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High Pressure Boilers

In applications where steam is needed at pressure, 30 bar, shell boilers(firetube boilers) are considerably cheaper than water tube boilers. They cannot be
used above these limits.
But there are no such limits to water tube boiler (high pressure boilers).
The geometry can be varied to suit a wide range of operation and furnace is
not limited to cylindrical form.
Therefore water tube boilers are preferred for high pressure and high output.
The modern high pressure boilers employed for power generation can
produce steam capacities of 30 to 650 tones/hr and above, and pressures of
120 to 240 bar.

LaMont Boiler
A forced circulation boiler was first introduced in 1925 by La Mont.
The circulation is maintained by a centrifugal pump.
The feed water is supplied to a steam drum (boiler) through the
economizers. Sensible heat is supplied to the feed water when passing
through the economizer.
The steam separated in the steam drum is further passed through the
superheater as shown in Fig. and finally supplied to the prime mover.
These boilers have been built to generate 45 to 50 tons of superheated steam
at a pressure of 120 bar. and at a temperature of 500C.

Benson Boiler
The main difficulty experienced in the La Mont boiler is the formation and
attachment of bubbles' on the inner surfaces of the heating tubes. The
attached bubbles to the tube surfaces reduced the heat flow and steam
generation as it offers high thermal resistance than water film.
Benson Boiler works on the principle that if the boiler pressure is raised to
critical pressure (225 kg/cm^2) then there is no formation of steam bubbles.
To achieve this water is fed to the boiler at critical pressure . At this
pressure water will be directly converted to superheated steam as the latent
heat at critical pressure is zero.
Thermal efficiency up to 90% can be achieved.

Loffler Boiler
The major difficulty experienced in La Mont boiler is the deposition of salt
and sediment on the inner surfaces of the water tubes. The deposition
reduced the heat transfer and ultimately the generating capacity.
This further increased the danger of overheating the tubes due to salt
deposition as it has high thermal resistance.
This difficulty was solved in Loffler Boiler by preventing the flow of water
into the boiler tubes. Most of the steam is generated outside from the feed
water using part of the superheated steam coming out from the boiler.
The pressure feed pump draws the water through the economizer and
delivers it into the evaporator dram as shown in figure. About 65 % of the
steam coming out of superheater is passed through the evaporator dram in
order to evaporate the feed water coming from economizer.