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HAZOP

Presented by

Fenkins Chow
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
9 September 2006

HAZOP
Stands for HAZard and
OPerability analysis
There are 2 methods to identify
hazards:

Comparative

method

- (use standard practice to compare)


- such as safety inspection
Fundamental

method

Such as HAZOP, FMEA, ETA, FTA

HAZOP

It is the most commonly used


fundamental method in Process
Hazard Analysis (PHA)

Process Hazard
Analysis

Similar part in SOP(SM)

Related SM element:
Accident

Control and Hazard


Elimination (often called Process
Control Programme)

Process Safety Information

Process technology information


such as block flow diagrams, process
flow diagrams, piping and instrument
diagrams
Established criteria for maximum
inventory levels for process materials
and chemicals
Qualitative estimate for the
consequences or results of deviation
that could occur if established limits are
exceeded
Information pertaining to process
equipment design, the codes and
standards relied on

PHA

Similar to risk assessment method


Should be organised and systematic
effort
Should directed towards the analysing
potential causes and consequences

Piping &
Instrumentation
Diagram

A P&I Diagram
Syrup
Control
valve

Heating jacket

Heating fluid
supply

Temp Control
Valve

TV
102

Heating fluid
return

Temp Indicator
& Controller

TIC
102

TT
102

Heated syrup
Gate valve

Temp
Transmitter

Some pumping element symbols

Identification of Instrument

ANSI/ISA-S5.1 1984, R1992

A P&I Diagram
Flow Rate Indicator
& Controller
Flow Control
Valve

Water supply

FIC
101
FV
101

Flow Rate
Transmitter
FT
101

Deviation from

What is the Design Intent of this


system?
Syrup
Control
valve

Heating jacket

Heating fluid
supply

Design Intent

TIC

TV
102

TV

Actual Output

TT
Heating fluid
return
TIC
102

TT
102

Heated syrup
Gate valve

There be +ve deviation, cause is


There be ve deviation, cause is

HAZOP process

HAZOP Worksheet
Deviation

Cause

Consequence

Safeguard

Action

Deviation

Process Variable / Guideword

Guardword can be
No
Less
More
Reverse
Also
Other than
Fluctuation
Early
Late

Deviation

Process Variable / Guideword


Temp / Less
Temp / More
Syrup
Control
valve

Heating jacket

Heating fluid
supply

TV
102

Heating fluid
return
TIC
102

TT
102

Heated syrup
Gate valve

HAZOP Worksheet
Deviation

Cause

Consequence

Safeguard

Action

Temp /
Less

Temp /
More
Syrup

Heating
fluid supply

Control
valve

Heating jacket

TV
102

TIC
102

TT
102

Heating
fluid return
Heated syrup
Gate
valve

HAZOP Worksheet
Deviation
Temp /
Less

Cause

Consequence

Safeguard

Action

TT

fails
TIC fails
TV fails

Temp /
More
Syrup

Heating
fluid supply

Control
valve

Heating jacket

TV
102

TIC
102

TT
102

Heating
fluid return
Heated syrup
Gate
valve

HAZOP Worksheet
Deviation
Temp /
Less

Cause
TT

fails
TIC fails
TV fails

Consequence

Safeguard

Action

Syrup
solidifies
Undertemp
syrup

Temp /
More
Syrup

Heating
fluid supply

Control
valve

Heating jacket

TV
102

TIC
102

TT
102

Heating
fluid return
Heated syrup
Gate
valve

HAZOP Worksheet
Deviation
Temp /
Less

Cause
TT

fails
TIC fails
TV fails

Consequence

Syrup
solidifies
Undertemp
syrup

Safeguard

Action

Temp

indicator
gives low
point alarm

Temp /
More
Syrup

Heating
fluid supply

Control
valve

Heating jacket

TV
102

TIC
102

TT
102

Heating
fluid return
Heated syrup
Gate
valve

HAZOP Worksheet
Deviation
Temp /
Less

Cause
TT

fails
TIC fails
TV fails

Consequence

Syrup
solidifies
Undertemp
syrup

Safeguard
Temp

Action
Periodic

indicator
gives low
point alarm

inspection
Alarm linked
to control
centre

Temp /
More
Syrup

Heating
fluid supply

Control
valve

Heating jacket

TV
102

TIC
102

TT
102

Heating
fluid return
Heated syrup
Gate
valve

HAZOP Flow Diagram


Select a process

Explain design intention of the


process section

Repeat for all process sections

Select a process variable

Repeat for all process variables

Apply guide word to the process


variable to develop meaningful
deviation

Repeat for all guide words

List possible causes of deviation

Examine consequences
associated with deviation
(assuming all protection fails)

Identify existing safeguards to


prevent deviation

Develop action items

Assess acceptability of risk


based on consequences,
causes and protection

Results of HAZOP

Operating procedures
Enhance training
Enhance mechanical integrity
programme, which includes
Identification

and categorization of plant


Inspections and testing arrangement
Maintenance procedure
Training of maintenance personnel
Establishment of testing criteria
Documentation