You are on page 1of 19

-Acc 3063 cost accountingASSALAMUALAIKUM W.B.

LABOUR

Who is labour?
Labour, employee, workforce.
They enables the business to
accomplish production and
jobs
An organization must ensure
to have the right people in
the right place at the right
time.
LABOUR SATISFACTION
PRODUCTIVITY

How to increase
labours Productivity?
a) Training
b) Motivating
c) Appraising

Satisfacti
on

Low
Turnover
h) Represented by union
i) Recognition of contribution

Lower
Cost

RESULT

e) Paying salary, overtime & benefit


f) Conducive working environment
g) Career development

Productiv
ity

Labour Cost
Since labor play an
important role in
production, thus the
labour cost is
significant for product
cost.
Labour cost : The
amount paid to
employee for their time,
skills, experience,
qualification, effort,
output and others

Direct and Indirect


Labour Cost
Direct Labour Cost
Payroll cost traced
directly to
the product.
Indirect Labour Cost
- Cost of time spent by
direct
labor on nonproductive works
OR
- The gross wage of
factory
personnel not
engaged in

Recording Labour
Times
Why the companies need to record the labour
times?
a) To calculate wages
b) To analyse the time spent for costing
purposes
c) For planning & control purposes

Time-Based
Remunerati
on Method

Workers are paid


based on the no. of
hours worked
at a basic rate per
hour

Labour
Remunerati
on Methods
Performanc
e Related
pay
(Incentive
Scheme)

Time- Based Remuneration


Method

High System
Day
Rate
Basic
Day-work
Measured

Basic System
An employee is paid on the basis of time
worked. A premium is paid for working
overtime.
Example:
Zahid bekerja 8 jam sehari di kilang ABC
pada kadar RM4 sejam. Sepanjang bulan
Julai, dia bekerja selama 26 hari.
The methods offers no distinction between
the efficient & inefficient workers.

Payment by Result/
Piecework
An employee earns more if he produces more
& earns less if he produces less.
An employee is paid on the basis of output
Example:
Sepanjang bulan Julai, Zahid menghasilkan
234 unit NQR01
Dia akan dibayar RM4 seunit. Berapakah gaji
Zahid
pada bulan tersebut.
However, the quality of work suffers. Why?

Piecewor
k with
Guarante
ed Day
Rate

Payment
By Result /
Piecework
Differenti
al Piece
Rate

Piecework with Guaranteed Day


Rate
Workers are paid a guaranteed minimum if
their output falls below the day rate earning
Example:
Pengeluaran minimum harian di Kilang ABC
adalah 10 unit
NQR01 bagi seorang buruh pada kadar RM4.
Sekiranya kilang
ABC menggunakan kadar harian terjamin,
berapakah upah
Zahid bagi bulan Julai (26 hari bekerja)
sekiranya:

Piecework with Differential Piece


Rate
The piece rates vary at different levels of
efficiency
The aim of this method is to provide incentive
to increase output so as to reach the maximum
production
Example:
Sehingga 5 unit/hari : RM2.50 seunit
5 hingga 10 unit/ hari :RM4 seunit
Melebihi 10 unit/hari : RM5
Berapakah gaji Zahid sekiranya situasi (a) dan

Premium Schemes
Under this scheme, a time allowance is set for
a job.
Bonus is paid on the basis of time saved.
Time saved = Time allowed Time taken
The employee will be paid for the basic hour
worked + a proportion of time saved

Example
Zahid dikehendaki menyiapkan 500 unit PY3A
bagi bulan Ogos pada kadar RM5 sejam. Tempoh
yang dibenarkan adalah selama 3 jam bagi setiap
50 unit. Dia dapat menyiapkan produk tersebut
dalam tempoh 25 jam. Kirakan jumlah upah
Zahid sekiranya 50% bonus dibayar bagi masa
yang dapat dijimatkan?

Bonus shared
between the
employees work
together as a group

Group
bonus
scheme

Time taken
Time allowed
X
Timed Saved
X
Rate per hour

Halsey

PREMIU
M
SCHEME
S

Rowan

50% of time saved


X
rate per hour

Halsey
Weir

33 1/3% of time
saved
X
rate per hour

Example
Pengeluaran standard untuk Kilang ABC ialah 30
unit sehari. Sekiranya pengeluaran meningkat
sebanyak 25% sehari, bonus sebanyak RM50 akan
diagihkan secara samarata kepada jabatan
tersebut. Pekerja yang terdapat di dalam jabatan
tersebut adalah seramai 10 orang. Kirakan bonus
yang diterima oleh setiap pekerja sekiranya pada
hari ke-13, 45 unit telah dapat dikeluarkan

PROFIT SHARING SCHEME


An agreement between the employers and
employees that they will be paid an agreed
proportion of the business profit.
Example:
Di bawah skim perkongsian untung, ABC Sdn.
Bhd telah
menetapkan bahawa 10% daripada baki untung
selepas cukai &
bayaran dividen akan diperuntukkan untuk
skim tersebut.
Saham diterbitkan
: 2 juta unit
Untung selepas cukai: RM950 000

TO BE CONTINUED..