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OBJECTIVE OF BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN

It is to determine a cost effective blend and gradation


of aggregates and bitumen that yields a mix having:
Sufficient bitumen to ensure a durable pavement
Sufficient mix stability to satisfy the demands of
.
traffic
without distortion or displacement
Sufficient voids in the total compacted mix to allow
for a slight amount of bitumen expansion due to
temperature increases without flushing, bleeding,
and loss of stability

Durability of bituminous mix is also refers to the ability of


of the mixture to resist abrasion of the surface due to
scraping action of tires combined with water
The surface is more susceptible to abrasion if:
(i) The void content is high allowing air and water to
prematurely harden the bitumen
(ii) Incompatibility between aggregate and bitumen,
making it easier to strip bitumen from the aggregate
(iii) The asphalt film thickness is not sufficient to protect
the mix from the abrasive action of tires and water

Maximum void content to limit the permeability of harmful air


and moisture into the mix

Sufficient workability to permit efficient placement of the mix


without
segregation and without sacrificing stability and performance

For surface mixes, proper aggregate texture or hardness to provide


sufficient skid resistance in unfavourable weather conditions

The final goal of mix design is to select a unique bitumen content


that will achieve a balance among all the desired properties

DESIGN METHODS

MARSHALL
METHOD

HVEEM METHOD

MODIFIED
HUBBARD-FILD
METHOD

All mix design procedures involve preparing a set of trial mixture


specimens using materials proposed for use on the project

An estimation of the standard procedures will indicate that there are three
key components of mix design
(i) Laboratory compaction of trial mix specimens
(ii) Stability (or strength) and volumetric testing, and
(iii) Analysis of results
An additional step that is becoming more common s the evaluation of
moisture susceptibility or the compatibility of the aggregate and the
bitumen

The laboratory compaction technique is intended to


simulate the in-place density of bituminous mix after
it has endured several years of traffic
Four compaction methods are currently in use:
Impact compaction, used in the Marshall mix
design method
Kneading compaction, used in the Hveem mix
design method
Several form of gyratory compaction
Compaction using vibratory impact hammers

There are several guidelines for adjusting the trial


mix but it may not necessarily apply in all cases
Voids Low, Stability Low:Voids may be increased in no. of ways
As a general approach to obtaining higher voids in the mineral
aggregate the aggregate grading should be adjusted by adding
more coarse ore more fine aggregate
It must be remembered, however, that lowering the bitumen
content may decrease the durability of the pavement
Too much reducing in bitumen content may lead to brittleness,
accelerated oxidation, and increased permeability
If the above adjustments do not produce a stable mix, the
aggregate may have to be change
Stability & void content of the mix may be increased by
increasing the amount of crushed materials and / or decreasing
the amount of material passing the 75

Voids Low, Stability Satisfactory:Low void content may eventually result in instability due to
plastic flow or flushing after the pavement has been exposed
to traffic for a period of time because of particle re-orientation
and additional compaction
Insufficient void may also result because of inadequate
bitumen content in finer mixes even though stability is
initially satisfactory for specific traffic, however, durability
will be affected
For these reasons, mixes low in voids should be adjusted by
increasing or decreasing coarse & fine aggregates

Voids Satisfactory, Stability Low:Low stability when voids and aggregate grading
are satisfactory may indicate some deficiencies in
the aggregate
Consideration should be given to improving the
coarse particle shape by crushing or increasing the
%age of coarse aggregate in the mixture, or
possibly increasing the maximum aggregate size
Aggregate particles with rougher texture and less
rounded surfaces will exhibit more stability while
maintaining or increasing the void content

Voids High, Stability Satisfactory:High voids contents are frequently associated with the mixes
found to have high permeability
High permeability, by permitting circulation of air and water
through the pavement may lead to premature hardening of
the bitumen
Even though stabilities are satisfactory, adjustment should be
made to reduce the voids
Small reduction may be accomplished by increasing the
mineral dust content of the mix
It may be necessary to select or combine aggregates to a
gradation which is closer to the maximum density grading
curve

Voids High, Stability Low:Two steps may be necessary when the voids are
high and stability is low
First voids are adjusted by the method discussed
above
If this adjustment does not also improve the
stability
The second step should be a consideration of
aggregate quality as discussed in first & second
cases

MARSHALL METHOD OF MIX DESIGN


This method is applicable only to bituminous mixtures
containing aggregates with max sizes of 25 mm or
less
A modified Marshall method has been proposed for
aggregates with maximum sizes up to 38 mm
Steps preliminary to specimen preparation are:
(i)

All materials proposed for use meet the physical


requirements of the project specifications
(ii) Aggregate blend combinations meet the gradation
requirements of the project specifications
(iii) For performing density and voids analyses, the
bulk sp gr of all aggregates used in the blend and
sp gr of the bitumen are determined

PREPARATO OF TEST SPECIMENS


At least 3 specimens for each combination of
aggregates and bitumen content
Preparation of aggregates
Determination of mixing & compaction
temperature
Preparation of mixtures
Packing the mold
Compaction of specimens

BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION


This test is performed according to ASTM D 1188 &
ASTM D 2726
STABILITY & FLOW
DENSITY & VOID ANALYSIS

CORRECTION FACTORS FOR STABILITY VALUES

DETERMINATION OF PRELIMINARY DESIGN BITUMEN


CONTENT
The design bitumen content of the bituminous mixture
is selected by considering all of the design
parameters
As an initial starting point, choosing the bitumen
content at the median of the present air voids limits,
which is four percent
All of the calculated and measured mix properties at
this bitumen content should then be evaluated by
comparing them to the mix design criteria as specified
in MORT&H Cl. 500
If all of the design criteria are met, then this is the
preliminary design bitumen content if not some
adjustment is necessary or mix is redesign

SELECTION OF FINAL MIX DESIGN


The final selected mix design is usually the most
economical one that will satisfactorily meet all of the
established criteria
The design bitumen content should be a compromise
selected to balance all of the properties. Normally, the
mix design criteria will produce a narrow range of
accept bitumen contents that pass all of the
guidelines as shown by the example in Fig.5.6

Narrow range of acceptable bitumen contents

EVALUATION OF VMA CURVE


In many cases, the most difficult mix design property to
achieve is a minimum amount of voids in the mineral
aggregate
The goal is to furnish enough space for the bitumen so it
can provide adequate adhesion to bind the aggregate
particles, but without bleeding when temperature rise and
the bitumen expands
Normally, the curve exhibits a flattened U-shape, decreasing
to a minimum value and then increasing with increasing
bitumen content shown in Fig. 5.7 (a)
It is recommended that bitumen contents on the wet or
right hand increasing side of this VMA curve be avoided,
even if the minimum air void and VMA criteria is met
Design bitumen content in this range have a tendency to
bleed and or exhibit plastic flow when placed in the field

Relationship between VMA & Specification limit

Any amount of additional compaction from traffic leads to


inadequate room for bitumen expansion, loss of aggregate
to-aggregate contact, and eventually, rutting and shoving in
high traffic areas
Ideally, the design bitumen content should be selected
slightly to the left of the low point of the VMA curve,
provided none of the other mixture criteria are violated
When the bottom of the U-shaped curve falls below the
minimum criteria level required for the nominal maximum
aggregate size of the mix. This is an indication that changes
to the job-mix-formula are necessary
Specifically, the aggregate grading should be modified to
provide additional VMA

Minimum % voids in mineral aggregate (VMA)

IILUSTRATION OF VMA

EFFECT OF AIR VOIDS


It should be emphasized that the design range of air
voids (3 to 5%) is the level desired after several years
of traffic
The air voids after the construction is about 8%
The bituminous mixtures that ultimately consolidate
to less than 3% air voids can be expected to rut and
shove, if placed in heavy traffic locations
Problem can occur if the final air content is above 5%
or if the pavement is constructed with over 8% air
voids initially. Brittleness, premature cracking,
raveling, and stripping are all possible under these
conditions (Fig. 5.8)

Effect of Marshall compactive effort on VMA and air


voids

EFFECT OF VOIDS FILLED WITH BITUMEN


The main effect of the VFB criteria is to limit maximum levels
of VMA and subsequently, maximum levels of bitumen
content
VFB also restricts the allowable air void content for mixes
that are near the minimum VMA criteria
Mix designed for lower traffic volumes will not pass the VFB
criteria with a relatively high % air voids (5%) even though
air void criteria range is met. The purpose is to avoid less
durable mixes in light traffic situations.
Mix designed for heavy traffic will not pass the VFB criteria
with relatively low % air voids (less than 3.5%) even though
that amount of air voids is within the acceptable range
Because low air voids contents can be very critical in terms
of permanent deformation
The VFB criteria helps to avoid those mixes that would be
susceptible to rutting

The VFB criteria helps to avoid those mixes that would be


susceptible to rutting in heavy traffic situations
The VFB criteria provide an additional factor of safety in the
design and construction process in terms of performance

MODIFIED MARSHALL METHOD FOR LARGE


AGGREGATE
This method has been developed by Kandhal of the National
Centre for Bitumen Technology for mixes composed of
aggregates with maximum size up to 38 mm
The procedure is basically the same as the original method
except for these differences that are due to the larger
specimen size that is used:
(a)The hammer weights 10.2 kg and has a 149.4.mm flat
tamping face. Only mechanical operated device is used for
the same 457 mm drop height
(b)The specimen has a 152.4 mm dia by 95.2 mm ht
(c)The batch weights are typically 4 kg
(d)The equipment for compacting and testing are
proportionately larger to accommodate the larger specimens

(e) The number of blows needed for the larger specimen is


1.5 times (112 blows) that required of the smaller specimen
(50 or 75 blows) to obtain equivalent compaction
(f) The minimu stability should be 2.25 times and the range
of flow values should be 1.5 times the same criteria for the
normal-sized specimens
(g) Similar to the normal procedure, these value should be
used to convert the measure stability values to an equivalent
value for a specimen with a 95.2 mm thickness, if the actual
size varies, the following table should be used as C.F.

C.F. FOR MODIFIED MARSHALL METHOD FOR LARGE


AGGREGATE

Design steps for a rational design of a bituminous


mix
1.Selection of aggregate
2.Selection of aggregate grading
3.Determination of specific gravity
4.Preparation of specimen
5.Determination of specific gravity of compacted
bituminous mix
6.Stability test on compacted bituminous mix
7.Selection of Optimum Bitumen Content

The optimum bitumen content for the mix design is


found by taking the average value of the following
three bitumen contents found from the graphs:
1.Bitumen content corresponding to maximum
stability
2.Bitumen content corresponding to maximum unit
weight
3.Bitumen content corresponding to the median of
design of designed limits of % air voids in total mix

GRAPHS

MODIFIED HUBBARD-FIELD METHOD OF BITUMINOUS MIX


DESIGN

This method was developed by P.Hubbard and F.C. Field


This method was in fact intended to design sheet
bituminous mix
It was later modified for the design of bituminous mixes
having coarse aggregate size up to 19 mm

TESTING EQUIPMENTS:
(I) Mold having dia. 152.4 mm is used
(II) Testing assembly consisting of internal ring
dia of 146 mm through which the specimen
is extruded by applying load through the
compression machine
(iii) Compacting equipment including tampers
and compression machine of capacity of
5000 kg

TEST SET - UP

PROCEDURES:
Once the desired blend and gradation of the mineral
aggregates is arrived
Batch weights are worked out for producing specimens of
compacted size, 152 mm dia. & ht. 70 to 76 mm
These weighed aggregates and bitumen are heated to the
temperature of approximately 1400C
Then, this mix is placed in the preheated mould and tamped
in two layers by 30 blows each with the specified tampers
This specimen is tamped again on the reverse side by 30
blows by each of the two tampers

Then a static load of 4536 kg is applied on the specimen for


two minutes
After this, the specimen is cooled in water to temperature less
than 37.80C, maintaining the same compressive load
Finally, the specimen is removed, weighed and measured
This specimen is placed in the test mold assembly over the
test ring of internal dia. of 146 mm and the plunger is loaded
on the top of the specimen
The entire assembly is kept in a water bath maintained at 600C
for atleast one hour in position under the compression
machine

The compressive load is applied at a constant rate of


deformation
of 61 mm per minute and the maximum load in kg developed
during the test is recorded as the stability value
The average stability value of all the specimens tested using a
particular mix is found
A s in the case of Marshall method, the tests are repeated for
other bitumen contents
The value of specific gravity, percent voids in total mix and %
aggregate voids are calculated

For determining the OBC, first the bitumen content


corresponding to 3 or 3.5 % voids in total mix is worked out
from the graph
The corresponding stability is read from the stability curve
If this stability values are within the specified limits then the
mix is considered satisfactory
If both stability and void requirements are not satisfied by a
mix, the mix should be redesigned to correct the deficiency
The following graphs are plotted:
(i)Stability Vs Bitumen content
(ii)Unit wt. Vs Bitumen content
(iii)% voids in total mix Vs Bitumen content
(iv)% aggregate voids Vs Bitumen content

GRAPHICAL PLOTS

Criteria specified by the Asphalt Institute for the


Design of Bituminous Mix

Property

Light to Medium
Traffic

Heavy & very


heavy traffic

Stability, kg

545-910

910

Voids, total mix, %

2-5

2- 6

The final selection of the mix design should be based on


economics
and suitability of the mix from the test
requirements

HVEEM METHOD OF BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN


(ASTM D 1560 & ASTM D 1561)

This method was developed by Francis N. Hveem who


was materials & research engineer for the California
Division of Highways
EQUIPMENT
&
MATERIALS
REQUIRED
DETERINING THE APPROX. BITUMEN CONTENT

FOR

Kerosene 4 liters
Beakers 1500 ml
Filter papers 55 mm dia
Timer
Oil SAE No. 10 lubricating 4 liters etc.
Centrifuge- hand operated capable of producing 400
times gravity

The maximum size of aggregates used in the test


mixes should not exceed 25 mm
In this method, specimen of 102 mm dia. & 64 mm
The principal features of the Hveem method of mix
design are the surface capacity and Centrifuge
Kerosene Equivalent (C.K.E.) test on the aggregates to
estimate the bitumen requirements of the mix,
followed by a stabilometer test, a cohesiometer test ,
swell test and a density voids analysis on test
specimens of the compacted paving mixtures

The first step in the Hveem method of mix design is to


determine the approximate bitumen content by the
C.K.E.
The gradation of the aggregate or blend of aggregates
employed in the mix is used to calculate the surface
area of the total aggregate
Total
%
passi
ng
Surfa
ce
area
facto
r
m2/kg

Max
size

4.75

0.41

2.36

0.82

1.18

1.64

0.600

0.300

0.150

0.075

2.87

6.14

12.29

32.77

Demonstration of calculation of surface area


Sieve size

% passing

S.A. factor
(m2/kg)

Surface
area (m2/kg)

19.0mm

100

0.41

0.41

9.50mm

90

0.41

0.41

4.75mm

75

0.41

0.31

2.36mm

60

0.82

0.49

1.18mm

45

1.64

0.74

600mic

35

2.87

1.00

300mic

25

6.14

1.54

150mic

18

12.29

2.21

75mic

32.77

1.97

Surface area =

8.67 m2/kg

C.K.E. Procedure for Fine Aggregate


(a) Place exactly 100 g of dry aggregate [ representative of
the
passing 4.75 mm material] in a tared centrifuge cup
assembly fitted with a screen & a disk of filter paper
(b) Place bottom of centrifuge cup in kerosene until the
aggregate becomes saturated
(c) Centrifuge the saturated sample for two minutes at a
force of 400 times gravity [ turning by handle approx 45
revol.per minute
(d) Weigh after centrifuging and determine the amount of
kerosene retained as a percent of the dry aggregate
weight; this value is called the Centrifuge Kerosene
Equivalent (C.K.E.)
(e) If the sp. Gravity of the aggregate sample is greater than
2.70 or less than 2.60 make a correction to the C.K.E.

Chart for determining surface constant for fine


material, Kf from C.K.E.

SURFACE CAPACITY TEST FOR COARSE AGGREGATE


The capacity test for the larger aggregate involves these steps:
Place exactly 100 g of dry aggregate which passes the 9.5 mm and
Retained on the 4.75 mm into a metal funnel (this fraction is
considered to be representative of the coarse aggregate in the mix)
Immerse sample and funnel into a beaker containing SAE No. 10
lubricating oil at room temperature for 5 minute
Allow to drain for 2 minutes
Remove funnel and sample from oil and drain for 15 minutes at a
temperature of 600C
Weigh the sample after draining and determining the amount of oil
retained as a percent of the dry aggregate weight
Necessary correction has to be made if the sp gravity of aggregate is
greater than 2.70 or less than 2.60

Chart for determining surface constant for coarse


material, Kc, from coarse aggregate absorption
Fig. 6.3

Chart for determining Kf and Kc to determine surface constan


for combined aggregate, Km

Chart for computing oil ratio for dense-graded bituminous


mixtures

Chart for correcting bitumen requirement due to increasing


viscosity of bitumen

ESTIMATED DESIGN BITUMEN CONTENT


Preliminary estimation of the design bitumen content
Using the C.K.E. value obtained and the chart in Fig. 6.2,
determine the value Kf (surface constant for fine
material)
Similarly, using the C.K.E. value and the chart in Fig. 6.3,
determine the Kc (surface constant for coarse material)
Using the values obtained for Kf and Kc and the chart
Fig. 6.4, determine the value Km (surface constant for
fine & coarse material combined)
Km = Kf + correction to Kf
The correction of Kf obtained from Fig. 6.4 is positive if
(Kc-Kf) is positive and is negative if (Kc-Kf) is negative

With values obtained for Km, surface area, and average


specific gravity, use case 2 procedure of the chart in Fig. 6.5
to determine the oil ratio
Determine the bitumen content (bitumen ratio) for the mix using
Fig. 6.6 corrected for the grade to be employed, using the
surface area of the sample, the grade of the bitumen and the oil
ratio from Fig 6.5

To demonstrate the use of the charts in Figs. 6.2


through 6.6
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate (bulk) = 2.45
Specific gravity of fine aggregate (apparent) = 2.64
Percent fine passing 4.75 mm sieve = 45
Then,
Avg. sp. gr. =

100
55
2.45

45
2.64

Surface area of aggregate grading = 6.6 m2/kg


C.K.E.
= 5.6
% oil retained, coarse
= 1.9
(corrected for sp gr this values is 1.7 %

From Fig. 6.2 determine Kf as 1.25


From Fig. 6.3 determine Kc as 0.8
From Fig. 6.4 determine Km as 1.15
From Fig. 6.5 determine the oil ratio for liquid bitumen as
5.2 %
From Fig. 6.6 determine design bitumen content
(bitumen ratio) for AC-10 bitumen as 6.1% by weight of
dry aggregate

PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS


A series of stabilometer test specimens is prepared for a
range of bitumen contents both above and below the
approximate design bitumen content indicated by the
CKE procedure
One specimen with the
determined by the CKE

amount

of

bitumen

as

Two specimens above the CKE amount in


increments, and one 0.5 % below the CKE amount

0.5

For highly absorptive aggregates and non-critical mixes,


increase the steps in bitumen content to 1.0% and use
more specimens as necessary

PREPARATION OF BATCH WEIGHTS


About 1200 g of dry aggregates of desired gradation is
taken and filled the mold having 101.6 mm dia. & 63.5
mm ht.
When the aggregates and bitumen have reached the
desired mixing temperature, transfer the batch mix into a
suitable flat pan and cure for 2 to 3 hrs at a temperature
of 146 30 C in a oven equipped with forced draft air
circulation
After curing is complete, place batch mix in heating
oven and reheat mixture to 1100C
Then the batch mix ready for compaction

COMPACTION
The compaction of the test specimen is accomplished by
means of the mechanical compactor that imparts a
kneading action type of consolidation by a series of
individual impressions made with a ram having a face
shaped
With each push of the ram, a pressure of 3.45 Mpa
(500psi) is applied, subjecting the specimen to a
kneading compression over an area of approximately
2000 mm2
Each pressure is maintained for approximately 0.4 sec.
Place the compaction mold in the mold holder and insert
a 100 mm dia paper disk to cover the base plate. So the
base plate will act as a free-fitting plunger during the
compaction operation

Spread the prepared mixture uniformly on the preheated


feeder trough
Using a paddle that fits the shape of the trough, transfer
approximately one-half of the mixture to the compaction
mold
Rod the portion of the mix in the mold 20 times in the
centre of the mass and 20 times around the edge with
the round-nose steel rod
Transfer the remainder of the sample to the mold and
repeat the rodding procedure
Place the mold assembly into position on the
mechanical compactor and apply approximately 20
tamping blows at 1.7 MPa to achieve semi-compacted

Condition of the mix so that it will not be unduly


disturbed when the full load is applied
The exact no. of blows to accomplish the semicompaction shall be determined by observation
The actual no. of blows may vary between 10 & 50,
depending upon the type of material and it may not ne
possible to accomplish the compaction in the
mechanical compactor because of undue movement of
the mixture under the compactor foot
In such instances use 178 kN static load applied over the
total specimen surface by the double plunger method, in
which a free-fitting plunger is placed below & on top of
the sample

Apply the load at the rate of 1.3 mm per minute and hold
for 30 5 seconds
After the semi-compaction, remove the steel shim and
release mold tightening screw sufficiently to allow free
up-and down movement of mold and about 3 mm side
movement of mold
To complete compaction in the mechanical compactor,
increase compactor foot pressure to 3.45 Mpa and apply
150 tamping blows
Place the mold and specimen in an oven at 600C for 1
hour, after which a leveling-off load off 56 kN is
applied by the double-plunger method and released
immediately

SPECIMEN FOR SWELL TEST


Prepare the compation mold by placing a paraffinimpregnated strip of ordinary wrapping paper 19 mm
wide, around the inside of the mold 13 mm from the
bottom to prevent water from escapping from between
the specimen and the mold during the water immersion
period of the test
The paper strip is dipped in melted paraffin and applied
while hot
Compaction molds are not preheated for swell test
specimens
The remainder of the compaction procedure for swell
test specimens is the same as for the stabilometer test
specimens except for:

When compaction is completed in the mechanical


compactor, remove mold and specimen from compactor,
invert mold and push specimen to the opposite end of
mold
Apply a 56 kN static load [head speed 6 mm/min] with
the original top surface supported on the lower platen of
the testing press
It is advisable to place a piece of heavy paper under the
specimen to prevent damage to this lower platen

TESTS AND ANALYSES ARE NORMALLY


PERFORMED IN THE ORDER LISTED
Stabilometer Test
Bulk Density Determination
Swell Test
Stabilometer Test
Place the compacted specimens for stabilometer tests in
oven at 60 3 0C for 3 to 4 hours
Adjust compression machine for a head speed of 1.3
mm/min with no load applied
Check displacement of stabilometer with a stailometer
with a calibration cylinder and if necessary adjust to
read 2.00 0.05 turns

Stabilometer Test
Adjust the stabilometer base so that the distance from
the bottom of the upper tapered ring to the top of the
base is 89 mm
For specimens having overall ht. outside the range
between 61 mm & 66 mm, stabilometer should be
corrected as indicated in Fig. 6.14
Remove the mold with its specimen from the oven and
place on top of stabilometer. Using the plunger, hand
lever and fulcrum, force the specimen from the mold into
the stabilometer
Place follower on top of specimen and position the
entire assembly in compression machine for testing

Stabilometer Test
Using a displacement pump, raise the pressure in the
stabilometer system until the gauge (horizotanl
pressure) reads exactly 34.5 kPa (5psi)
Close displacement pump valve, taking care not to
disturb the 34.5 kPa initial pressure (This step is omitted
on stabilometers that are not provided with the
displacement pump valve
Apply test loads with compression machine using a
head speed of 1.3 mm/min
Record readings of stabilometer test gauge at vertical
test loads of 13.4, 22.3, and 26.7 kN

Stabilometer Test
Immediately after recording the horizontal pressure
reading under maximum vertical load 26.69 kN, reduce
total load on specimen to 4.45 kN
Open the displacement pump angle valve and by means
of the displacement pump, adjust test gauge to 34.5 kPa
(This will result in a reduction in the applied press load
which is normal and no compensation is necessary)
Adjust dial gauge on pump to zero by means of small
thumbscrew

Stabilometer Test
Turn displacement pump handle smoothly and rapidly
(two turns per second) and to the right (clockwise) until
a pressure of 690kPa is recorded on the test gauge
During this operation the load registered on the testing
press will increase and in some cases exceed the initial
4.45kN load. This change in load is normal and no
adjustment is required
Record the exact number of turns required to increase
the test gauge reading from 34.5 kPa to 690 kPa as the
displacement on specimen [2.5 mm dial reading is
equivalent to one turn displacement]

Stabilometer Test
After recording the displacement, first remove the test
load and reduce pressure on the test gauge to zero by
means of the displacement pump; then reverse the
displacement pump and additional three turns and
remove specimen from stabilometer chamber
BULK DENSITY DETERMINATION
After completion of the stabilometer tests,
specimens have cooled to room temperature

the

The procedure for this test is presented in ASTM D 1188,


ASTM D 2726

SWELL TEST
Allow compacted swell test specimen to stand at room
temperature for at least one hour (This is done to permit
rebound rebound after compaction)
Place the mold and specimen in 190 mm dia x 64 mm
deep aluminum pan
Place the perforated bronze disk on specimen, position
the tripod with dial gauge on mold and set the adjustable
stem to give a reading of 2.54 mm on the dial gauge
Introduce 500 ml of water into the mold on top of the
specimen and the measure distance from the top of the
mold to the water surface with the graduated scale

SWELL TEST
After 24 hours, read the dial gauge to the nearest 0.025
mm and record the change as well
Also, measure the distance from the top of the mold to
the water surface with the graduated scale and record
the change as permeability or the amount of water in ml
that percolates into and / or through the test specimen

The stabilometer value is calculated as below:

22.2
S=
Ph D
0.222
Pv-Ph +

S = stabilometer value
D = displacement on specimen
Ph = horizontal pressure equal to stabilometer pressure gauge
reading taken at the instant Pv is 2.76 Mpa [22.24 kN] total load
Pv = Vertical pressure [typically 2.76 Mpa = 22.24 kN total load

Density & Voids Analysis


Using the specific gravity of the test specimens and the
maximum specific gravity of the paving mixture determine
using ASTM D 2041
Compute the % air voids as
Va = 100 x (Gmm-Gmb)/(Gmm)
Where, Gmm = maximum sp gr of paving mixture
= 100/ [(Ps/Gse or Gsb + Pb/Gb)
Ps = aggregate content, % by total wt of mixture
Gse = effective sp. gr of aggregate
= (Pmm-Pb)/ [(Pmm/Gmm)- (Pb/Gb)]

Three Graphical Plots are prepared


1. % age of bitumen content Vs Unit weight (g/cc)
2. %age of bitumen content Vs % air voids
3. %age of bitumen content Vs Hveem stability

L
C=
W (0.2H+0.0176 H2)
Where,
C = Cohesiometer value
L = Weight of shots in gm
W = Diameter or width of specimen in cm
H = Height of specimen cm
Using the specific gravity of the test specimens and the
apparent specific gravity of aggregate the percent voids in
the total mix is calculated

DESIGN CRITERIA BY HVEEM METHOD

CRITERIA
TEST VALUE

LIGHT
TRAFFIC

MEDIUM
TRAFFIC

HEAVY
TRAFFIC

Stabilometer
value, R

> 30

> 35

> 37

Cohesiometer
value, C

> 50

> 50

> 50

Swell, mm

< 0.762

< 0.762

< 0.762

Air void, %

>4

>4

>4

Light traffic = Design EAL < 104


Medium traffic = Design EAL b/w 104 and 106
Heavy traffic = Design EAL > 106

STEPS FOR SELECTING BITUMEN CONTENT

(a) Using the Fig 6.17 insert in step (1) of the pyramid,
the bitumen contents used for preparing the
series of mix design specimens. Insert the
bitumen contents in order of increasing amounts
from left to right with the maximum bitumen
content used in the square on the right
(b) Select from step (1) the three highest bitumen
contents that do not exhibit moderate or heavy
surface flushing & record on step (2). Surface
flushing or bleeding is considered slight
(acceptable) if the surface has only a slight sheen.
It is considered moderate (unacceptable) if
sufficient free bitumen is apparent to cause paper
to stick to the surface but no distortion is noted

Surface flushing is considered heavy (unacceptable) if


there is sufficient free bitumen to cause surface
pudding or specimen distortion after compaction
(c) Select from step (2) the two highest bitumen contents
that provide the specified minimum stabilometer value
and enter them in step (3)
(d) Select from step (3) the highest bitumen content that has
at least 4.0% air voids and enter in step (4)
(e) The bitumen content in step (4) is the design bitumen
content. However, if the maximum bitumen content used
in the design set step (1) is the bitumen content entered
on step (4), additional specimens must be prpepared
with increased bitumen content in 0.5% increments and
a new design bitumen content determination should be
made

PYRAMID USED IN DESIGN OF BITUMEN


CONTENT

Step 4 maximum bitumen content with 4 or more % air voids


Step 3 Specimens meeting minimum stability
Step 2 Specimens with no more than
slight flushing

Step 1 Design series

FOR DETERMINING R-VALUE OF


SOIL SUBGRADE WITH THE
HELP OF STABILOMETER TEST

For evaluating the value of resistance value (R-value) of soil


sugrade material, stabilometer is employed
The compaction is done using a kneading compactor with 24.6
kg/cm2 pressure, 100 times
After the compaction, a load is applied at a rate of 907
kg/minute to record the exudation pressure required to force
water out of the specimen
Expansion pressure is also noted permitting the specimen to
remain in water for 16 to 20 hours
The stabilometer resistance R-value is determined by placing
the specimen in the stabilometer and applying the lateral and
vertical pressures as specified

The R-value of soil is calculated from the formula:

100

R = 100 2.5

Pv

D2

Ph

Pv = vertical pressure applied (11.2 kg/cm2)


Ph = horizontal pressure transmitted at Pv = 11.2 kg/cm2
D2 = displacement of stabilometer fluid necessary to
increase the horizontal pressure from 0.35 to 7 kg/cm 2
measured in number of revolutions of the calibrated
pump handle