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Training Program

On
Machine Alignment

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What is Alignment?

t is the process of positioning two (or more) machines


that are coupled, so that Center lines of rotating
shafts form a single line when the machines are
working at normal operating temperature.

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Types Of Misalignment
1. Off set

2. Angular

3. Skew - Combination of offset &


angular
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Offset Misalignment

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Angular Misalignment

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Skewed Misalignment

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Causes Of Misalignment

Thermal expansion - Most machines align col


Forces transmitted to the machine by pipe or
support structure.
Soft foot.
Poor workmanship.

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Effects Of Misalignment
More than 50% problems are due to
misalignment.
Causes vibration on the machine
Vibration destroys critical parts of
machines like bearings, gears, seals,
coupling etc.
Breaks lubricant film inside the bearing
and increase friction.
Increases load on the bearing.
Increase 2 - 17% power consumption.
Generates heat inside the coupling.
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Recognition of
Misalignment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Excessive Radial & Axial vibration


Premature / repetitive failure of bearing, seal, c
Loose coupling elements.
Leakage from the seal.
Loose base bolts.
Coupling become hot while running.
High casing temperature.

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Scientific
Diagnosis of Misalignment
1. Vibration Spectrum Analysis
2. Vibration Phase Analysis
3. Wear Particle Analysis

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1. Vibration Spectrum Analysis


Angular - Axial vibration at 1X RPM
Offset - Radial vibration at 2X or 3X RPM
Harmonics (3X-10X) generates as severity
increases.
If the 2X amplitude more than 50% of 1X
then coupling damage starts.
If the 2X amplitude more than 150% of 1X
then machine should be stopped for
correction.
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2. Vibration Phase Analysis


Angular - 1800 phase shift in the axial
direction across the coupling.
Offset - 1800 phase shift in the radial
direction across the coupling. 00 to 1800
phase shift occur as the sensor moves from
horizontal to the vertical direction of the
same machine.
Skew - 1800 phase shift in the axial or
radial direction
across the coupling.

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3. Wear Particle Analysis


Curly cutting wear particle of 5:1 to 50:1
aspect ratio.

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Flexible Coupling
Flexible coupling can handle some
misalignment but it will generate heat
and it will impose forces to the shafts.
This will create vibrations,
and couplings, seals and bearings will
fail prematurely.
A flexible coupling is however,
necessary to handle the movement from
cold to hot condition.

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Alignment Methods
1. Rough Alignment

Using straight edge,


Ruler, Feeler Gauge
Twin wire method

2. Precision Alignment

Using dial gauges


Using Lasers

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Rough Alignment
Using straight
edge

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Rough Alignment
Using twin wire

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Rough Alignment: Vertical


Angular
Measure the coupling gap at the top &
bottom.
Find the difference
Gap difference = widest gap - narrowest
gap

If the gap is wider at the top, correct angular


misalignment by removing shims from front
feet or by adding to the rear feet.. If the gap
is wider at the bottom, remove shims from
the rear feet or add to the front feet.
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Rough Alignment: Vertical


Angular

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Rough Alignment:
Horizontal Corrections
You will solve horizontal angular
misalignment and then horizontal
offset misalignment.
Repeat the process you performed
vertically only this time measure in the
horizontal axis.

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Face & Rim Method

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Face Readings
Dial on SM

Dial Readings

Dial on MM

Dial Readings

-ve

-ve

+ve

+ve

+ve

+ve

-ve

-ve

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Face & Rim Method


Advantages:

1. Good for large dia. coupling hubs where the shafts are clos
2. To be used where one of the shafts can not rotate during a
3. Easy to use.

Disadvantages:
1. Difficult to take face readings, if there is axial
float in the shaft.
2. Requires removal of coupling spool.
3. More complex alignment calculation.

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Reverse Indicator Method

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Reverse Indicator Method


Advantages:

1. More accurate than face & rim


method.
2. Readings are not affected by
axial float.
Disadvantages:
3. Possible to keep the coupling
1. Should not be used on close coupled sh
spool.
2. Difficult to take readings on long shaft

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Which Method To Be Used?


If L > D Reverse Indicator

D/
2

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Combination Method
Calculation can be
made for each of the
method to verify the
readings.

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Alignment
Tolerance
(acceptable)
Off Set

Angular

RPM

mm

mm / 100 mm

0000 - 1000

0.13

0.10

1000 - 2000

0.10

0.08

2000 - 3000

0.07

0.07

3000 - 4000

0.05

0.06

4000 - 5000

0.03

0.05

5000 - 6000

< 0.03

0.04

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Alignment
Tolerance
(excellent)
Off Set

Angular

RPM

mm

mm / 100 mm

0000 - 1000

0.07

0.06

1000 - 2000

0.05

0.05

2000 - 3000

0.03

0.04

3000 - 4000

0.02

0.03

4000 - 5000

0.01

0.02

5000 - 6000

< 0.01

0.01

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Disadvantages Of Dial
Indicator Method

More time consuming.


Too much manual work.
Indicator sag.
Difficult to perform on long shaft.
Difficult to determine soft foot.
Difficult to perform vertical shaft alignm

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Indicator Sag

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Fixing Of Dial Gauge


Perpendicular to
the coupling
surface.

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Rules For Good Alignment


Clean the machine base. Remove rust
burrs etc.
Use steel or brass shims.
Check indicator sag.
Perform pre-alignment checks on
Machine.
Check dial gauges before taking
readings.
Use correct bolt tightening procedure.
Dont lift the machine more than
necessary.
Try to put the stem of dial gauge
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Graphical representation

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Graphical representation

Stationery Machine

Movable Machine

+
+

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Graphical representation
Example 1

Scale: Y-axis = 10:1


X-axis = 1: 5
(Reverse Indicator Method)
SM Dial Reading: -1.50 mm
MM Dial Reading : +0.5 mm

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Pre-alignment Checks
The Secret to Fast Alignment

Reduces errors
Reduces re-work
Machines maintain alignment positio
Simplifies the alignment procedure

Pre-alignment objectives
Check and correct situations that effect
machinery performance.
Check and correct situations which cause
problems in executing the precision
alignment process
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Pre-alignment
Procedures

Checking run out


Checking pipe strain
Correcting gross soft foot
Setting the coupling gap
Rough alignment
Torquing bolts
Precision soft foot

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Run Out
Run out is caused by:
Eccentric couplings
Out of round couplings (Coupling hub bored off
centre
or Coupling hub skew bored)

Bent shafts

These problems cause imbalance and


misalignment forces. Results: Increased
vibration, increased energy dissipation,
energy consumption and reduced bearing
life.

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Checking Run Out

You check run out with a dial indicator.


The dial indicator is affixed with a magnetic
base or a clamp.
If the coupling is assembled, mount to the
machine base or to an adjacent machine.

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Checking Run Out

The shaft to be checked is rotated when


checking run out.
Rotate slowly until the indicator reaches a
maximum +/-.
Zero the indicator.
Rotate again until the indicator reaches a
maximum +/-.

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Pipe Strain

Pipe strain is caused by pipes and flanges


which are misaligned.
Pipe strain causes distortion of the driven
machine which results in bearing & seal
misalignment.
Pipe strain will effect the alignment process
if the stationary machine is moved.

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Checking Pipe Strain

The effect of pipe strain can be checked


using a dial indicator while the flange is
loosened.

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Soft Foot
A

soft foot is caused when the four motor


feet or the four base pads are not in a
common flat plane.

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Soft Foot
This

condition is illustrated by placing shims


only at three feet.

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Soft Foot
This condition will effect the alignment
process because vertical positions will not
be repeatable as you try to make
corrections.
Soft foot causes the motor frame to distort
when the bolts are tight.
This condition results in bearing
misalignment.

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Soft Foot
One type of soft foot is called short
foot.

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Soft Foot
The problem is solved by adding shims to
the short foot.

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Soft Foot
A second type of soft foot occurs as
angled foot.

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Soft Foot
The problem can not solved by adding
shims to the short foot.
You must correct the angle in this case.

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Checking Soft Foot


In this activity, you only check and correct
gross soft foot
Start with all of the bolts loose.
If there are no shims under the feet:
check for gross soft foot by trying to slip a .
005 shim
under each foot.
If shims are under the feet::
check if any of the shims are loose.

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Soft Foot

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Coupling Gap
An improper coupling gap causes excessive
axial forces which result in increased bearing
load.
Improper gap can also cause destruction of
an electric motor with plain bearings.
The coupling gap should be set to the
manufacturers specification (to take care of
thermal expansion in axial direction).

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Coupling Gap
Electric motors with plain bearings have
endplay.
Therefore, you must position the motor
shaft at magnetic centre before setting the
coupling gap.

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Setting the Coupling Gap


You check the coupling gap with a scale,
feeler gauge, taper gauge, or an inside
micrometer.
Move the motor axially to set the proper
gap.

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Tightening Hold Down


Bolts:
You will loosen and re-tighten the bolts
several times during the alignment process.
Bolts should always be tightened in a known
sequence so that vertical positions are
repeated as you re-tighten the bolts.

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Thermal expansion
Intentional misalignment for cold machines

Proper alignment at operating temperature


Large expansion

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Small expansion

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Laser Alignment

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Laser

Light Amplified By Stimulated Emission Of Rad


Laser was originally emitted by charge
sent through
a gas mixture of Helium & Neon.
Now it is generated by a low power semi
conductor diode with collimating lenses.
Modulated to avoid interference from
other light
source
It is collinear.
Single wave length of 670 nm.
Class II Laser is used for Laser Alignment
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Laser Alignment
Advantages:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Easy to use.
Use Reverse Indicator Method.
Machine does the calculations.
0 - 20m max. working distance.
Selectable high resolution 0.1, 0.01, 0.001m
No indicator sag.
Soft foot measurement program.
Horizontal shaft alignment with mim 600 rota
Vertical shaft alignment program.

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10.Thermal or offset compensation.


11. Machine train alignment
program.
12. Cardon shaft alignment.
13. Straightness, Flatness,
Perpendicularly,
Parallelism measurement.
14. Spindle alignment.
15. Static feet correction.
16. Continuos monitoring.

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