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Rocks

Classification of Igneous,
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks

ROCK CYCLE
Equilibrium
Interrelationships between

igneous rocks
sediment
sedimentary rocks
metamorphic rocks
weathering and erosion

IGNEOUS ROCKS
EXTRUSIVE
Volcanic- Fine-grained
INTRUSIVE
Plutonic- Coarse-grained

MAGMA
Molten Rock

Usually with dissolved gasses

Generated at depth
Eruptions if magma (lava) reaches surface
If doesnt reach surface, Solidifies underground

Intrudes country or host rock


Intrusive contact
Xenolith- foreign body

Igneous Rocks
Names based on mineral
composition reflects chemical
composition of the magma and...
Grain size
Very coarse-grained Pegmatitic
Coarse-grained: Phaneritic > 1 mm.
Fine-grained: Aphanitic < 1 mm.
Porphyritic- 2 crystal sizes

Igneous RocksClassification

Coarse-grained Plutonic (Intrusive)

Granite (Sialic) (SIlica and ALuminum rich)


Diorite
Gabbro (Mafic) (MAgnesium and iron (FE) rich)
Dunite & Peridotite (Ultramafic)

Fine-Grained
Volcanic (Extrusive)
Rhyolite (Sialic)
Andesite
Basalt (Mafic)

Igneous Rock Identification


Granite (& Rhyolite)

High in Si + O
Low in Fe + Mg
Mostly feldspar &
Light-colored

quartz

Basalt (& Gabbro)

Low in Si + O
High in Fe + Mg
no quartz, abundant ferromagnesian minerals
Dark colored

Andesite (& Diorite- intermediate)

WEATHERING, EROSION,
TRANSPORTATION
Weathering- Physical disintegration and
chemical decomposition of rocks
Erosion- Physical removal
Transportation- Movement of eroded particles
Chemical vs. Physical Weathering
Effects of weathering

Surface alteration of outcrops


Spheroidal weathering
Differential weathering

Physical Weathering

Differential Weathering

Frost Action

Exfoliation

Organic Action

ROCK CYCLE

Relative Percentages of
Sedimentary Rocks

SEDIMENT
Particle size

Pebbles, cobbles, boulders


Gravel- > 2mm
Sand- 2mm - 0.063mm
Silt - 0.063mm - 0.004mm
Clay- < 0.004
Deposition Clay-sized particle vs. clay mineral

TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
Clastic or Detrital
Chemical- inorganic precipitation or
evaporation
Biochemical- Organic remains
shells, charcoal, plant fragments

CLASTIC (Detrital) ROCKS


Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm)
Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments
Conglomerate- rounded fragments

Sandstone (2mm - 0.063mm)


Quartz sandstone
Arkose (feldspar)
Graywacke (appreciable amounts of silt/clay)
Fine-grained Matrix
Usually from turbidity currents

Quartz Sandstone

CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
Carbonate Rocks
Limestone- made of calcite
Inorganic varieties
micrite, oolites, travertine

Dolomite
Recrystallization

Chert- silica
Evaporites
Rock gypsum
Rock salt

BIOCHEMICAL
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Coal
Develops from peat
plant fragments

Lignite
Bituminous Coal

Carbonate Rocks
Limestone- made of calcite
organic varieties
Coquina
Fossiliferous Limestone
Chalk

SEDIMENTARY
STRUCTURES

Cross-bedding
Graded bed
Mud cracks
Ripple marks
Fossils

Mudcracks

Sedimentary Rocks as Resources


Non-Metallic

Sand and gravel


Limestone
Clay
Gypsum

Energy Resources
Oil and Gas
Coal

Formation of Oil and Ga

U.S. Coal
Production

Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphism
Increase in Pressure; increase in Temperature
Burial
Contact
Regional

Metamorphic rock
Pre-existing rock
Parent rock

Foliation

Classification
A- Slate
C- Phyllite
D- Schist
E- Gneiss
F- Migmatite

Classification