT-1

LT

= MT-2

Primary Units

Quantity

SI Unit

Length

Metre, m

Mass

Kilogram, kg

Time

Seconds, s

Temperature

Kelvin, K

Current

Ampere, A

Luminosity

Candela

In fluid mechanics we are generally only interested in the top four units from this

table.

Derived Units

Quantity

SI Unit

velocity

m/s

acceleration

m/s2

force

Newton (N)

N = kg.m/s2

Joule (J)

J = N.m = kg.m2/s2

power

Watt (W)

W = N.m/s = kg.m2/s3

Pascal (P)

P = N/m2 = kg/m/s2

density

kg/m3

specific weight

N/m3 = kg/m2/s2

N/m3 = kg/m2/s2

relative density

dimensionless

viscosity

N.s/m2

N.s/m2 = kg/m/s

surface tension

N/m

N/m = kg/s2

1. Solve the equation algebraically for the desired terms.

2. Decide on the proper units of the result.

3. Substitute known values, including units.

4. Cancel units that appear in both the numerator and

denominator of any term.

5. Use correct conversion factors to eliminate unwanted units

and obtain the proper units as described in Step 2.

6. Perform the calculations.

Example

Given m = 80 kg and a=10 m/s2. Find the force

Solution

F = ma

F = 80 kg x 10 m/s2 = 800 kg.m/s2

F= 800N

Density

Density of a fluid, ,

Definition: mass per unit volume,

slightly affected by changes in temperature and pressure.

= mass/volume = m/

(1.2)

Units: kg/m3

Typical values:

Water = 1000 kg/m3;

Specific weight

Definition: weight of the fluid per unit volume

Arising from the existence of a gravitational force

The relationship and g can be found using the following:

Since

therefore

= m/

= g

(1.3)

Units: N/m3

Typical values:

Water = 9814 N/m3;

Specific gravity

The specific gravity (or relative density) can be defined in two ways:

Definition 1: A ratio of the density of a substance to the density

of water at standard temperature (4C) and

atmospheric pressure, or

Definition 2: A ratio of the specific weight of a substance to the

specific weight of water at standard temperature

(4C) and atmospheric pressure.

SG

s

w @ 4C

Unit: dimensionless.

s

w @ 4C

(1.4)

Example

A reservoir of oil has a mass of 825 kg. The reservoir has a volume

of 0.917 m3. Compute the density, specific weight, and specific

gravity of the oil.

Solution:

oil

mass

m

825

900kg / m 3

volume 0.917

oil

weight mg

volume

SGoil

oil

w @ STP

900

0.9

998

Viscosity

Viscosity, , is the property of a fluid, due to cohesion and

interaction between molecules, which offers resistance to shear

deformation.

Different fluids deform at different rates under the same shear

stress. The ease with which a fluid pours is an indication of its

viscosity. Fluid with a high viscosity such as syrup deforms more

slowly than fluid with a low viscosity such as water. The viscosity is

also known as dynamic viscosity.

Units: N.s/m2 or kg/m/s

Typical values:

Water = 1.14x10-3 kg/m/s;

Kinematic viscosity,

viscous and gravitational forces exist.

Units: m2/s

Typical values:

Water = 1.14x10-6 m2/s;

In general,

viscosity of liquids with temperature, whereas

viscosity of gases with

in temperature.

Bulk Modulus

All fluids are compressible under the application of an external

force and when the force is removed they expand back to their

original volume.

The compressibility of a fluid is expressed by its bulk modulus of

elasticity, K, which describes the variation of volume with change

of pressure, i.e.

change in pressure

volumetric strain

by p and the volume is changed by , then

p

K

/

p

K

Vapor Pressure

A liquid in a closed container is subjected to a partial

vapor pressure in the space above the liquid due to the

escaping molecules from the surface;

It reaches a stage of equilibrium when this pressure

reaches saturated vapor pressure.

Since this depends upon molecular activity, which is a

function of temperature, the vapor pressure of a fluid

also depends on its temperature and increases with it.

If the pressure above a liquid reaches the vapor pressure

of the liquid, boiling occurs; for example if the pressure

is reduced sufficiently boiling may occur at room

temperature.

In a closed hydraulic system, Ex. in pipelines or pumps, water vaporizes

rapidly in regions where the pressure drops below the vapor pressure.

There will be local boiling and a cloud of vapor bubbles will form.

This phenomenon is known as cavitations, and can cause serious

problems, since the flow of fluid can sweep this cloud of bubbles on

into an area of higher pressure where the bubbles will collapse

suddenly.

If this should occur in contact with a solid surface, very serious

damage can result due to the very large force with which the liquid hits

the surface.

Cavitations can affect the performance of hydraulic machinery such as

pumps, turbines and propellers, and the impact of collapsing bubbles

can cause local erosion of metal surface.

Cavitations in a closed hydraulic system can be avoided by maintaining

the pressure above the vapor pressure everywhere in the system.

Surface Tension

Liquids possess the properties of cohesion and adhesion due to molecular attraction.

Due to the property of cohesion, liquids can resist small tensile forces at the

interface between the liquid and air, known as surface tension, .

Surface tension is defined as force per unit length, and its unit is N/m.

The reason for the existence of this force arises from intermolecular attraction. In

the body of the liquid (Fig. 1.2a), a molecule is surrounded by other molecules and

intermolecular forces are symmetrical and in equilibrium.

At the surface of the liquid (Fig. 1.2b), a molecule has this force acting only through

180.

This imbalance forces means that the molecules at the surface tend to be drawn

together, and they act rather like a very thin membrane under tension.

This causes a slight deformation at the surface of the liquid (the meniscus effect).

dewdrops, and the rise or fall of liquid in capillary tubes is

the results of the surface tension.

Surface tension is usually very small compared with other

forces in fluid flows (e.g. surface tension for water at 20C is

0.0728 N/m).

Surface tension,, increases the pressure within a droplet of

liquid. The internal pressure, P, balancing the surface

tensional force of a spherical droplet of radius r, is given by

2R = pR2

2

P

r

(1.7)

Capillarity

The surface tension leads to the phenomenon known as capillarity

where a column of liquid in a tube is supported in the absence of

an externally applied pressure.

Rise or fall of a liquid in a capillary tube is caused by surface

tension and depends on the relative magnitude of cohesion of the

liquid and the adhesion of the liquid to the walls of the containing

vessels.

Liquid rise in tubes if they wet a surface (adhesion > cohesion),

such as water, and fall in tubes that do not wet (cohesion >

adhesion), such as mercury.

Capillarity is important when using tubes smaller than 10 mm (3/8

in.).

For tube larger than 12 mm (1/2 in.) capillarity effects are

negligible.

Figure 1.3

Capillary actions

2 cos

h

r

(1.8)

= surface tension

= wetting (contact) angle

= specific weight of liquid

r = radius of tube

Example

A reservoir of oil has a mass of 825 kg. The reservoir has a

volume of 0.917 m3. Compute the density, specific weight, and

specific gravity of the oil.

Solution:

oil

mass

m

825

900kg / m 3

volume 0.917

oil

weight mg

volume

SG oil

oil

w @ 4 C

900

0.9

1000

Example

Water has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m. In a 3-mm diameter

vertical tube, if the liquid rises 6 mm above the liquid outside the

tube, calculate the wetting angle.

Solution

Capillary rise due to surface tension is given by;

2 cos

h

r

cos

2

2 x 0 .4

= 83.7

Summary

This chapter has summarized on the aspect below:

Understanding of a fluid

The differences between the behaviours of liquid and gases

Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid were identified

Engineering unit of SI unit were discussed

Fluid properties of density, specific weight, specific

gravity, viscosity and bulk modulus were outlined and

taken up.

Discussion on the vapor pressure of the liquid

Surface tension

Capillarity phenomena

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