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Dalton's theory can be summarized as follows:

- All matter consists of atoms.


- Atoms are indivisible & cannot be created or
destroyed.
- Atoms of a particular element are identical in
mass.

- Atoms rearrange in chem. reactions.


- Compounds are formed from the combination of
the atoms of two or more elements.
Atoms combine in simple numerical ratios.

J. J. Thomson

He studied the deflection of cathode rays


towards (+) charged plates of his specially
designed cathode-ray tube.
This shows that the ray is composed of (-)
charged particles.

He proposed the plum pudding model of the atom.

Thomson proposed that an atom was composed of


a spherical ball of (+) charge with "corpuscles" of
(-) charge imbedded in it.
The corpuscles would later become known as
electrons.

Ernest Rutherford

He bombarded thin gold foil with particles.


He observed that most of the particles
passed through the foil un-deflected.
Very few particles were deflected when
passed through the foil.

One particle out of 8000 particles was


deflected at 90o
Few particles were deflected at different
angles.

Major portion of the atom is empty.


The whole mass of the atom is
concentrated in the centre of atom
called nucleus.
The (+) charged particles are present
in the nucleus of atom.

The charge on the nucleus of an atom is equal


to charge of proton.
The e- revolve around the nucleus in different
circular orbits.
Size of nucleus is very small as compare to
the size of atom.

The Bohr model depicts


the atom containing a (+)
charged nucleus
surrounded by e- that
travel in successively
larger orbits around the
nucleus.
This is similar in structure
to the solar system.

Bohr model of the atom


- The e- can only travel in special orbits.
- The e- do not continuously lose energy as they
travel.
-They can only gain and lose E by jumping from 1
orbit to another,
-They absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation with
a frequency determined by the energy diff. of the
levels.

He studied radiation from bombardment of He


with particles,
He noted a particle with approx. the same
mass as a proton being released.
He determined that, as the particle was not
bent by electrical fields it was electrically
neutral.

Discoverer

Discovery

John Dalton

1st Modern Atomic Theory

J.J Thomson

Electrons => studied CRTs.

Ernest Rutherford

Nucleus => bombarded Au


with particles.

Niels Bohr

Structure of atom => e- travel


in successively larger orbits.

James Chadwick

Neutrons => bombarded He


with particles.

Atomic Number
-The no. of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
-The atomic no. = no. of e- in a neutral atom.
Mass Number
-The no. of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of
an atom.

ISOTOPES
- They are elements having atoms that have same
no. of protons but diff. no of neutrons.
- Hence, the atomic no. is same, but mass no. is
different.
- Isotopes have different physical prop. but similar
chem. prop.
- The mass no for each element is rarely a whole no.
because elements have few isotopes that are
present in diff. compositions.

MODERN
ATOMIC
THEORY

Niels Bohr unlocked


secret of Line
Emission Spectrum.
Electrons orbiting in
shells around the
nucleus.
Won the 1922 Nobel
Prize for Physics.

High
Low
energy
energy
Radio Micro Infrared
Ultra- XGamma
waves waves .
violet Rays Rays
Low
High
Frequency
Frequency
Long
Short
Wavelength
Wavelength
Visible Light

Hydrogen Emission Spectrum

Hydrogen Emission Spectrum


When H2 (g) is placed in a Crookes
Discharge tube & high voltage is applied,
the tube glows with a pale violet light.
If this light is passed through a triangular
prism, the screen beyond is illuminated
with a series of red, blue-green, blue &
violet lines.

How are the lines of the line


spectrum formed?
The e- in the atom became excited by
energy supplied from high voltage & move
to a higher energy level.
The e- then returned from an excited level to
a more stable energy level closer to the
nucleus.

In making this transition betw the levels, the


e- released a FIXED quantity of energy in
the form of electromagnetic radiation (light
rays) of a fixed wavelength.
In other words, transitions/movement from
higher energy levels lead to DISCRETE
emissions of energy.

Spectrum
Excited Staten=4

UV

Excited Staten=3

Excited State unstable


and drops back down

Excited State

n=2

But only as far as


n = 2 this time

Energy released as a photon


Frequency proportional
to energy drop

V
i
s
i
b
l
e

IR
n=1

Ground State

Line spectrum of various elements

The e- moves from


the lower (ground) level to a
higher excited level
(in this case from n=1
to n=4 level)

In this eg, the excited e- falls from


the n=4 to the n=2 level.
The light photons in this case
produce a spectral line
that is blue-green

FLAME TEST - APPLICATION OF LES

Erwin Schrodinger proposed that e- do not


travel in orbits but move in space called orbitals.
-This theory is known as quantum mechanics.
The Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom
presents a more accurate model of the atom.

The Quantum Mechanical Model introduces the


concept of:
- Electrons they behave like a cloud of (-) charge
- Electrons move in regions of space surrounding the
nucleus called orbitals.

QUESTIONS
(1)

The element chlorine has two isotopes. Which of the following


statements concerning these isotopes is incorrect?
(a) They have the same nuclear charge
(b) They have the same number of electrons
(c) Their atoms have the same mass
(d) They are in the same position in the periodic table

An atom of Ceasium, 55Cs, ionizes to form the Cs+ ion. This


ion has
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(3).

53 electrons
54 electrons
55 electrons
56 electrons
Two isotopes of Chlorine 35Cl and 37Cl are present in chlorine
gas. How many types of chlorine molecules, which differ by
mass, can exist?

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

3
2
1
4

Which one of the following has the following has


the least number of electrons?
(a) Cl
(b) Cl(c) Ar
(d) S2-

Thank You
Very Much!