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B3 Tissue structure and function
B3 Tissue structure and function
The pulmonary system is responsible for efficient exchange of gases. KEY IDEA:
The pulmonary system is responsible for efficient exchange of gases.
KEY IDEA:
18. Pulmonary system
18. Pulmonary system
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: You … LO1: MUST identify the parts of the pulmonary system LO2: SHOULD link
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
You …
LO1: MUST identify the parts of the pulmonary
system
LO2: SHOULD link structure to function for all
parts of the system
LO3: COULD describe the components of total lung
capacity and explain changes during exercise.
<a href=https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=kacMYexDgHg Respiratory system " id="pdf-obj-1-2" src="pdf-obj-1-2.jpg">

Respiratory system

Heart and lung dissection

Heart and lung dissection <a href=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YjJrNfa4KAU " id="pdf-obj-2-6" src="pdf-obj-2-6.jpg">
Heart and lung dissection <a href=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YjJrNfa4KAU " id="pdf-obj-2-8" src="pdf-obj-2-8.jpg">

Structure of the lungs

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Gas exchange in the alveoli

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Maintaining the structure of the alveoli

Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the

During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the pressure in the lungs to draw in fresh air.

This decrease in pressure leads to a tendency for the lungs to collapse. Cartilage keeps the trachea and bronchi open, but the alveoli lack this structural support.

Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the

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Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the
Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the

alveoli

Lung surfactant is a phospholipid that coats the surfaces of the lungs. Without it, the watery lining of the alveoli would create a surface tension, which would cause them to collapse.

Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the

surfactant

Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the

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Maintaining the structure of the alveoli During inhalation, the chest cavity increases in volume, lowering the

Keeping the airways clear

The walls of the trachea and bronchus contain goblet cells, which secrete mucus made of mucin. This traps micro- organisms and debris, helping to keep the airways clear.

Keeping the airways clear The walls of the trachea and bronchus contain goblet cells , which

The walls also contain ciliated epithelial cells, which are covered on one surface with cilia. These beat regularly to move micro-organisms and dust particles along with the mucus. They contain many mitochondria to provide energy for the beating cilia.

Keeping the airways clear The walls of the trachea and bronchus contain goblet cells , which

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Keeping the airways clear The walls of the trachea and bronchus contain goblet cells , which

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Keeping the airways clear The walls of the trachea and bronchus contain goblet cells , which

Structures of the human lung

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Why do we breathe?

Animals need to maintain a concentration gradient across their exchange surfaces so that oxygen will diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide will diffuse out.

Fish manage this by keeping a continuous stream of oxygenated water moving over their gills.

In animals such as mammals and birds, a concentration gradient is maintained in the alveoli by the mechanism of ventilation.

Why do we breathe? Animals need to maintain a concentration gradient across their exchange surfaces so

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Why do we breathe? Animals need to maintain a concentration gradient across their exchange surfaces so
Why do we breathe? Animals need to maintain a concentration gradient across their exchange surfaces so

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Why do we breathe? Animals need to maintain a concentration gradient across their exchange surfaces so

The mechanism of ventilation

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Composition of inhaled/exhaled air

In one breathing cycle, the air in the lungs loses only some of its oxygen content. This is why mouth-to-mouth resuscitation can be effective.

90 78% 78% 80 inhaled air 70 60 exhaled air 50 40 30 21% 15% 20
90
78% 78%
80
inhaled air
70
60
exhaled air
50
40
30
21% 15%
20
10
0.04% 4%
CO 2
<1% 3%
H 2 O
<1% <1%
0
other
N 2
O 2
composition (%)
Composition of inhaled/exhaled air In one breathing cycle, the air in the lungs loses only some

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Composition of inhaled/exhaled air In one breathing cycle, the air in the lungs loses only some

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Composition of inhaled/exhaled air In one breathing cycle, the air in the lungs loses only some

What are the big differences between inhaled and exhaled air? How could you test for these?

Inhaled Air

What are the big differences between inhaled and exhaled air? How could you test for these?

Exhaled Air

What are the big differences between inhaled and exhaled air? How could you test for these?

Nitrogen (78%)

Nitrogen (78%) Nitrogen (75.5%)

Nitrogen (75.5%)

Nitrogen (78%) Nitrogen (75.5%)
Oxygen (14.6%)

Oxygen (14.6%)

Oxygen (14.6%)

Oxygen (20.71%) Carbon Dioxide (0.1%)

Oxygen (20.71%) Carbon Dioxide (0.1%) Carbon Dioxide (4%) …… water vapour.
Oxygen (20.71%) Carbon Dioxide (0.1%) Carbon Dioxide (4%) …… water vapour.

Carbon Dioxide (4%)

Oxygen (20.71%) Carbon Dioxide (0.1%) Carbon Dioxide (4%) …… water vapour.

…… water vapour.

Other There is another difference……

Other

What are the big differences between inhaled and exhaled air? How could you test for these?

Spirometry

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Spirometric terms

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Haemoglobin

Haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood

Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood cell. It is the means of transport of oxygen around the body.

Haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood

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Haemoglobin is made up of four polypeptide chains, each bound to one haem group.

Each haem group can combine with one oxygen molecule, so that one molecule of haemoglobin can combine with a maximum of four oxygen molecules. This forms oxyhaemoglobin.

Haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood
Haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood
Haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood

polypeptide chain

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Gas exchange

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Comparing inhaled and exhaled air

Comparing inhaled and exhaled air What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air? Inhaled Air

What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air?

Inhaled Air Oxygen: 21% Carbon dioxide: 0.04% Water vapour: small amount
Inhaled Air
Oxygen:
21%
Carbon dioxide:
0.04%
Water vapour:
small amount
Exhaled Air Oxygen: 16% Carbon dioxide: 4% Water vapour: large amount
Exhaled Air
Oxygen:
16%
Carbon dioxide:
4%
Water vapour:
large amount

What are the main differences?

How could you test for the differences between inhaled and exhaled air?

Comparing inhaled and exhaled air What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air? Inhaled Air

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Comparing inhaled and exhaled air What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air? Inhaled Air

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Comparing inhaled and exhaled air What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air? Inhaled Air

How do we breathe?

How do we breathe? Write a paragraph or series of bullet points that explain the stages

Write a paragraph or series of bullet points that explain the stages of our breathing.

Use both the diagram and the table to help your explanation.

Normal breathing:

Inhalation

Exhalation

Action of rib muscles

Contract and raise ribs

Relax and lower ribs

Action of diaphragm

Contracts and flattens

Relaxes and rises

Volume of lungs (cm 3 )

3000

2500

Pressure outside (mm Hg)

760

760

Pressure in lungs (mm Hg)

758

762

Measuring Tidal Volume and Vital capacity

  • 1. Measuring Tidal Volume -- Stretch a

round balloon several times to stretch it out. Inhale normally and then exhale normally into the balloon. Do not force your breathing. Pinch the end of the balloon and measure its diameter. Repeat this so that you have 3 total measurements and can take the average and record it in the table.

  • 2. Measuring Vital Capacity - Repeat

the procedure, only this time inhale as

much air as you can and exhale forcefully. Record three measurements in the data table.

Measuring Tidal Volume and Vital capacity 1. Measuring Tidal Volume -- Stretch a round balloon several

Measuring lung volume

Measuring lung volume
Lung Capacity and Exercise Time 7000 Lung Capacity in cc. 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000
Lung Capacity and Exercise Time
7000
Lung Capacity in cc.
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Minutes of exercise per day

Factors affecting the volume of the Lungs

Can you see a relationship between lung volume and certain characteristics in people?

What do you think affects the volume of your lungs?

How can lung volume be improved?

People with asthma are often encouraged to swim. Explain how this can help them to manage their condition.

1,2,3,4,5 poems

Respiration Releases energy Glucose and oxygen Are the raw materials Occurs in all living things

Write a poem of your own.

Choose one or more of these topics Respiration Gas exchange Inhalation Exhalation