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Construction procedure of

Bangalore Metro Rail

Overview of elevated structure (Viaduct)


Pier cap


Launching girder

Fig 1 : Overview of elevated structure


Fig 2 : Overall view of elevated structure

Typical load distribution from viaduct to soil

Live load from top

Portal frame

Pier cap

Pile cap





Pile cap



Open foundation


Stages of construction of viaduct

Geo technical investigation to determine the strength and bearing capacity of

Pile cap
Pier cap
Segment erection
Post tensioning
Parapet wall
Laying of tracks and cables

Grades of concrete used for various components of

Component structureConcrete grade


Pile cap




Pier cap






Parapet wall


Piling procedure

Insert a guide vane(bore pipe) up to a depth of 2m from ground surface.

Chiselling or drilling is done till the required depth is reached.
A mixture of bentonite and mud slurry is poured at regular intervals during the
process of chiselling to disperse the soil particles so that soil gets loosened and
process of chiselling becomes easy.
Insert the reinforcement cage into the pile hole.
Concrete is poured from top using tremie pipe
Bore pipe

Bore hole

Bentonite +
Mud slurry


Fig 3 : Stages of piling

Methods of Piling

Manual piling using chisel

Mechanical piling
Piling using drill
Piling using chisel

Fig 4 : Manual piling using


Fig 5 & 6 : Mechanical piling using drill

Fig 7 : Mechanical piling

using chisel

Manual method using chisel is adopted in the construction of pile in Bangalore

Metro rail

Fig 8 : 15 MT chisel used for boring

Fig 9 : Bailer used for removing mud slurry

Fig 11 : Top view after the reinforcement cage is

inserted into the bore hole

Fig 10 : Reinforcement cage inserted into the

bore hole

Each pile group contains 4 to 12 piles.

Depth of each pile ranges from 10 to 21m
in Bangalore.
Only one pier stands on each pile group

Pile cap

Fig 12 : 4 pile group

Fig 13 : 12 pile group

Pile cap connects all the piles and makes all the piles to
act together monolithically

Fig 14 : Pile cap connecting all


Fig 15 : Pile cap reinforcement cage

Fig 16 : Pile cap reinforcement cage showing the

location where pier is constructed
Pier reinforcement

Fig 17 : After concreting the pile



Fig 18 : Pier reinforcement

Fig 19 : Pier

Fig 20 : Stirrups, Cut & Bend, Cover blocks used

in piers

Fig 21 : Couplers used in piers and pier caps

Pier cap

Fig 22 : Pier cap reinforcement

Fig 23 : Pier cap

Types of segments

Pier segment
Blister segment
Intermediate segment
Pier segment
Pier segment
Blister segment
Blister segment


Fig 24 : Various types of segments

Fig 25 : Pier segment

Fig 26 : Blister segment



Fig 27 : Intermediate segment

For a beam (simply supported), which is loaded with uniformly distributed load, shear
force is maximum at end supports. At a particular section, maximum shear force is taken
by web.
Pier segment being at the end of the span, experiences maximum shear force, so its web
must be strengthened to withstand this maximum shear force. So the dimension
(thickness) of its web is increased.
Blister segment acts as a bridge between pier segment and intermediate segment. In
blister segment, web dimensions at one end is same as pier segment and its web
dimensions are gradually reduced to the web dimensions of intermediate segment.
Intermediate segment being in the central region of the span, experiences less shear force
compared to pier segment and so the web dimensions (thickness) are less than those of
pier segment

Fig 28 : Rebar Jig

Fig 29 : Rebar cage

Fig 30 & 31: Male & Female shear keys (Shear lock)

Fig 32 : Reinforcement cage of

segments with anti bursting

Fig 33 : Close up view of anti bursting


Segment erection and post tensioning

Fig 34 : Complete view of launching girder

Fig 35 : Front portion of launching girder during

auto launching process

Fig 36 : Back portion of launching girder during

auto launching process

Fig 37 : Lifting of segments

Fig 38 : All the segments lifted up

Fig 39 : All the segments lifted up

All the hanging segments are joined together

with epoxy . They are connected to make all the
segments act together like a single beam.
Auto launching : It is a process in which,
launching girder moves forward from one
completed span to the next pier.
During this process, the front portion will be
hanging in air. To counter this weight, counter
weights are provided in the back portion of the
launching girder so that the launching girder
doesn't get overturned.
Fig 40 : Auto launching process repeated
again after the post tensioning of current span

Fig 41 : Provision of ducts for inserting

prestressing steel tendons

Fig 43 : Steel tendons provided in the ducts

Fig 42 : Closer view of ducts

Fig 44 : Cap is provided on the cables after

Fig 46 : Typical representation of the steel tendons provided

in the shape of parabola

Fig 45 : Steel tendons provided in all the ducts

After achieving the required extension in

the tendons, cement grout (high
strength) is forced into the ducts at a
very high pressure to fill the gap between
the tendons and the ducts

Fig 47 : After filling the empty gap between tendons and

ducts with cement grout

Thank you